click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Imperial Guards (Qing China)

The Imperial Guards of the Qing dynasty were a select detachment of Manchu and Mongol bannermen responsible for guarding the Forbidden City in Beijing, the emperor, the emperor's family. The Imperial Guards were divided into three groups: the Guard Corps, the Vanguard, the Imperial Bodyguard; the Guard Corps was assigned to protect the imperial palace. Soldiers from the Manchu and Mongol banners would be admitted to serve in the unit; the Guard corps was about ten times the size of the Vanguard and Imperial Bodyguards, was the largest formation of the Imperial Guards. The Vanguard corps was assigned to march ahead of the emperor. Soldiers from the Manchu and Mongol banners could join; the Vanguard consisted of about 1500 men. The Imperial Bodyguard corps was assigned to protect the emperor at all times. Only Manchu bannermen could join, most members came from the upper three banners. Like the Vanguard, the Imperial Bodyguard consisted of about 1500 men. Manchukuo Imperial Guards Imperial Guards Shuai jiao Wu Chien-ch'uan Wu Quanyou Yang Luchan Elliott, Mark C.

The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China, Stanford University Press, ISBN 9780804746847Rawski, Evelyn S. The Last Emperors: A Social History of Qing Imperial Institutions, University of California Press, ISBN 9780520926790

Star Wars: Galactic Battlegrounds

Star Wars: Galactic Battlegrounds is a real-time strategy video game set in the Star Wars universe. It was developed by Ensemble LucasArts, it was released in November 11, 2001. An expansion pack, Clone Campaigns, was released in May 14, 2002, adding two new factions and campaigns; that year, both Galactic Battlegrounds and Clone Campaigns were released in a box set, Star Wars: Galactic Battlegrounds Saga. The games were built on the Genie engine, the same one used in Age of Empires and Age of Empires II; the player starts the game with a Command Center, a scout, three workers for whichever of the six original factions they choose. The player search and gather resources such as Food, Nova Crystals, Ore and using the resources in order to create new buildings, workers and so on. Food is used for low-end troopers, as well as the work force. Carbon is used in place of Wood in Age of Empires 2 for buildings and artillery. Nova Crystals create the more high-end units and can be gathered through getting special "holocrons".

Ore is used for defensive structures as well as the Gungan unique unit Fambaa. The player can build separate units at separate buildings designed for different types of units; the player can advance through the four Tech Levels by paying a certain amount of resources. When a player advances a Tech Level, more units and upgrades become available. There are a total of seven military structures in the game; these are the Troop Center, the Shipyard, the Mech factory, the Jedi Temple or Sith Temple depending on the faction, the Heavy Weapons Factory, the Airbase, the Fortress. The Troop center produces'cannon fodder' early game units; these are the Grenadier, the Anti-Air trooper, the Mounted Trooper, the ubiquitous Trooper. The Shipyard produces ships, these being the Frigate, the Destroyer, the Cruiser, the Anti-Air Frigate; the Mech Factory produces Scouts, Assault Mechs, Strike Mechs, Mech Destroyers. The Jedi Temple or Sith Temple is a depository for Holocrons and produces Jedi Padawans/Sith Apprentice and Jedi Knights/Sith Knights as well as Jedi Masters/Sith Masters.

The Airbase produces aircraft such as fighters and transports, the Heavy Weapons Factory produces pummels, anti-air mobiles the big guns needed to mount a full-scale assault. The Fortress serves as a defensive structure and produces the civilization's unique unit and an anti-jedi Bounty Hunter, as well as long-range cannons, the massive Air cruiser, it fires high-damage, area-of-effect shells at air, sea or ground targets over long reload times while being durable and having passive shielding. It is the most directly powerful unit in the game If Victory is set to standard, the player can win in three different ways; the player may win by destroying units with their army. The player can use a Jedi/Sith to bring all of the Holocrons to the Jedi/Sith Temple and preserve them for 200 "days"; the final way to win is to build a monument, only available at Tech Level 4. If the monument stays standing for 300 days the player wins. Tutorial - The campaign sees the player assume the role of Chewbacca's father, Attichitchuk.

In this campaign, the player learns the game's play mechanics as Attichitchuk marshals a Wookiee army to force the Trade Federation off Alaris Prime. Trade Federation - The campaign has the player assume the role of OOM-9, a droid ground commander leading the Trade Federation's actions during the blockade of Naboo in Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace which includes a conquest of Theed city, the capital of Naboo; the campaign features the movie's ground battle between the Trade Federation and the Gungans but as an alternate history simulation wherein Darth Maul has killed Qui-Gon Jinn and Obi-Wan Kenobi while Federation droid ships destroy the Naboo starfighters. Gungans - The Gungan campaign begins millennia in the past as a sub-faction of Gungans under the command of Boss Gallo try to unite the other warring tribes under a single banner continues as the Gungans fight back against the Trade Federation invasion, it features a bonus mission featuring The Phantom Menace's climactic ground battle, the Naboo's assault against Trade Federation forces in Theed.

Galactic Empire - The Imperial campaign begins just after the events of A New Hope, as Darth Vader leads the assault on the Rebels' Massassi Ruins base and captures General Jan Dodonna. The rest of the campaign focuses on suppressing other Rebel bases, including a mission to protect an AT-AT prototype, with a cameo by The Empire Strikes Back character General Veers; the campaign's last mission is the Imperial attack on Hoth, where the player has a chance to destroy Echo Base and prevent Han Solo and company's escape. The bonus missions depict the Empire's hostile takeover of Bespin and an alternate retelling of the Battle of Endor where the Empire routs the Ewoks. Rebel Alliance - The Rebel campaign is set between the events of A New Hope and The Empire Strikes Back, it features the Rebels' efforts to recover a Jedi artifact, the Vor'Na'Tu, while fending off Imperial forces. The bonus missions include the Battle of Hoth, the ground phase of the Battle of Endor, a mission to attack an Imperial asteroid base.

Wookiee - The mission features Chewbacca's efforts to liberate Kashyyyk from Trandoshan slavers and the Empire. Its bonus mission is the liberation of Kessel. Star Wars: Galactic Battlegrounds Clone Campaigns is an expansion pack, released two days before the theatrical release of Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones on May 14, 2002, it introduced two playable factions and campaigns

Genetic causes of type 2 diabetes

Most cases of type 2 diabetes involved many genes contributing small amount to the overall condition. As of 2011 more than 36 genes have been found. All of these genes together still only account for 10% of the total genetic component of the disease. There are a number of rare cases of diabetes; these include maturity onset diabetes of the young, Donohue syndrome, Rabson–Mendenhall syndrome, among others. Maturity onset diabetes of the young constitute 1–5% of all cases of diabetes in young people. Genetic cause and mechanism of type 2 diabetes is unknown. However, single nucleotide polymorphism is one of many mechanisms that leads to increased risk for type 2 diabetes. To locate genes and loci that are responsible for the risk of type 2 diabetes, genome wide association studies was utilized to compare the genomes of diabetic patient group and the non-diabetic control group; the diabetic patients’ genome sequences differ from the controls' genome in specific loci along and around numerous genes, these differences in the nucleotide sequences alter phenotypic traits that exhibit increased susceptibility to the diabetes.

GWAS has revealed 65 different loci, genes associated with type 2 diabetes, including TCF7L2, PPARG, FTO, KCNJ11,NOTCH2, WFS1, IGF2BP2, SLC30A8, JAZF1, HHEX, DGKB, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, KCNQ1, HNF1A, HNF1B MC4R, GIPR, HNF4A, MTNR1B, PARG6, ZBED3, SLC30A8, CDKAL1, GLIS3, GCKR, among others. KCNJ11, encodes the islet ATP-sensitive potassium channel Kir6.2, TCF7L2 regulates proglucagon gene expression and thus the production of glucagon-like peptide-1. In addition, there is a mutation to the Islet Amyloid Polypeptide gene that results in an earlier onset, more severe, form of diabetes. However, this is not a comprehensive list of genes. Most SNPs that increase the risk of diabetes reside in noncoding regions of the genes, making the SNP’s mechanism for increasing susceptibility unknown. However, they are thought to influence the susceptibility by altering the regulation of those gene expressions. Only few genes have SNPs in the open reading frame; these SNPs in ORFs result in altering of the protein function, the altered function and therefore compromise the performances of the protein product causes increased susceptibility to the type 2 diabetes.

One of the examples of gene regulation in non-ORF SNPs that influences susceptibility is the changes in nucleotide sequence in microRNA binding site. MiRNAs regulate gene expression by physically block translation. SNPs on the miRNA-binding site can result in faulty levels of gene expression as miRNA fails to bind to the corresponding mRNA leading to excess amount of protein product overall. Although the protein structure of the genes with SNPs are identical to that of the normal gene product, due to their faulty level of expressions, those genes increase risk. Genes such as CDKN2A, CDKN2B, HNF1B exhibit increase the risk phenotype with SNPs in their 3' UTR miRNA binding sites; as CDKN2A and B regulate the pancreatic beta-cell replication, HNF1B is homeodomain containing transcription factor that regulates other genes, faulty regulations of those genes increase the risk of diabetes. Another example of faulty gene regulation that influence the susceptibility is the SNPs in promoter regions of the genes.

Gene like APOM and APM1 increase the risk of type 2 diabetes when there are SNPs in their proximal promoter regions. Promoters are sequences of DNA that allows proteins such as transcription factors to bind for gene expression, when the sequences are modified, the proteins no longer bind as resulting in depressed level of gene expression. APOM is responsible for producing pre beta-high-density lipoprotein and cholesterol, APM1 is responsible for regulating glucose level in blood and fatty acid. Decreasing the level these gene products reduce the body's ability to handle glucose, which leads to the increased risk of diabetes, it is important to note that those discovered genes do not determine susceptibility to diabetes for all people or cases. As the risk of diabetes is combination of the gene regulations and the interplay between those gene products, certain genes may not pose a threat to increase the susceptibility. TCF7L2 is one of the well-studied genes for diabetes susceptibility in most populations.

However, SNPs in TCF7L2 that would increase the risk of diabetes does not affect the susceptibility for Pima Indians. However, this gene is associated with regulating the BMI for Pima Indian population. Various hereditary conditions may feature diabetes, for example myotonic dystrophy and Friedreich's ataxia. Wolfram's syndrome is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder that first becomes evident in childhood, it consists of diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, deafness, hence the acronym DIDMOAD. While obesity is an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes that may be linked to lifestyle, obesity is a trait that may be inherited. Other research shows that type 2 diabetes can cause obesity as an effect of the changes in metabolism and other deranged cell behavior attendant on insulin resistance. However, environmental factors play a large part in the development of type 2 diabetes in addition to any genetic component. Genetic risk for type 2 diabetes changes as humans first began migrating around

Martha Betz Shapley

Martha Betz Shapley was an American astronomer known for her research on eclipsing binary stars. Shapley was born on August 3, 1890 in Kansas City, one of seven children of school music teacher Carl Betz, her family were descendants of German immigrants, her grandfather once told her that he had seen astronomer Caroline Herschel in the streets of Hanover in Germany. Her mother and two sisters became schoolteachers, Shapley herself became a schoolteacher at age 15. Three years she began her studies at the University of Missouri, where she earned a bachelor's degree in education, a second bachelor's degree, a master's degree, in 1910, 1911, 1913 and became a member of Phi Beta Kappa, she became a high school mathematics teacher in 1912, soon afterwards began working towards a doctorate in German literature at Bryn Mawr College. However, in 1914, she left the program to marry Harlow Shapley, an astronomer, a fellow student with her in Missouri. Shapley moved with her husband to the Mount Wilson Observatory and Harvard College Observatory, from 1915 through 1927 she continued to publish research on eclipsing binary stars, despite not having any formal academic appointment.

This was a topic which her husband had studied as a graduate student but had moved on from. The pressure of family life caused her to set aside her work in this area. During World War II, in order to contribute to the war effort, Shapley applied to work for the civil service doing cryptanalysis, a subject she had studied, but was unable to find a position doing this in Boston. Instead, she began working with Zdeněk Kopal calculating tables of munitions trajectories. After the war, when senator John F. McCarthy and the House Un-American Activities Committee began investigating her husband for his left-leaning political views, she came under fire as well, in 1950 after she was discovered to have brought home data from Kopal on eclipsing binary stars she was relieved of her military work and of her security clearance. However, her clearance was restored and she was allowed to resume her work several months later. Shapley's husband retired in 1952, the couple moved to New Hampshire, but Shapley continued her work on eclipsing binaries.

In 1956, with Kopal, she published her last major work, Catalogue of the Elements of Eclipsing Binaries. After her husband's death in 1972, she moved again, to Arizona, she died on January 24, 1981. Her daughter Mildred Shapley Matthews became a noted astronomer, her son Willis Shapley became an administrator at NASA, another son Lloyd Shapley became a Nobel-prize-winning mathematician and economist

L.B. 'Kyle' Keilman

L. B.'Kyle' Keilman is a recording and performing musician, a radio personality, a former mayoral candidate and community activist, politically active in California in the last decade, a credited movie film crew member. Keilman moved with his family to Marin County, California in 1959. A decade he graduated from Redwood High School in Larkspur, California. Keilman was a member of the San Francisco Bay Area music group Beefy Red as a harmonica player, performing from 1969–1972. In 1975, he recorded with the Sons of Champlin on the album of the same name and was favorably reviewed at the time in Rolling Stone Magazine Keilman appeared as a guest on Ed Mann's Perfect World CD on harmonica, a co-writer on the track'Pattern Mod', on Mann's 1996 CD Have No Fear He additionally recorded with former Sons of Champlin bandmember and solo recording artist Tim Cain. In 1980–81 Keilman produced radio commercials on the now-defunct Marin County rock station KTIM-FM. After attending Santa Monica College in the early 1980s as a broadcasting student where he was a newscaster on Santa Monica's KCRW, Keilman joined Fred Wallin as a co-host on the Los Angeles afternoon drive KFOX Sports Forum, work which included intensive coverage of the Los Angeles Raiders football team.

He covered the 1985 Super Bowl for KFOX. As a newscaster he reported on the 1984 eruption of Mauna Loa volcano nationwide for Associated Press as well as statewide in Hawaii, wrote and voiced news reports regarding eruptions of Kilauea Volcano for several years. In 1987 he was a newscaster on Maui's KMVI and in the 1980s was a Maui morning drive deejay on KLHI's Island Mischief show, the top-rated show in its time slot, he worked in radio as a Program Director in central California at KOTR, as Production Director in Acapulco, Mexico for Stereorey in the 1990s. In late 2003 Keilman challenged multi-term incumbent Al Boro for the mayor's seat in San Rafael, California. Keilman lost the race in which he expressed opposition to the local SMART train and a proposed Marin Municipal Water District desalination plant, called for "making San Rafael a model city for renewable energy" as well as enacting a millionaire city tax. Keilman received over 2,000 votes in the election. After the electoral challenge to Mayor Al Boro, Keilman continued to speak out about the controversial SMART train and Boro's role in support of the project.

Writing a'Marin Voice' column in the Marin Independent Journal in 2006, he charged that Boro was in a "conflict of interest" regarding the train, as Boro was chairman of the train's board of directors. Keilman joined other activists as he spoke out against the Marin Countywide Plan before the county Planning Commission, saying the plan allowed overdevelopment and noting "Option 2 would allow hundreds of houses in the St. Vincent's/Silveira area. That's not what we want." In 2009, Keilman wrote a column in the Marin Independent Journal supporting San Anselmo Councilman Ford Greene's stand against the disputed results of a tax vote in Marin's Ross Valley. "It feels like somebody tried to pull a fast one on the voters. On behalf of all who are affected by this, you should start fresh." Keilman is a credited film crew member on at least three movies: That Thing You Do!, The Setting Son and Desperate Measures. Keilman plays harmonica and sings on his version of'I Feel Like I'm Fixin' to Die Rag' on YouTube

Powderhorn, Colorado

Powderhorn is an unincorporated community and a U. S. Post Office in Gunnison County, United States; the Powderhorn Post Office has the ZIP Code 81243. A post office called Powderhorn was established in 1880; some say the community was named from a nearby landform in the shape of a powderhorn, while others believe an old powderhorn found near the town site caused the name to be selected. Powderhorn is located at 38°16′36″N 107°05′43″W. Climate type is dominated by the winter season, a long, bitterly cold period with short, clear days little precipitation in the form of snow, low humidity; the Köppen Climate Classification sub-type for this climate is "Dfc". List of cities and towns in Colorado