Imperial Japanese Navy Land Forces
Imperial Japanese Navy Land Forces of World War II were ground combat units consisting of navy personnel organized for offensive operations and for the defense of Japanese naval facilities both overseas and in the Japanese home islands. It consisted of the following: 海軍陸戦隊 Kaigun-rikusen-tai. Japanese Special Naval Landing Forces or 海軍特別陸戦隊 Kaigun-tokubetsu-rikusen-tai: the Japanese Marines; the Japanese formed around thirty-five of these battalion-sized units during the war. Those units which were raised prior to the start of the war had some assault training but as the war progressed the quality of the troops and the training declined and they were used for defense and garrison duties; the Rikusentai were not trained to conduct opposed amphibious operations. Though referred to as "Japanese Marines," they were not a separate military service such as the United States Marine Corps or the United Kingdom's Royal Marines; the Combined Special Naval Landing Force: combined several Special Naval Landing Force units into a brigade sized unit with greater firepower.
There were around five of these. The Base Force or 根拠地隊 Konkyo-chitai and The Special Base Force or 特別根拠地隊 Tokubetsu-konkyo-chitai provided a variety of services both administrative and tactical in areas outside Japan proper and Formosa; the Japanese raised around fifty of these units which ranged in size from 250 to 1500 men depending on location and function. The Base Force could include afloat units. Defense Units or 防備隊 Bōbi-tai: units of from 250 to 2000 men organized for defense of naval installations and areas of strategic importance within Japan; some Defense Units included artillery emplacements and some controlled the minefields in Japanese waters. Guard Units or 警備隊 Keibi-tai: 100 to 1500 men units responsible for ground defense of Imperial Japanese Navy facilities, they were assigned to Base Forces and Special Base Forces. The Japanese raised around one hundred of these units. Anti-Aircraft Defense Units or 防空隊 Bōkū-tai: Anti-aircraft artillery units of 200–350 men. There were three types which differed based on the number and kind of anti-aircraft weapons assigned.
The Japanese formed over two hundred of these units which were located in areas outside Japan and Korea. They were assigned to Base Forces, Special Base Forces, Special Naval Landing Forces, Guard Forces. Construction Battalions or 設営隊 Setsuei-tai built and repaired naval facilities of all kinds, including airstrips, ammunition bunkers, fuel depots on remote islands as well as Japan's major naval bases. Most personnel were civilian employees and unarmed; the Construction Battalions made use of local labor whose service was compulsory. The Communications Units or 通信隊 Tsūshin-tai of 100–2,000 men were stationed ashore to provide communications between Japan's widespread naval installations and to and from the fleets and ships at sea; the Tokkeitai Navy military police units carried out ordinary military police functions in naval installations and occupied territories. Anti Aircraft Artillery Batteries or 高射砲中隊 Koshaho Chutai were units of forty or fifty men organized for the air defense of important installations and were subordinate to Air Defense Sectors which in turn were subordinate to Defense Units.
These batteries were separate from the mentioned Bobitai. Several hundred of them were in existence at the end of the war. Amphibious Rapid Deployment Brigade Imperial Japanese Navy bases and facilities 海上機動旅団 – Japanese Wikipedia article Japanese seaplane carrier Nisshin Type D submarine Type 4 Ka-Tsu Kenkyusha's New Japanese-English Dictionary, Kenkyusha Limited, Tokyo 1991, ISBN 4-7674-2015-6 Cincpac-Cincpoa Bulletin 11-45: Japanese Naval Ground Forces Rikugun: Guide to Japanese Ground Forces, 1937-1945, Vol I, by Leland Ness, Helion & Company, Ltd. Solihull, ISBN 978-1-909982-00-0
Uniforms of the Imperial Japanese Army
Imperial Japanese Army uniforms tended to reflect the uniforms of those countries who were the principal advisors to the Imperial Japanese Army at the time. The initial uniform colour was dark blue, following the contemporary French style and resembling that of the Union Army of the American Civil War. Resembling the Imperial German Army M1842/M1856 dunkelblau uniform, the dark blue single-breasted tunic had a low standing collar and no pockets, it was worn with matching straight trousers and a kepi on, worn a brass five point star. After the Franco-Prussian War the kepi was replaced with a flat topped peaked cap and the tunic collar became higher. Pockets were added to officers' tunics late in its issue. Infantry uniforms had red facings on shoulder straps and trouser stripes. Line infantry had yellow bands and piping on their caps while the infantry of the Imperial Guard were distinguished by red. Trouser seams for both branches of the infantry had wide red stripes. Artillery had yellow facings on their dark blue uniforms.
The branch colour for engineers was dark brown, green for medical and light blue for transport units. Finance and other support services had white facings. A dark blue shako with a short white plume was worn for full dress; the ordinary duty and active service headdress was however a form of peaked cap with a narrow crown, somewhat resembling the French kepi of the period. A lightweight white cotton uniform was used for tropical wear. In hot weather white trousers and cap covers were worn with the dark blue tunics. White canvas leggings were worn by non-mounted personnel with both white and blue uniforms until 1906. Senior officers could wear a longer, double-breasted version of the tunic in full dress. Other features included elaborate Austrian knots, waist sashes, gold shoulder cords and plumes on the dress kepi. For ordinary duties and active service officers of all ranks wore dark blue dolmans braided in black. In 1904 this was replaced by a dark blue tunic of simpler pattern. Cavalry regiments wore a short attila jacket with transverse hussar-style braiding in yellow.
Breeches were red. The cavalry branch colour was green and in 1905 this colour appeared on both collars and breeches stripes; as with the other branches of the Imperial Guard, the cavalry were distinguished by red bands and piping on their service caps. Red trousers were worn by army bands and by the Military Police; the dark blue uniform adopted under the 1886 Regulations was retained with only minor modifications until 1905. As such it was worn during the early months of the Russo-Japanese War. A khaki summer uniform had been introduced shortly before the outbreak of war and this became general issue for front line infantry during June–August 1904. Cavalry and artillery were subsequently issued with the new khaki uniform but some second line units continued to wear dark blue until the end of the War in September 1905. During the winter of 1904-05 the heavier blue uniforms were again worn but under the loose fitting summer khaki drill for camouflage; the white canvas leggings continued to be worn without darkening, until after the war.
Following the Russo-Japanese War the Japanese Army adopted khaki for all occasions - the first major army to discard colourful parade dress. Only the cavalry squadrons of the Imperial Guard and officers of all branches were authorized to retain their coloured uniforms for certain ceremonial and social occasions, until 1939; this was a khaki cotton version of the 1886 uniform with a shorter jacket. First appearing as a fatigue dress in 1900, it was being issued as a hot-weather uniform in 1904 to replace the white summer clothing described above; the practical advantages of khaki drill over dark blue became obvious in the opening stages of the Russo-Japanese War and it became general issue for troops on active service as stocks became available. In 1906 a khaki serge cold-weather uniform and greatcoat had been adopted; the 1911 uniform replaced. The 1911 khaki colored version of the blue uniform; the new flat topped peaked cap had a red band, the tunic collar had red swallow tailed gorget patches and the shoulders had red shoulder bars to indicate rank.
The uniform was produced in wool for cotton for summer wear. The Showa Type 5 called the M90 or 2590 or 1930 uniform, was the 1911 uniform but introduced internal breast pockets with scalloped pocket flaps on the tunic for all ranks; the straight trousers were replaced with pantaloons which were worn with woolen spiral wound puttees and tapes. The M98 was a further modification of the M90 uniform; the single breasted tunic had a stand and fall collar, five buttons which ran down the front and two, or more four internal pockets with scalloped flaps. Long trousers or pantaloons were worn as standard along with the tapes. All except mounted troops wore this uniform with pigskin or leather ankle-boots; the boots had either a hobnailed hard leather sole with metal heel J-cleat or a rubber sole with rubber cleats. When off duty, soldiers could wear tabis. A collarless wool or cotton white, grey or light green under shirt was worn under the tunic; this had one or two patch breast pockets with buttoned flaps, most had only a single pocket on the left breast.
A khaki cotton shirt with stand and fall collar and t
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
Imperial Japanese Army Air Service
The Imperial Japanese Army Air Service or Imperial Japanese Army Air Force or, more the Greater Japan Empire Army Air Corps, was the aviation force of the Imperial Japanese Army. Just as the IJA in general was modeled on the German Army, the IJAAS developed along similar lines to the Imperial German Army Aviation; the IJAAS provided aerial reconnaissance to other branches of the IJA. While the IJAAS engaged in strategic bombing of cities such as Shanghai, Canton, Chongqing and Mandalay, this was not the primary mission of the IJAAS, it lacked a heavy bomber force, it did not control artillery spotter/observer aircraft. The Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service was responsible for long-range bomber and attack aircraft, as well as strategic air defense, it was not until the stages of the Pacific War that the two air arms attempted to integrate the air defense of the home islands. The Imperial Japanese Army made use of hydrogen balloons for observation purposes in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905 and in 1909, together with the Imperial Japanese Navy and the Tokyo Imperial University, the Rinji Gunyo Kikyu Kenkyukai was set up.
In 1910, the society sent Captain Yoshitoshi Tokugawa and Captain Hino Kumazō to France and Germany to receive pilot training and purchase aircraft. Japan purchased its first aircraft, a Farman biplane and a Grade monoplane, brought back by the officers from Western Europe. On December 19 1910, Captain Yoshitoshi Tokugawa in a Farman III conducted the first successful powered flight on Japanese soil at Yoyogi Parade Ground in Tokyo; the following year in 1911, several more aircraft were imported and an improved version of the Farman III biplane, the Kaishiki No.1, was built and flown in Japan by Captain Togugawa. In 1914, with the outbreak of war, the Japanese laid siege to the German colony of Tsingtao, aircraft from the army together with the navy conducted reconnaissance and bombing operations; the Provisional Air Corps consisting of four Maurice Farman MF.7 biplanes and a single Nieuport VI-M monoplane flew 86 sorties between them. In December 1915, a air battalion was created under the Army Transport Command, which became responsible for all air operations.
However, serious interest in military aviation did not develop until after World War I. Japanese military observers in Western Europe were quick to spot the advantages of the new technology, after the end of the war, Japan purchased large numbers of surplus military aircraft, including Sopwith 1½ Strutters, Nieuport 24s, Spads. In 1918, a French military mission was invited to Japan to help develop aviation; the mission was headed by Jacques-Paul Faure and composed of 63 members to establish the fundamentals of the Japanese aviation, the mission brought several aircraft including Salmson 2A2, Spad XIII, two Breguet XIV, as well as Caquot dirigables. Japanese army aviation was organized into a separate chain of command within the Ministry of War of Japan in 1919, aircraft were being used in combat roles during the 1920 Siberian Intervention against the Bolshevik Red Army near Vladivostok; the first aircraft factory in Japan, Nakajima Aircraft Company, was founded in 1916 and obtained a license to produce the Nieuport 24 and Nieuport-Delage NiD 29 C.1 as well as the Hispano-Suiza engine.
Nakajima license-produced the Gloster Gannet and Bristol Jupiter. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries started producing aircraft under license from Sopwith in 1921, Kawasaki Heavy Industries started producing the Salmson 2 A.2 bomber from France, hired German engineers such as Dr. Richard Vogt to produce original designs such as the Type 88 bomber. Kawasaki produced aircraft engines under license from BMW. In May 1925, the Imperial Japanese Army Air Corps was established under the command of Lieutenant General Kinichi Yasumitsu, it was regarded as a branch equal to the artillery, cavalry or infantry, contained 3,700 personnel with about 500 aircraft. By the end of the 1920s, Japan was producing its own designs to meet the needs of the Army, by 1935 had a large inventory of indigenous aircraft designs that were technically sophisticated. By 1941, the Japanese Army Air Force had about 1,500 combat aircraft. During the first years of the war, Japan continued technical development and deployment of advanced aircraft and enjoyed air superiority over most battlefields due to the combat experience of its crews and the handling qualities of its aircraft.
However, as the war continued, Japan found. On top of these production problems, Japan thus continued losses. Furthermore, there were continual production disruptions brought on by moving factories from location to location, each transfer with the goal of avoiding the Allied strategic bombing. Between these factors and others, such as the restricted strategic materials, the Japanese found themselves materialistically outmatched. In terms of manpower, Japan was worse off. Experienced crews were killed and replacements had not been planned; the Japanese had lost skilled trainers, they did not have the fuel or the time to use the trainers they did have. Because of this, towards the end of its existence the JAAF resorted to kamikaze attacks against overwhelmingly superior Allied forces. Important aircraft used by the Imperial Japanese Army Air Force during the
SS-class landing ship
The SS-class landing ship was a class of amphibious assault ships of the Imperial Japanese Army which served during World War II. The SS meaning are Sensha-Small. October 1938, the IJA employed the Shinshū Maru during their successful amphibious operations at Bias Bay. However, a considerable amount of time was needed to complete the operation owing to the low speed of the landing craft, which resulted in considerable damage to the vessels involved; the IJA employed the principles of minimum damage to their amphibious warfare operations. In 1939-1940, the IJA repeated an experiment with Gorō Maru and Yorihime Maru and after analysing the experiment data placed an order for the prototype Kōryū; the IJN was interested in the second prototype Banryū. The IJN placed an order for 16 ships. However, thereafter they adopted the No.101-class and the order was cancelled. Kōryū / SS No. 1 Banryū / SS No. 2 No.101 class landing ship Landing craft tank Monthly Armor Modelling special issue, Navy Yard Vol.9 Tora!
Tora! Tora! part-2, Dainippon Kaiga, November 2008 Rekishi Gunzō, History of Pacific War Vol.37, Support Vessels of the Imperial Japanese Forces, June 2002, ISBN 4-05-602780-3 Ships of the World No.506, "Kaijinsha". February 1996 50 year History of Harima Zōsen, Harima Zōsen Corporation, November 1960
Daihatsu-class landing craft
The Daihatsu-class or 14 m landing craft was a type of landing craft used by the Imperial Japanese Army from 1937 to 1945, in the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II. It had a bow ramp, lowered to disembark cargo upon riding up onto a beach. After reviewing photos of a Daihatsu landing craft, this was adopted by American landing craft designer Andrew Higgins in developing the Landing Craft, Personnel into the Landing Craft and the Landing Craft and Personnel. However, the Daihatsu landing craft was more seaworthy than an LCVP due to its hull design, it was powered by a diesel engine. The landing craft could be modified to carry weapons of up to 37 mm caliber as armament and could be uparmoured against 40 mm fire. Jentschura, Hansgeorg. Translated by Brown, J. D. 1977. Warships of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1869-1945. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-893-X. Morison, Samuel Eliot. 1950. History of United States Naval Operations in World War II, Volume VI: Breaking the Bismarck Barrier, 22 July 1942 – 1 May 1942.
Boston: Little and Company. Parillo, Mark P. 1993. The Japanese Merchant Marine in World War II. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-677-9
Type 3 submergence transport vehicle
The Type 3 submergence transport vehicle was a class of transport submarines built for the Imperial Japanese Army during the Second World War. The IJA planned to build over 400 boats, however only 38 boats were completed until the end of war; the IJA called them Maru Yu. In 1943 the IJA decided to build a transport submarine for themselves, because the IJA was soundly beaten in the Solomon Islands campaign and needed a way to supply the isolated garrisons on the Pacific islands; the class consists of four unofficial subclasses resulting from manufacturing differences among the contracted builders. The manufacturer may be discerned by the appearance of the sail. Basic model of Yu I type. First boat Yu 1 was prototype of the Yu I type boats; the Hitachi-Kasado Factory built all of the Yu 1-class boats. Their sail was closed. Yu 1, laid down in February 1943, completed on 31 October 1943, lost in an accident at Lingayen Gulf on 2 January 1945. Yu 2, sunk by USS Pringle, Renshaw and Saufley at Ormoc Bay on 27 November 1944.
Yu 3, lost in an accident at Lingayen Gulf in January 1945, salvaged by USS Grasp on 18 January 1945, carried out by USS Rushmore in May 1945. Yu 4, survived war. Yu 5, survived war. Yu 6, assigned Detachment 2, Transport Submarine Group on 13 February 1945, survived war. Yu 7, assigned Detachment 2, Transport Submarine Group in November 1944, survived war. Yu 8, survived war. Yu 9, survived war. Yu 10, assigned Detachment Kuchinotsu, Transport Submarine Group on 15 May 1945, survived war. Yu 11, assigned Detachment Kuchinotsu, Transport Submarine Group on 15 May 1945, assigned Detachment Mikuriya in June 1945, survived war. Yu 12, assigned Detachment Kuchinotsu, Transport Submarine Group on 15 May 1945, survived war. Yu 13, assigned Detachment Mikuriya in June 1945, survived war. Yu 14, assigned Detachment Kuchinotsu, Transport Submarine Group on 15 May 1945, assigned Detachment Mikuriya in June 1945, survived war. Yu 16, survived war. Yu 17, survived war. Yu 18, survived war. Yu 19, survived war. Yu 20, survived war.
Yu 21, survived war. Yu 22, survived war. Yu 23, survived war. Yu 24, survived war. Yu 25, incomplete until the end of the war; the Japan Steel Works-Kaita Factory built all of the Yu 1001-class boats. They were equipped with an open-top sail. Yu 1001, launched on 27 March 1944, completed on 15 June 1944, assigned Detachment 2, Transport Submarine Group in November 1944, sunk by air raid at Shimoda on 12 August 1945. Yu 1002, assigned Detachment 2, Transport Submarine Group on 11 February 1945, survived war. Yu 1003, assigned Detachment 2, Transport Submarine Group on 11 February 1945, survived war. Yu 1005, assigned Detachment 2, Transport Submarine Group on 13 February 1945, survived war. Yu 1006, survived war. Yu 1007, assigned Detachment Kuchinotsu, Transport Submarine Group on 15 May 1945, assigned Detachment Mikuriya in June 1945, survived war. Yu 1008, survived war. Yu 1009, survived war. Yu 1010, survived war. Yu 1011, incomplete until the end of the war. Yu 1012, incomplete until the end of the war.
Yu 1013, incomplete until the end of the war. Yu 1014, incomplete until the end of the war; the Andō Iron Works-Tsukishima Factory build all of the Yu 2001-class boats. First boat was the second prototype of the Yu I type boats, they fitted a deck house root to the sail for improved crew comfort. Yu 2001, launched on 12 February 1944, survived war. Yu 2002, launched on 31 March 1945, survived war. Yu 2003, incomplete until the end of the war. Yu 2004, incomplete until the end of the war. Yu 2005, incomplete until the end of the war. Yu 2006, incomplete until the end of the war; the Chōsen Machinery-Jinsen Factory build all of the Yu 3001-class boats. Yu 3001, launched on 10 April 1944, completed on 2 August 1944, survived war. Yu 3002, sunk by rough weather in 1945. Yu 3003, survived war. Yu 3005, incomplete until the end of the war. Yu 3006, incomplete until the end of the war. Yu 3007, incomplete until the end of the war. Yu 3008, incomplete until the end of the war. Yu 3009, incomplete until the end of the war.
Yu 3010, incomplete until the end of the war. Improved model of the Yu I type. Yu II was built by Kampon technical guidance; the IJN designed this. Ushio, prototype of the Yu II type, laid down in August 1944, launched on 16 May 1945, incomplete. Type D submarine Ha-101-class submarine German submarine Deutschland Type 4 Ka-Tsu Imperial Japanese Army Railways and Shipping Section Italian R-class submarine Bagnasco, Erminio. Submarines of World War Two. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-962-6. Carpenter, Dorr B. & Polmar, Norman. Submarines of the Imperial Japanese Navy 1904–1945. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-396-6. Chesneau, Roger, ed.. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1922–1946. Greenwich, UK: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-146-7. Rekishi Gunzō, History of Pacific War Extra, Perfect guide, The submarines of the Imperial Japanese Forces, Tokyo Japan, 2005, ISBN 4-05-603890-2. Rekishi Gunzō, History of Pacific War Vol.45, Truth histories of the Imperial Japanese Naval Vessels, Tokyo Japan, 2004, ISBN 4-05-603412-5.
Ships of the World No.506, Tokyo Japan, 1996. The Maru Special, Japanese Naval Vessels No.43 Japanese Submarines III, Ushio Shobō, Tokyo Japan, 1980. Atsumi Nakashima, Army Submarine Fleet, "The secret project!, The men challenged the deep sea", Shinjinbutsu Ōraisha, Tokyo Japan, 2006, ISBN 4-404-03413-X. 50 year history of the Japan Steel Works, Japan Steel Works, 1968