Battle of Narva (1700)
The Battle of Narva on 19 November 1700 was an early battle in the Great Northern War. A Swedish relief army under Charles XII of Sweden defeated a Russian siege force three to four times its size, Charles XII had forced Denmark-Norway to sign the Treaty of Travendal. Narva was not followed by further advances of the Swedish army into Russia, Tsar Peter the Great of Russia took Narva in a second battle in 1704. During the 17th century, Russia was less advanced technologically than the rest of Europe, despite this shortcoming, Peter the Great of Russia was keen to expand his territory by conquering parts of Swedens Baltic provinces. Russia made an alliance with Frederick IV, King of Denmark-Norway. Whereupon all five countries attacked Sweden from several directions, Charles XII, assisted by the Royal Navy and the Dutch Navy, first landed in Humlebæk north of Copenhagen and forced Denmark-Norway to leave the alliance in August 1700. He moved part of the Swedish army across the Baltic Sea to Estonia where it was joined by Estonian, the new Russian tsar, Peter I, would drastically modernize Russia in the coming years, but the army with which he traveled in 1700 was still poorly drilled.
Peter had employed foreign generals and officers to improve his armed forces, however, possessed a well-drilled and well-equipped army. Charles XII had one of the largest and most disciplined armies of northern Europe, during November, Russian troops surrounded the city of Narva in Estonia, attempting to secure its surrender via siege. A Saxon-Polish army commanded by August II and Steinau was outside Riga in Swedish Livonia, on 19 or 30 November 1700, Charles XII positioned his 8,000 men opposite the besieging Russian army of about 34,000 to 40,000 troops. The Swedish army was commanded personally by Charles XII, assisted by General Carl Gustav Rehnskiöld, the Russian forces were commanded by Peter and Charles Eugène de Croy. Claiming important domestic events in Russia to which he was required to attend and he trusted that his commanders would draw success from the battle and presumed that Charles would not immediately attack his well fortified and numerically superior force. Some interpretations view his departure from Narva days before the battle an act of cowardice, some scholars believe this accusation has little merit, as reportedly the Tsar had placed himself in physical danger too many times previously for his flight to be out of cowardice.
For much of the day, a blizzard engulfed both armies, making attacks impossible, however, at midday, the winds changed and the snowstorm blew directly into the eyes of the Russians. Charles saw his opportunity and advanced on the Russian army under cover of the weather, the Swedes attacked in two columns, quickly broke through the Russian lines, cutting them in three, and rounded them up. At one crucial point, a bridge over the Narova River collapsed under retreating Russian troops, The stampede led to the losses of 6, 000–18,000 Russians. The Russian surrender brought to Charles XIIs army all of Peters cannons and this left Russias remaining armed forces with little equipment. If Sweden had invaded Russia immediately after Narva, Peter would have been almost powerless to stop them
The Volinsky Life-Guards Regiment, more correctly translated as the Volhynian Life-Guards Regiment, was a Russian Imperial Guard infantry regiment. Unlike many older units of Imperial Russian Army, the Volinsky Regiment was neither attached to or originated from the land of Volhynia after which it was named. Instead, it traces its roots to a single Imperial Militia Battalion formed by Duke Constantine Pavlovich of Russia in Strelna on 12 December 1806, in the spring of the following year it took part in the Battle of Guttstadt-Deppen of the War of the Fourth Coalition. In 1807 it took part in the Battle of Friedland and in January of the year was renamed to His Majestys Guards Militia Battalion. Reinforced and reorganised, in October 1811 the battalion was extended to become the Guards Finnish Regiment of three infantry battalions, the first battalion, still including many veterans of the original militia unit, was mentioned in dispatches for its role in the Battle of Leipzig. Having suffered heavy losses, the battalion was retained in Russian-occupied Warsaw in 1814, on 12 October 1817 the battalion was reorganised into the Volinsky Guards Regiment composed of two battalions of light infantry.
Its main task was to serve as a guard of Grand Duke Constantine Pavlovich. The regiment took part in many battles of the November Uprising, notably in the Battle of Ostrołęka, fights in Lithuania. After the uprising, in 1832 the regiment was moved to Kronstadt near the new Russian capital of St. Petersburg, during the January Uprising the regiment was moved back to Poland and attached to the 2nd Brigade, 3rd Guards Infantry Division. The regiment remained there until the outbreak of World War I and it took part in the failed Russian invasion of East Prussia as part of the XXIII Army Corps, and the inconclusive Battle of Łódź. In the summer of 1915 the regiment formed the core of General Vladimir Olokhovs ad-hoc Army Group unsuccessfully trying to cover the flanks of 3rd, withdrawn from the front to Sankt Petersburg, the soldiers of the regiment rebelled, killed their officers and took part in the Bolshevik Revolution. The forces of the regiment remained in Petersburg until October, when the unit was disbanded, on the morning of Sunday,11 March 1917, Tsar Nicholas II had issued orders forbidding the populace from assembling in Petrograd.
However, many people did and 200 were shot, when the Volinsky Regiment were ordered to fire at the unarmed crowd, they fired into the air. The arsenal was pillaged, the Ministry of the Interior, Military Government building, police headquarters, the Law Courts, by noon the fortress of Peter and Paul with its heavy artillery was in the hands of the insurgents. By nightfall 60,000 soldiers had joined the revolution, order broke down and members of the Parliament formed a Provisional Government to try to restore order but it was impossible to turn the tide of revolutionary change. The Duma and the Soviet had already formed the nucleus of a Provisional Government, at the end of the February Revolution of 1917, on 2 March /15 March 1917, Nicholas II abdicated. Handbook of the Russian Army 1914 by the British General Staff, armed Forces of the Russian Federation
Anna of Russia
Anna Ioannovna, spelled Anna Ivanovna and sometimes anglicized as Anne, was regent of the duchy of Courland from 1711 until 1730 and ruled as Empress of Russia from 1730 to 1740. Anna was born in Moscow as the daughter of Tsar Ivan V by his wife Praskovia Saltykova, although Annas father was himself Tsar of Russia and co-ruler with his half-brother Peter I, he was mentally disabled and incapable of administering the country. Therefore, his younger half-brother and co-ruler was effectively the autocrat of all the Russias, Ivan V died in February 1696, when Anna was only three years old, and her uncle became the sole ruler of Russia. Although Anna was the child of her parents, she had only one surviving elder sister, Catherine. The three girls were raised in a disciplined and austere manner by their mother, a very stern lady of sterling character. Anna grew up within a milieu which cherished womanly virtue and domesticity above all else and her education consisted of French, religious texts and folklore, leavened with some music and dancing.
As she grew older, she developed into a girl, with a mean streak. Anna was famed for her big cheek, which, as shown in her portraits, in time, her uncle Peter the Great ordered the family to move from Moscow to St. Petersburg. This meant a change of not just location but society, and she greatly enjoyed the splendor of court and the lavishness of high society, which was very different from the austerity preferred by her mother. In 1710, Peter the Great arranged for the 17-year-old Anna to marry Frederick William, Duke of Courland and her wedding was held on a grand scale, as per her own inclinations, and her uncle gave her a fabulous dowry of 200,000 roubles. At the feast which followed the wedding, two performed a parody by jumping out of enormous pies and dancing on the tables. The newly wedded couple spent several weeks in Russia before proceeding to Courland, only twenty miles out of St. Petersburg, on the road to Courland, Duke Frederick died. The cause of death was uncertain - it has been attributed variously to a chill or to the effects of alcohol, after her husband died, Anna proceeded to Jelgava, the capital of Courland and ruled that province for almost twenty years, from 1711 to 1730.
During this period, the Russian resident, Peter Bestuzhev, was her adviser and she never remarried after the death of her husband, but her enemies said she conducted a love affair with Ernst Johann von Biron, a prominent courtier, for many years. In 1730, Tsar Peter II died childless at a young age and his death rendered the main line of the Romanov dynasty extinct, which had ruled Russia for over a century, since 1613. Possible candidates for the throne were the three surviving daughters of Ivan V, namely Catherine and Praskovya, and the two surviving daughters of Peter the Great, namely Anna and Elizabeth. Ivan V had been the brother of Peter the Great and co-ruler with him. Finally, the Russian Supreme Privy Council led by Prince Dmitri Golitzyn selected Anna and she was selected in preference to her elder sister Catherine even though Catherine was at that time resident in Russia whereas Anna was not
The Swedish Empire refers to the Kingdom of Swedens territorial control of much of the Baltic region during the 17th and early 18th centuries, a time when Sweden was one of the great European powers. The beginning of the Empire is usually taken as the reign of Gustavus Adolphus, who ascended the throne in 1611, in Swedish history, the period is referred to as stormaktstiden, literally meaning the Great Power era. The interests of the high nobility contrasted with the uniformity policy, in territories acquired during the periods of de facto noble rule, serfdom was not abolished, and there was a trend to set up respective estates in Sweden proper. The Great Reduction of 1680 put an end to efforts of the nobility. However, in the course of this war as well as in the subsequent Scanian War, Sweden was able to maintain her empire only with support of her closest ally. Charles XI of Sweden consolidated the empire and ensured a period of peace, before Russia and Denmark started an attack on his successor.
Sweden emerged as a great European power under Axel Oxenstierna and King Gustavus Adolphus, during the Thirty Years War, Sweden managed to conquer approximately half of the member states of the Holy Roman Empire. After France had intervened on the side as Sweden, the fortunes would shift again. As the war continued, it turned more and more grim, although exact population estimates do not exist, historians estimate that as many as one-third of the people in the Holy Roman Empire may have died as a result of the war. At the same time, Sweden joined the other important northern European nations in founding overseas colonies, New Sweden was founded in the valley of the Delaware River in 1638, and Sweden laid claim to a number of Caribbean islands. A string of Swedish forts and trading posts was constructed along the coast of West Africa as well, at the conclusion of the Thirty Years War, the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 granted Sweden territories as war reparations. Sweden demanded Silesia, Pomerania pay a sum of 200,000 Riksdaler out of the lands they would receive, or 2) surrender a fourth of the property itself.
Against this, the over-taxed lower estates protested, and the Diet had to be suspended, the king intervened, not to quell the commons, as the senate insisted, but to compel the nobility to give way. He proposed a committee to investigate the matter before the meeting of the next Riksdag. Charles X Gustav had done his best to recover from the extravagance of Christina. However, his own desire for military glory may have caused problems for his country, in three days, he persuaded the Swedish estates of the potential of his attack on the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. However, when he left Stockholm for Warsaw on July 10,1654, the Polish-Swedish War expanded into a general European war. He achieved passage over the Belts and emerged triumphant, only to die of sheer exhaustion, immediately after his death, a regency was appointed to govern Sweden during the minority of his only son and successor, Charles XI of Sweden, who was four years old
Duchy of Courland and Semigallia
There was a short-lived wartime state existing from 8 March to 22 September 1918 with the same name. Plans for it to part of the United Baltic Duchy. The area became a part of Latvia at the end of World War I, see Duchy of Courland, in 1561, during the Livonian Wars, the Livonian Confederation was dismantled and the Livonian Brothers of the Sword, an order of German knights, was disbanded. On the basis of the Treaty of Vilnius, the part of Estonia. Other members of the Order became the Couronian nobility, with the fiefdoms they had hitherto held becoming their estates, in all, Kettler received nearly one-third of the land in the new duchy. Mitau was designated as the new capital and a Diet was to meet twice a year. Several parts of the Courish area did not belong to the Duchy, the Order of Livonia had already loaned the Grobiņa district to the Duke of Prussia. Another district, the Bishopric of Piltene, called the Bishopric of Courland, belonged to Magnus and he promised to transfer it to the Duchy of Courland after his death, but this plan failed and only did Wilhelm Kettler regain this district.
Like the other members of the Order, Kettler was German, in 1570, he issued the Privilegnum Gotthardinum, which allowed the landholders to enserf the native peasantry on their lands. When Gotthard Kettler died in 1587, his sons and Wilhelm and they divided the Duchy into two parts in 1596. Friedrich controlled the part, with his residence in Mitau. Wilhelm owned the western part, with his residence in Goldingen, Wilhelm regained the Grobiņa district when he married the daughter of the Duke of Prussia. He paid out and regained control over the Piltene district, here he developed metalworking and the new ships delivered the goods of Courland to other countries. However, relations between the duke and the landowners were quite hostile, in addition, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, which was the overlord of the Duchy of Courland, supported the landowners. Wilhelm expressed his disappointment with the landowners, but this ended with his removal from the seat in 1616. Finally, Wilhelm left Courland and spent the rest of his life abroad, Friedrich became the only duke of Courland after 1616.
From 1600 to 1629, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Sweden conducted a war with its main battlefields around Riga, as the result, Sweden gained control of central and northern Latvia, which became Swedish Livonia. The Commonwealth retained the part of the Duchy of Livonia
Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. It stands on the Vistula River in east-central Poland, roughly 260 kilometres from the Baltic Sea and 300 kilometres from the Carpathian Mountains. Its population is estimated at 1.750 million residents within a metropolitan area of 3.101 million residents. The city limits cover 516.9 square kilometres, while the area covers 6,100.43 square kilometres. Once described as Paris of the East, Warsaw was believed to be one of the most beautiful cities in the world until World War II. On 9 November 1939, the city was awarded Polands highest military decoration for heroism, Warsaw is one of Europe’s most dynamic metropolitan cities. In 2012 the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked Warsaw as the 32nd most liveable city in the world, in 2017 the city came 4th in the “Business-friendly” category and 8th in the “Human capital and life style”. It was ranked as one of the most liveable cities in Central, Warsaw is considered an Alpha– global city, a major international tourist destination and a significant cultural and economic hub.
The city is a significant centre of research and development, BPO, ITO, the Warsaw Stock Exchange is the largest and most important in Central and Eastern Europe. Frontex, the European Union agency for external security, has its headquarters in Warsaw. Together with Frankfurt and Paris, Warsaw is one of the cities with the highest number of skyscrapers in the European Union, the city is the seat of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw National Philharmonic Orchestra and the University of Warsaw. The historic city-centre of Warsaw with its picturesque Old Town in 1980 was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, buildings represent examples of nearly every European architectural style and historical period. Warsaw provides many examples of architecture from the gothic, baroque and modern periods, the city is positioning itself as Europes chic cultural capital with thriving art and club scenes and renowned restaurants. Folk etymology attributes the city name to a fisherman, according to legend, Sawa was a mermaid living in the Vistula River with whom Wars fell in love.
In actuality, Warsz was a 12th/13th-century nobleman who owned a village located at the site of Mariensztat neighbourhood. See the Vršovci family which had escaped to Poland, the official city name in full is miasto stołeczne Warszawa. A native or resident of Warsaw is known as a Varsovian – in Polish warszawiak, warszawianka, other names for Warsaw include Varsovia and Varsóvia, Varsavia, Warschau, װאַרשע /Varshe, Варшава /Varšava /Varshava, Varšuva, Varsó. The first fortified settlements on the site of todays Warsaw were located in Bródno, after Jazdów was raided by nearby clans and dukes, a new similar settlement was established on the site of a small fishing village called Warszowa
It took place with an armed insurrection in Petrograd on 25 October 1917. During this time, urban workers began to organize into councils wherein revolutionaries criticized the provisional government and this immediately initiated the establishment of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, the worlds first self-proclaimed socialist state. The revolution was led by the Bolsheviks, who used their influence in the Petrograd Soviet to organize the armed forces, Bolshevik Red Guards forces under the Military Revolutionary Committee began the takeover of government buildings on 24 October 1917. The following day, the Winter Palace, was captured, the long-awaited Constituent Assembly elections were held on 12 November 1917. The Bolsheviks only won 175 seats in the 715-seat legislative body, coming in second behind the Socialist Revolutionary party, the Constituent Assembly was to first meet on 28 November 1917, but its convocation was delayed until 5 January 1918 by the Bolsheviks. On its first and only day in session, the body rejected Soviet decrees on peace and land, as the revolution was not universally recognized, there followed the struggles of the Russian Civil War and the creation of the Soviet Union in 1922.
At first, the event was referred to as the October coup or the Uprising of 25th, in Russian, however, переворот has a similar meaning to revolution and means upheaval or overturn, so coup is not necessarily the correct translation. With time, the term October Revolution came into use and it is known as the November Revolution having occurred in November according to the Gregorian Calendar. The Great October Socialist Revolution was the name for the October Revolution in the Soviet Union after the 10th anniversary of the Revolution in 1927. The February Revolution had toppled Tsar Nicolas II of Russia, the provisional government was weak and riven by internal dissension. It continued to wage World War I, which became increasingly unpopular, a nationwide crisis developed in Russia, affecting social and political relations. Disorder in industry and transport had intensified, and difficulties in obtaining provisions had increased, gross industrial production in 1917 had decreased by over 36% from what it had been in 1914.
In the autumn, as much as 50% of all enterprises were closed down in the Urals, the Donbas, at the same time, the cost of living increased sharply. Real wages fell about 50% from what they had been in 1913, russias national debt in October 1917 had risen to 50 billion rubles. Of this, debts to foreign governments constituted more than 11 billion rubles, the country faced the threat of financial bankruptcy. In these months alone, more than a million took part in strikes. Workers established control over production and distribution in many factories and plants in a social revolution, by October 1917, there had been over 4,000 peasant uprisings against landowners. When the Provisional Government sent punitive detachments, it only enraged the peasants
The Storming of the Winter Palace
The Storming of the Winter Palace was a 1920 mass spectacle, based on historical events that took place in Petrograd during the 1917 October Revolution. Taking place on the anniversary of the revolution, it was directed by Nikolai Evreinov and was subtitled a mass action. The sets were designed by Yuri Annenkov, the spectacle was staged outside the former Tsarist Winter Palace where the Provisional Government was meeting at the time of the Bolshevik revolution. Its performers included 125 ballet dancers,100 circus people,1,750 supernumeraries and students,200 women,260 secondary actors, there were tanks and armoured cars involved. The mass spectacle form took the pre-revolutionary Symbolist utopias of ritual theatre, kerensky leaps to a car for an escape, and is pursued along a path between the two large groups of spectators by trucks full of the Red Guard waving bayonets, to the Palace. Silhouettes struggle in the windows of the Palace, until the Red Army is finally successful, a cannon fired from the cruiser Aurora and fireworks herald the victory of the October Revolution.
Theatre as Action, Soviet Russian Avant-Garde Aesthetics, berkeley, U of California P. ISBN0520076907
The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until it was overthrown by the short-lived February Revolution in 1917. One of the largest empires in history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires. The rise of the Russian Empire happened in association with the decline of neighboring powers, the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Persia. It played a role in 1812–14 in defeating Napoleons ambitions to control Europe. The House of Romanov ruled the Russian Empire from 1721 until 1762, and its German-descended cadet branch, with 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census, it had the third-largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China and India. Like all empires, it included a large disparity in terms of economics, there were numerous dissident elements, who launched numerous rebellions and assassination attempts, they were closely watched by the secret police, with thousands exiled to Siberia.
Economically, the empire had an agricultural base, with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs. The economy slowly industrialized with the help of foreign investments in railways, the land was ruled by a nobility from the 10th through the 17th centuries, and subsequently by an emperor. Tsar Ivan III laid the groundwork for the empire that emerged and he tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, and laid the foundations of the Russian state. Tsar Peter the Great fought numerous wars and expanded an already huge empire into a major European power, Catherine the Great presided over a golden age. She expanded the state by conquest and diplomacy, continuing Peter the Greats policy of modernisation along West European lines, Tsar Alexander II promoted numerous reforms, most dramatically the emancipation of all 23 million serfs in 1861. His policy in Eastern Europe involved protecting the Orthodox Christians under the rule of the Ottoman Empire and that connection by 1914 led to Russias entry into the First World War on the side of France and Serbia, against the German and Ottoman empires.
The Russian Empire functioned as a monarchy until the Revolution of 1905. The empire collapsed during the February Revolution of 1917, largely as a result of failures in its participation in the First World War. Perhaps the latter was done to make Europe recognize Russia as more of a European country, Poland was divided in the 1790-1815 era, with much of the land and population going to Russia. Most of the 19th century growth came from adding territory in Asia, Peter I the Great introduced autocracy in Russia and played a major role in introducing his country to the European state system. However, this vast land had a population of 14 million, grain yields trailed behind those of agriculture in the West, compelling nearly the entire population to farm. Only a small percentage lived in towns, the class of kholops, close to the one of slavery, remained a major institution in Russia until 1723, when Peter I converted household kholops into house serfs, thus including them in poll taxation
Cavalry or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback. Cavalry were historically the most mobile of the combat arms, an individual soldier in the cavalry is known by a number of designations such as cavalryman, dragoon or trooper. The designation of cavalry was not usually given to any military forces that used animals, such as camels. Cavalry had the advantage of improved mobility, and a man fighting from horseback had the advantages of greater height, another element of horse mounted warfare is the psychological impact a mounted soldier can inflict on an opponent. In Europe cavalry became increasingly armoured, and eventually became known for the mounted knights, in the period between the World Wars, many cavalry units were converted into motorized infantry and mechanized infantry units, or reformed as tank troops. Most cavalry units that are horse-mounted in modern armies serve in purely ceremonial roles, modern usage of the term generally refers to specialist units equipped with tanks or aircraft.
The shock role, traditionally filled by heavy cavalry, is filled by units with the armored designation. Before the Iron Age, the role of cavalry on the battlefield was largely performed by light chariots, the chariot originated with the Sintashta-Petrovka culture in Central Asia and spread by nomadic or semi-nomadic Indo-Iranians. The power of mobility given by mounted units was recognized early on, Cavalry techniques were an innovation of equestrian nomads of the Central Asian and Iranian steppe and pastoralist tribes such as the Persian Parthians and Sarmatians. The photograph above left shows Assyrian cavalry from reliefs of 865–860 BC, at this time, the men had no spurs, saddle cloths, or stirrups. Fighting from the back of a horse was more difficult than mere riding. The cavalry acted in pairs, the reins of the archer were controlled by his neighbours hand. Even at this time, cavalry used swords, shields. The sculpture implies two types of cavalry, but this might be a simplification by the artist, Later images of Assyrian cavalry show saddle cloths as primitive saddles, allowing each archer to control his own horse.
As early as 490 BC a breed of horses was bred in the Nisaean plain in Media to carry men with increasing amounts of armour. However, chariots remained in use for purposes such as carrying the victorious general in a Roman triumph. The southern Britons met Julius Caesar with chariots in 55 and 54 BC, the last mention of chariot use in battle was by the Caledonians at the Mons Graupius, in 84 AD. During the classical Greek period cavalry were usually limited to citizens who could afford expensive war-horses
Strelna was first mentioned in Cadastral surveying of Vodskaya pyatina in 1500, as the village of Strelna on Retse Strelne on the Sea in the churchyard Kipen Koporsky County. After Treaty of Stolbovo these lands were part of Sweden, the estate had a marina, a water mill, a pond, a greenhouse and a small house church. Formerly a Swedish chancellors estate, Strelna was chosen by Peter the Great as a place for his summer house in 1714. Jean Baptiste Le Blond, famous for his work with André Le Nôtre at Versailles, was commissioned to prepare designs for a palace, Le Blond envisaged the palace as a Château dEau, situated on a round island. The gardens were laid out to Le Blonds design, but the masters death prevented him completing a more elaborate project for the palace. In 1718, a wooden palace was constructed in Strelna. It had been used by the Russian royalty as a sort of hunting lodge, after Le Blonds death, the commission to build the grand palace passed to Niccolo Michetti, a disciple of the Roman Carlo Fontana.
Disappointed, Michetti left Russia, and all works in Strelna were suspended, on ascending the throne in 1741, Peters daughter Elizabeth intended to complete her fathers project. Her favourite architect Bartolomeo Rastrelli was asked to expand and aggrandize Michettis design, but Rastrellis attention was soon diverted to other palaces, in Peterhof and Tsarskoye Selo, so the Strelna palace stood unfinished until the end of the century. In 1797, Strelna was granted to Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich, despite a great fire in 1803, the Konstantin Palace was completed by 1807. Andrei Voronikhin and Luigi Rusca were held responsible for architecture of its upper storeys, after Konstantins death, the palace passed to his nephew, and the Konstantinovichi branch of the Romanov dynasty retained its ownership until the Revolution. After 1917 the palace fell into decay, it was handed over to a labour commune. For a period during World War II, the Germans occupied Strelna and had a base there. Some Decima Flottiglia MAS men and attack boats were brought from Italy, soviet commando frogmen attacked that base and destroyed those boats.
After the ravages of German occupation, only the walls were left standing. No effective restoration had been undertaken until 2001 when Vladimir Putin ordered the palace to be converted into a residence in Saint Petersburg. The park with canals and drawbridges was recreated to Le Blonds original designs, several rooms in the restored palace are dedicated to the poet Konstantin Romanov. The renovated Konstantin Palace hosted more than 50 heads of state during the Saint Petersburg tercentenary celebrations in 2003, three years later, in July 2006, it hosted the 32nd G8 summit