A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments. Laws enacted by legislatures are known as primary legislation. Legislatures observe and steer governing actions and have exclusive authority to amend the budget or budgets involved in the process; the members of a legislature are called legislators. In a democracy, legislators are most popularly elected, although indirect election and appointment by the executive are used for bicameral legislatures featuring an upper chamber. Names for national legislatures include "parliament", "congress", "diet", "assembly", depending on country; each chamber of the legislature consists of a number of legislators who use some form of parliamentary procedure to debate political issues and vote on proposed legislation. There must be a certain number of legislators present to carry out these activities; some of the responsibilities of a legislature, such as giving first consideration to newly proposed legislation, are delegated to committees made up of a few of the members of the chamber.
The members of a legislature represent different political parties. Legislatures vary in the amount of political power they wield, compared to other political players such as judiciaries and executives. In 2009, political scientists M. Steven Fish and Matthew Kroenig constructed a Parliamentary Powers Index in an attempt to quantify the different degrees of power among national legislatures; the German Bundestag, the Italian Parliament, the Mongolian State Great Khural tied for most powerful, while Myanmar's House of Representatives and Somalia's Transitional Federal Assembly tied for least powerful. Some political systems follow the principle of legislative supremacy, which holds that the legislature is the supreme branch of government and cannot be bound by other institutions, such as the judicial branch or a written constitution; such a system renders the legislature more powerful. In parliamentary and semi-presidential systems of government, the executive is responsible to the legislature, which may remove it with a vote of no confidence.
On the other hand, according to the separation of powers doctrine, the legislature in a presidential system is considered an independent and coequal branch of government along with both the judiciary and the executive. Legislatures will sometimes delegate their legislative power to administrative or executive agencies. Legislatures are made up of individual members, known as legislators. A legislature contains a fixed number of legislators. For example, a legislature that has 100 "seats" has 100 members. By extension, an electoral district that elects a single legislator can be described as a "seat", as, example, in the phrases "safe seat" and "marginal seat". A legislature may debate and vote upon bills as a single unit, or it may be composed of multiple separate assemblies, called by various names including legislative chambers, debate chambers, houses, which debate and vote separately and have distinct powers. A legislature which operates as a single unit is unicameral, one divided into two chambers is bicameral, one divided into three chambers is tricameral.
In bicameral legislatures, one chamber is considered the upper house, while the other is considered the lower house. The two types are not rigidly different, but members of upper houses tend to be indirectly elected or appointed rather than directly elected, tend to be allocated by administrative divisions rather than by population, tend to have longer terms than members of the lower house. In some systems parliamentary systems, the upper house has less power and tends to have a more advisory role, but in others presidential systems, the upper house has equal or greater power. In federations, the upper house represents the federation's component states; this is a case with the supranational legislature of the European Union. The upper house may either contain the delegates of state governments – as in the European Union and in Germany and, before 1913, in the United States – or be elected according to a formula that grants equal representation to states with smaller populations, as is the case in Australia and the United States since 1913.
Tricameral legislatures are rare. Tetracameral legislatures no longer exist, but they were used in Scandinavia. Legislatures vary in their size. Among national legislatures, China's National People's Congress is the largest with 2 980 members, while Vatican City's Pontifical Commission is the smallest with 7. Neither legislature is democratically elected: the National People's Congress is indirectly elected. Legislature size is a trade off between representation. Comparative analysis of national legislatures has found that size of a country's lower house tends to be proportional to the cube root of its population.
The Bombay Presidency known as Bombay and Sind from 1843 to 1936 and the Bombay Province, was an administrative subdivision of British India. Headquartered in the city of Bombay, at its greatest extent, the presidency included the Konkan and Pune divisions of the present-day Indian state of Maharashtra, Anand, Gandhinagar, Kheda and Surat districts of the present-day state of Gujarat, Belagavi, Dharwad and Uttara Kannada districts of the present-day state of Karnataka and the South Canara (Dakshina Kannada and Udupi district including Kasargod District of Kerala; the Bombay Presidency was created when the city of Bombay was leased in fee tail to the East India Company by a Royal Charter from the King of Britain, Charles II, who had in turn acquired it on May 11, 1661, when his marriage treaty with Catherine of Braganza, daughter of King John IV of Portugal, placed the islands of Bombay in possession of the English Empire, as part of Catherine's dowry to Charles. The English East India Company transferred its Western India headquarters from Surat, its first colony in that region, to Bombay in 1687.
The Presidency was brought under British Parliament control along with other parts of British India through Pitt's India Act. Major territorial acquisitions were made during the Anglo-Maratha Wars when the whole of the Peshwa's dominions and much of the Gaekwad's sphere of influence were annexed to the Bombay Presidency in different stages till 1818. Aden was annexed in 1839, while Sind was annexed by the Company in 1843 after defeating the Talpur dynasty in the Battle of Hyderabad and it was made a part of the Bombay Presidency. At its greatest extent, the Bombay Presidency comprised the present-day state of Gujarat, the western two-thirds of Maharashtra state, including the regions of Konkan and Kandesh, northwestern Karnataka state of India; the districts and provinces of the presidency were directly under British rule, while the internal administration of the native or princely states was in the hands of local rulers. The presidency, managed the defence of princely states and British relations with them through political agencies.
The Bombay Presidency along with the Bengal Presidency and Madras Presidency were the three major centres of British power. The first English settlement in the Presidency known as Western Presidency was begun in 1618 at Surat in present-day Gujarat, when the East India Company established a factory, protected by a charter obtained from the Mughal Emperor Jahangir. In 1626 the Dutch and the English made an unsuccessful attempt to gain possession of the island of Bombay in the coastal Konkan region from Portugal, in 1653 proposals were suggested for its purchase from the Portuguese. In 1661 Bombay was ceded to the Kingdom of England as part of the dowry of the infanta Catherine of Braganza on her marriage to King Charles II. So was the acquisition esteemed in England, so unsuccessful was the administration of the crown officers, that in 1668 Bombay was transferred to the East India Company for an annual payment of £10, the Company established a factory there. At the time of the transfer, powers for the island's defence and for the administration of justice were conferred on the Company.
As English trade in Bombay increased, Surat began its relative decline. In 1687, Bombay was made the headquarters of all the East India Company's possessions in India. However, in 1753 the governor of Bombay became subordinate to that of Calcutta. During the 18th century, the Hindu Maratha Empire expanded claiming Konkan and much of eastern Gujarat from the disintegrating Mughal Empire. In western Gujarat, including Kathiawar and Kutch, the loosening of Mughal control allowed numerous local rulers to create independent states; the first conflict between the British and the Marathas was the First Anglo-Maratha War which began in 1774 and resulted in the 1782 Treaty of Salbai, by which the island of Salsette, adjacent to Bombay island, was ceded to the British, while Bharuch was ceded to the Maratha ruler Scindia. The British annexed Surat in 1800. British territory was enlarged in the Second Anglo-Maratha War which ended in 1803; the East India Company received the districts of Bharuch, etc. and the Maratha Gaekwad rulers of Baroda acknowledged British sovereignty.
In 1803 the Bombay Presidency included only Salsette, the islands of the harbour and Bankot. The Gujarat districts were taken over by the Bombay government in 1805 and enlarged in 1818. Baji Rao II, the last of the peshwas, who had attempted to shake off the British yoke, was defeated in the Battle of Khadki, captured subsequently and pensioned, large portions of his dominions were included in the Presidency, the settlement of, completed by Mountstuart Elphinstone, governor from 1819 to 1827, his policy was to rule as far as possible on native lines, avoiding all changes for which the population was not yet ripe. The period that followed is notable for the enlargement of the Presidency through the lapse of ce
Parliament House (India)
The Sansad Bhavan is the house of the Parliament of India, which contains the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha located in New Delhi. Called the House of Parliament, it was designed by the British architects Sir Edwin Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker in 1912-1913 as part of their wider mandate to construct a new administrative capital city for British India. Construction of Parliament House began in 1921 and it was completed in 1927; the opening ceremony of the Parliament House, which housed the Central Legislative Assembly, was performed on 18 January 1927 by His Excellency Lord Irwin, Viceroy of India. The third session of Central Legislative Assembly was held in this house on 19 January 1927; the Parliament Museum, opened in 2006, stands next to the Parliament House. The shape of the building is circular, based on the Ashoka Chakra. At the centre of the building is the Central Chamber, surrounding this are the semicircular halls that were constructed for the sessions of the Chamber of Princes, the State Council, the Central Legislative Assembly.
The building is surrounded by large gardens and the perimeter is fenced off by sandstone railings. A new Parliament building may replace the existing complex; the new building is being considered on account of the stability concerns regarding the current complex. A committee to suggest few alternatives to the current building has been set up by the ex-Speaker, Meira Kumar; the present building, an 85-year-old structure suffers from inadequacy of space to house members and their staff and is thought to suffer from structural issues. The building needs to be protected because of its heritage tag. On 13 December 2001, the building of the Parliament was attacked by five Lashkar-e-Toiba and Jaish-e-Mohammed terrorists. In addition to all the attackers, six military personnel and one civilian were killed. Statue of B. R. Ambedkar Chausath Yogini Temple, Morena Media related to Sansad Bhavan at Wikimedia Commons The Parliament Estate, Parliament of India webpage^ Lessons, My Online. "Parliament of India | Indian Polity".
Myonlinelessons.in. Archived from the original on 2 April 2019. Retrieved 2 April 2019
Maharaja Sir Rameshwar Singh Thakur was the Maharaja of Darbhanga in the Mithila region from 1898 to his death. He became Maharaja on the death of his elder brother Maharaja Sir Lakshmeshwar Singh, who died without issue, he was appointed to the Indian Civil Service in 1878, serving as assistant magistrate successively at Darbhanga and Bhagalpur. He was exempted from attendance at the Civil Courts and was appointed a Member of the Legislative Council of Bengal in 1885, he was the first Indian appointed to the lieutenant governor's Executive Council. He was a Member of the Council of India of the Governor General of India in 1899 and on 21 September 1904 was appointed a non-officiating member representing the Bengal Provinces, along with Gopal Krishna Gokhale from Bombay Province, he was president of the Bihar Landholder's Association, president of the All India Landholder's Association, president of Bharat Dharma Mahamandal, a member of the Council of State, a trustee of the Victoria Memorial in Calcutta, president of the Hindu University Society, M.
E. C. of Bihar and Orissa and Member of the Indian Police Commission. He was awarded the Kaiser-i-Hind medal in 1900, he was the only member of the India Police Commission who dissented with a report on requirements for police service, suggested that the recruitment to the Indian Police Services should be through a single exam only to be conducted in India and Britain simultaneously. He suggested the recruitment should not be based on colour or nationality; this suggestion was rejected by the India Police Commission. Maharaja Rameshwar Singh was known as Buddhist Siddha, he was considered a Rajarshi by his people. He was knighted a Knight Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire on 26 June 1902, was promoted to a Knight Grand Commander in the 1915 Birthday Honours List and was appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire, Civil Division in the 1918 Birthday Honours List, he was succeeded by his son, Sir Kameshwar Singh
Kristo Das Pal
Kristo Das Pal, was an Indian journalist and the editor of the Hindoo Patriot. In spite of being born of the Teli or oil-men's caste, which ranks low in the Hindu social hierarchy, he rose to be one of the important persons of his age. Son of Ishwar Chandra Pal, he received an English education at the Oriental Seminary and the Hindu Metropolitan College, at an early age devoted himself to journalism. A student of D. L. Richardson, he acquired an admirable proficiency in English. In 1861, he was appointed assistant secretary to the British Indian Association, a board of Bengal landlords, which numbered among its members some of the most cultured men of the day. At about the same time he became editor of the Hindu Patriot started in 1853 and conducted with ability and zeal by Harish Chandra Mukherjee until his death in 1861; this journal having been transferred by a trust deed to some members of the British Indian Association, it henceforth became to some extent an organ of that body. Thus Kristo Das Pal had rare opportunities for proving his abilities and independence during an eventful career of twenty-two years.
In 1863, he was appointed justice of the peace and municipal commissioner of Calcutta. In 1872, he was made a member of the Bengal legislative council, where his practical good sense and moderation were much appreciated by successive lieutenant governors, his opposition, however, to the Calcutta Municipal Bill of 1876, which first recognized the elective system, was attributed to his prejudice in favour of the classes against the masses. In 1878, he received the decoration of C. I. E. In 1883 he was appointed a member of the viceroys legislative council. In the discussions on, the Rent Bill, which came up for consideration before the council, Kristo Das Pal, as secretary to the British Indian Association took the side of the landlords, he was given title of Rai Bahadur in 1877 and was therefore called as Rai Kristo Das Pal Bahadur. He was one of the patrons of Hindu MelaHe died on 24 July 1884 from diabetes. Speaking after his death, Lord Ripon said: "By this melancholy event we have lost from among us a colleague of distinguished ability, from whom we had on all occasions received assistance, of which I acknowledge the value....
Mr. Kristo Das Pal owed the honourable position, his intellectual attainments were of a high order, his rhetorical gifts were acknowledged by all who heard him, were enhanced when addressing this council by his thorough mastery over the English language." A full length statue of him was unveiled by Lord Elgin at Calcutta in 1894. See N. N. Ghose, Krislo Das Pal, a Study; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Pal, Kristo Das". Encyclopædia Britannica. 20. Cambridge University Press
East India Company
The East India Company known as the Honourable East India Company or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, Company Bahadur, or The Company, was an English and British joint-stock company. It was formed to trade in the Indian Ocean region with Mughal India and the East Indies, with Qing China; the company ended up seizing control over large parts of the Indian subcontinent, colonised parts of Southeast Asia, colonised Hong Kong after a war with Qing China. Chartered as the "Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading into the East Indies", the company rose to account for half of the world's trade in basic commodities including cotton, indigo dye, spices, saltpetre and opium; the company ruled the beginnings of the British Empire in India. In his speech to the House of Commons in July 1833, Lord Macaulay explained that since the beginning, the East India company had always been involved in both trade and politics, just as its French and Dutch counterparts had been.
The company received a Royal Charter from Queen Elizabeth I on 31 December 1600, coming late to trade in the Indies. Before them the Portuguese Estado da Índia had traded there for much of the 16th century and the first of half a dozen Dutch Companies sailed to trade there from 1595; these Dutch companies amalgamated in March 1602 into the United East Indies Company, which introduced the first permanent joint stock from 1612. By contrast, wealthy merchants and aristocrats owned the EIC's shares; the government owned no shares and had only indirect control until 1657 when permanent joint stock was established. During its first century of operation, the focus of the company was trade, not the building of an empire in India. Company interests turned from trade to territory during the 18th century as the Mughal Empire declined in power and the East India Company struggled with its French counterpart, the French East India Company during the Carnatic Wars of the 1740s and 1750s; the battles of Plassey and Buxar, in which the British defeated the Bengali powers, left the company in control of Bengal and a major military and political power in India.
In the following decades it increased the extent of the territories under its control, controlling the majority of the Indian subcontinent either directly or indirectly via local puppet rulers under the threat of force by its Presidency armies, much of which were composed of native Indian sepoys. By 1803, at the height of its rule in India, the British East India company had a private army of about 260,000—twice the size of the British Army, with Indian revenues of £13,464,561, expenses of £14,017,473; the company came to rule large areas of India with its private armies, exercising military power and assuming administrative functions. Company rule in India began in 1757 and lasted until 1858, following the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Government of India Act 1858 led to the British Crown's assuming direct control of the Indian subcontinent in the form of the new British Raj. Despite frequent government intervention, the company had recurring problems with its finances, it was dissolved in 1874 as a result of the East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act passed one year earlier, as the Government of India Act had by rendered it vestigial and obsolete.
The official government machinery of British India assumed the East India Company's governmental functions and absorbed its navy and its armies in 1858. Soon after the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588, the captured Spanish and Portuguese ships with their cargoes enabled English voyagers to travel the globe in search of riches. London merchants presented a petition to Queen Elizabeth I for permission to sail to the Indian Ocean; the aim was to deliver a decisive blow to the Portuguese monopoly of Far Eastern Trade. Elizabeth granted her permission and on 10 April 1591 James Lancaster in the Bonaventure with two other ships sailed from Torbay around the Cape of Good Hope to the Arabian Sea on one of the earliest English overseas Indian expeditions. Having sailed around Cape Comorin to the Malay Peninsula, they preyed on Spanish and Portuguese ships there before returning to England in 1594; the biggest capture that galvanised English trade was the seizure of the large Portuguese Carrack, the Madre de Deus by Sir Walter Raleigh and the Earl of Cumberland at the Battle of Flores on 13 August 1592.
When she was brought in to Dartmouth she was the largest vessel, seen in England and her cargo consisted of chests filled with jewels, gold, silver coins, cloth, pepper, cinnamon, benjamin, red dye and ebony. Valuable was the ship's rutter containing vital information on the China and Japan trades; these riches aroused the English to engage in this opulent commerce. In 1596, three more English ships were all lost at sea. A year however saw the arrival of Ralph Fitch, an adventurer merchant who, along with his companions, had made a remarkable fifteen-year overland journey to Mesopotamia, the Persian Gulf, the Indian Ocean and Southeast Asia. Fitch was consulted on the Indian affairs and gave more valuable information to Lancaster. On 22 September 1599, a group of merchants met and stated their intention "to venture in the pretended voyage to the East Indies, the sums that they will adventure", committing £30
Aga Khan III
Sir Sultan Muhammed Shah, Aga Khan III was the 48th Imam of the Nizari Ismaili religion. He was the first president of the All-India Muslim League, his goal was protection of Muslim rights in India. The League, until the late 1930s, was not a large organisation but represented the landed and commercial Muslim interests of the British-ruled'United Provinces', he shared Sir Syed Ahmad Khan's belief that Muslims should first build up their social capital through advanced education before engaging in politics. Aga Khan called on the British Raj to consider Muslims to be a separate nation within India, the so-called'Two Nation Theory'. After he resigned as president of the AIML in 1912, he still exerted major influence on its policies and agendas, he was nominated to represent India to the League of Nations in 1932 and served as President of the League of Nations from 1937–38. Sir Sultan Muhammad Shah was born in Karachi, the capital of Sindh province in British India, to Aga Khan II and his third wife, Nawab A'lia Shamsul-Muluk, a granddaughter of Fath Ali Shah of Persia.
Under the care of his mother, he was given not only that religious and Oriental education which his position as the religious leader of the Ismailis made indispensable, but sound European training, an opportunity denied to his father and paternal grandfather. He attended Eton and the University of Cambridge. In 1885, at the age of eight, he succeeded his father as Imam of the Shi'a Isma'ili Muslims; the Aga Khan travelled in distant parts of the world to receive the homage of his followers, with the objective either of settling differences or of advancing their welfare by financial help and personal advice and guidance. The distinction of a Knight Commander of the Indian Empire was conferred upon him by Queen Victoria in 1897, he was made a Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India by George V, appointed a GCMG in 1923. He received like recognition for his public services from the German Emperor, the Sultan of Turkey, the Shah of Persia and other potentates. In 1906, the Aga Khan was a founding member and first president of the All India Muslim League, a political party which pushed for the creation of an independent Muslim nation in the north west regions of India under British colonial rule, established the country of Pakistan in 1947.
During the three Round Table Conferences in London from 1930–32, he played an important role to bring about Indian constitutional reforms. In 1934, he was made a member of the Privy Council and served as a member of the League of Nations, becoming the President of the League of Nations in 1937. Under the leadership of Sir Sultan Muhammad Shah, Aga Khan III, the first half of the 20th century was a period of significant development for the Ismā'īlī community. Numerous institutions for social and economic development were established in the Indian Subcontinent and in East Africa. Ismailis have marked the Jubilees of their Imāms with public celebrations, which are symbolic affirmations of the ties that link the Ismāʿīlī Imām and his followers. Although the Jubilees have no religious significance, they serve to reaffirm the Imamat's worldwide commitment to the improvement of the quality of human life in the developing countries; the Jubilees of Sir Sultan Muhammad Shah, Aga Khan III, are well remembered.
During his 72 years of Imamat, the community celebrated his Golden and Platinum Jubilees. To show their appreciation and affection, the Ismā'īliyya weighed their Imam in gold, diamonds and, symbolically, in platinum the proceeds of which were used to further develop major social welfare and development institutions in Asia and Africa. In India and in Pakistan, social development institutions were established, in the words of Aga Khan III, "for the relief of humanity", they included institutions such as the Diamond Jubilee Trust and the Platinum Jubilee Investments Limited which in turn assisted the growth of various types of cooperative societies. Diamond Jubilee High School for Girls were established throughout the remote Northern Areas of what is now Pakistan. In addition, scholarship programs, established at the time of the Golden Jubilee to give assistance to needy students, were progressively expanded. In East Africa, major social welfare and economic development institutions were established.
Those involved in social welfare included the accelerated development of schools and community centres, a modern equipped hospital in Nairobi. Among the economic development institutions established in East Africa were companies such as the Diamond Jubilee Investment Trust and the Jubilee Insurance Company, which are quoted on the Nairobi Stock Exchange and have become major players in national development. Sir Sultan Muhammad Shah introduced organizational forms that gave Ismāʿīlī communities the means to structure and regulate their own affairs; these were built on the Muslim tradition of a communitarian ethic on the one hand, responsible individual conscience with freedom to negotiate one's own moral commitment and destiny on the other. In 1905 he ordained the first Ismā'īlī Constitution for the social governance of the community in East Africa; the new administration for the Community's affairs was organised into a hierarchy of councils at the local and regional levels. The constitution set out rules in such matters as marriage, di