Mon monshō, kamon, are Japanese emblems used to decorate and identify an individual, a family, or an institution or business entity. While mon is an encompassing term that may refer to any such device and mondokoro refer to emblems used to identify a family. An authoritative mon reference compiles Japan's 241 general categories of mon based on structural resemblance, with 5116 distinct individual mon; the devices are similar to the badges and coats of arms in European heraldic tradition, which are used to identify individuals and families. Mon are referred to as crests in Western literature, another European heraldic device similar to the mon in function. Mon may have originated as fabric patterns to be used on clothes in order to distinguish individuals or signify membership of a specific clan or organization. By the twelfth century, sources give a clear indication that heraldry had been implemented as a distinguishing feature for use in battle, it is seen on flags and equipment. Like European heraldry, mon were held only by aristocratic families, were adapted by commoners.
On the battlefield, mon served as army standards though this usage was not universal and uniquely designed army standards were just as common as mon-based standards. Mon were adapted by various organizations, such as merchant and artisan guilds and shrines, theater troupes and criminal gangs. In an illiterate society, they served as useful symbols for recognition. Japanese traditional formal attire displays the mon of the wearer. Commoners without mon used those of their patron or the organization they belonged to. In cases when none of those were available, they sometimes used one of the few mon which were seen as "vulgar", or invented or adapted whatever mon they wished, passing it on to their descendants, it was not uncommon for shops, therefore shop-owners, to develop mon to identify themselves. Rules regulating the choice and use of mon were somewhat limited, though the selection of mon was determined by social customs, it was considered improper to use a mon, known to be held by someone else, offensive to use a mon, held by someone of a high rank.
When mon came into conflict, the lower-ranked person sometimes changed their mon to avoid offending their superior. The mon held by the ruling clans of Japan, such as Tokugawa's hollyhock mon and the Emperor's chrysanthemum mon, were protected from unauthorized usage. Patron clans granted the use of their mon to their retainers as a reward. Similar to the granting of the patron's surnames, this was considered a high honor. Alternatively, the patron clan may have added elements of its mon to that of its retainer, or chosen an different mon for them. There are no set rules in the design of a mon. Most consist of a roundel encircling a figure of plant, man-made, natural or celestial objects, all abstracted to various degrees. Religious symbols, geometric shapes and kanji were used as well. Similar to the blazon in European heraldry, mon are named by the content of the design though there is no set rule for such names. Unlike in European heraldry, this "blazon" is not prescriptive—the depiction of a mon does not follow the name—instead the names only serve to describe the mon.
The pictorial depictions of the mon are not formalized and small variations of what is supposed to be the same mon can sometimes be seen, but the designs are for the most part standardized through time and tradition. The degree of variation tolerated differ from mon to mon as well. For example, the paulownia crest with 5-7-5 leaves is reserved for the prime minister, whereas paulownia with fewer leaves could be used by anyone; the imperial chrysanthemum specifies 16 petals, whereas chrysanthemum with fewer petals are used by other lesser imperial family members. Japanese heraldry does not have a cadency or quartering system, but it is not uncommon for cadet branches of a family to choose a different mon from the senior branch; each princely family, for example, uses a modified chrysanthemum crest as their mon. Mon holders may combine their mon with that of their patron, benefactor or spouse, sometimes creating complicated designs. Mon are monochrome. All modern Japanese families have a mon, but unlike before the Meiji Restoration when rigid social divisions existed, mon play a more specialized role in everyday life.
On occasions when the use of a mon is required, one can try to look up their families in the temple registries of their ancestral hometown or consult one of the many genealogical publications available. Many websites offer mon lookup services. Professional wedding planners and other "ritual masters" may offer guidance on finding the proper mon. Mon are seen on stores and shops engaged in traditional crafts and specialties, they are favored by sushi restaurants, which incorporate a mon into their logos. Mon designs can be seen on the ceramic roof tiles of older houses. Mon designs decorate senbei, sake and other packaging for food products to lend them an air of elegance and tradition; the paulownia mon appears on the obverse side of the 500 yen coin. Items symbolizing family crafts, arts or professions were chosen as a mon. A fan design might be chosen by a geisha. A woman may still wear her maiden mon
The Meiji period, or Meiji era, is an era of Japanese history which extended from October 23, 1868 to July 30, 1912. This era represents the first half of the Empire of Japan, during which period the Japanese people moved from being an isolated feudal society at risk of colonisation by European powers to the new paradigm of a modern, industrialised nationstate and emergent great power, influenced by Western scientific, philosophical, political and aesthetic ideas; as a result of such wholesale adoption of radically-different ideas, the changes to Japan were profound, affected its social structure, internal politics, economy and foreign relations. The period corresponded to the reign of Emperor Meiji and was succeeded upon the accession of Emperor Taishō by the Taishō period. On February 3, 1867, the 14-year-old Prince Mutsuhito succeeded his father, Emperor Kōmei, to the Chrysanthemum Throne as the 122nd emperor. On November 9, 1867, then-shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu tendered his resignation to the Emperor, formally stepped down ten days later.
Imperial restoration occurred the next year on January 3, 1868, with the formation of the new government. The fall of Edo in the summer of 1868 marked the end of the Tokugawa shogunate, a new era, was proclaimed; the first reform was the promulgation of the Five Charter Oath in 1868, a general statement of the aims of the Meiji leaders to boost morale and win financial support for the new government. Its five provisions consisted of: Establishment of deliberative assemblies. Implicit in the Charter Oath was an end to exclusive political rule by the bakufu, a move toward more democratic participation in government. To implement the Charter Oath, a rather short-lived constitution with eleven articles was drawn up in June 1868. Besides providing for a new Council of State, legislative bodies, systems of ranks for nobles and officials, it limited office tenure to four years, allowed public balloting, provided for a new taxation system, ordered new local administrative rules; the Meiji government assured the foreign powers that it would follow the old treaties negotiated by the bakufu and announced that it would act in accordance with international law.
Mutsuhito, to reign until 1912, selected a new reign title—Meiji, or Enlightened Rule—to mark the beginning of a new era in Japanese history. To further dramatize the new order, the capital was relocated from Kyoto, where it had been situated since 794, to Tokyo, the new name for Edo. In a move critical for the consolidation of the new regime, most daimyōs voluntarily surrendered their land and census records to the Emperor in the abolition of the Han system, symbolizing that the land and people were under the Emperor's jurisdiction. Confirmed in their hereditary positions, the daimyo became governors, the central government assumed their administrative expenses and paid samurai stipends; the han were replaced with prefectures in 1871, authority continued to flow to the national government. Officials from the favored former han, such as Satsuma, Chōshū, Hizen staffed the new ministries. Old court nobles, lower-ranking but more radical samurai, replaced bakufu appointees and daimyo as a new ruling class appeared.
In as much as the Meiji Restoration had sought to return the Emperor to a preeminent position, efforts were made to establish a Shinto-oriented state much like it was 1,000 years earlier. Since Shinto and Buddhism had molded into a syncretic belief in the prior one-thousand years and Buddhism had been connected with the shogunate, this involved the separation of Shinto and Buddhism and the associated destruction of various Buddhist temples and related violence. Furthermore, a new State Shinto had to be constructed for the purpose. In 1871, the Office of Shinto Worship was established, ranking above the Council of State in importance; the kokutai ideas of the Mito school were embraced, the divine ancestry of the Imperial House was emphasized. The government supported a small but important move. Although the Office of Shinto Worship was demoted in 1872, by 1877 the Home Ministry controlled all Shinto shrines and certain Shinto sects were given state recognition. Shinto was released from Buddhist administration and its properties restored.
Although Buddhism suffered from state sponsorship of Shinto, it had its own resurgence. Christianity was legalized, Confucianism remained an important ethical doctrine. However, Japanese thinkers identified with Western ideology and methods. A major proponent of representative government was Itagaki Taisuke, a powerful Tosa leader who had resigned from the Council of State over the Korean affair in 1873. Itagaki sought peaceful, rather than rebellious, he started a school and a movement aimed at establishing a constitutional monarchy and a legislative assembly. Such movements were called People's Rights Movement. Itagaki and others wrote the Tosa Memorial in 1874, criticizing the unbridled power of the oligarchy and calling for the immediate establishment of representative government. Between 1871 and 1873, a series of land and tax laws were enacted as the basis for modern fiscal policy. Private ownership was legalized, deeds were issued, lands were assessed at fair market value with taxes paid in cash rather than in k
The bow is the forward part of the hull of a ship or boat, the point, most forward when the vessel is underway. Both of the adjectives fore and forward mean towards the bow; the other end of the boat is the stern. From Middle Dutch boech or Old Norse bógr; the bow is designed to reduce the resistance of the hull cutting through water and should be tall enough to prevent water from washing over the top of it. On slower ships like tankers, a fuller bow shape is used to maximise the volume of the ship for a given length. A "wet bow" results from seawater washing over the top of the hull. A raked stem with flared topsides can help to reduce the wetness of the bow. Aside from making the deck slippery, salt water can corrode the metal of the ship. If the temperature is low enough this water can freeze on the deck, rails and other exposed surfaces, increasing the topside weight; the bow may be reinforced to serve as an ice-breaker, one example being the bow of container-ship Sea Witch whose reinforcement was the cause of significant damage to another ship in a 1973 collision.
The forward part of the bow on the ship's centreline, is called the stem. Traditionally, the stem was an upright timber or metal bar into which side planks or plates were joined. Several types of bows exist; these include: Aft Boat building Bow Deck Figurehead Naval architecture Port Prow Shipbuilding Starboard Stem Superstructure Sleight, Steve. ISBN 0-7566-0944-5 Steward, Robert. Camden, Maine, p2-3. ISBN 0-87742-236-2
Chrysanthemums, sometimes called mums or chrysanths, are flowering plants of the genus Chrysanthemum in the family Asteraceae. They are native to northeastern Europe. Most species originate from East Asia and the center of diversity is in China. Countless horticultural varieties and cultivars exist; the name "chrysanthemum" is derived from the Ancient Greek: χρυσός chrysos and Ancient Greek: ἄνθεμον anthemon. The genus once included more species, but was split several decades ago into several genera, putting the economically important florist's chrysanthemums in the genus Dendranthema; the naming of these genera has been contentious, but a ruling of the International Botanical Congress in 1999 changed the defining species of the genus to Chrysanthemum indicum, restoring the florist's chrysanthemums to the genus Chrysanthemum. The other species included in the narrow view of the genus Chrysanthemum are now transferred to the genus Glebionis; the other genera separate from Chrysanthemum include Argyranthemum, Leucanthemum and Tanacetum.
Wild Chrysanthemum taxa are herbaceous perennial subshrubs. They have alternately arranged leaves divided into leaflets with toothed or smooth edges; the compound inflorescence is an array of several flower heads, or sometimes a solitary head. The head has a base covered in layers of phyllaries; the simple row of ray florets is yellow, or red. The disc florets of wild taxa are yellow; the fruit is a ribbed achene. Chrysanthemums known as "mums", are one of the prettiest varieties of perennials that start blooming early in the autumn; this is known as favorite flower for the month of November. Chrysanthemums were first cultivated in China as a flowering herb as far back as the 15th century BC. Over 500 cultivars had been recorded by 1630; the plant is renowned as one of the Four Gentlemen in Chinese and East Asian art. The plant is significant during the Double Ninth Festival. Chrysanthemum cultivation began in Japan during the Nara and Heian periods, gained popularity in the Edo period. Many flower shapes and varieties were created.
The way the flowers were grown and shaped developed, chrysanthemum culture flourished. The Imperial Seal of Japan is a chrysanthemum and the institution of the monarchy is called the Chrysanthemum Throne. A number of festivals and shows take place throughout Japan in autumn. Chrysanthemum Day is one of the five ancient sacred festivals, it is celebrated on the 9th day of the 9th month. It was started in 910. Chrysanthemums entered American horticulture in 1798 when Colonel John Stevens imported a cultivated variety known as'Dark Purple' from England; the introduction was part of an effort to grow attractions within Elysian Fields in Hoboken, New Jersey. Modern cultivated chrysanthemums are showier than their wild relatives; the flower heads occur in various forms, can be daisy-like or decorative, like pompons or buttons. This genus contains many thousands of cultivars developed for horticultural purposes. In addition to the traditional yellow, other colors are available, such as white and red; the most important hybrid is Chrysanthemum × morifolium, derived from C. indicum, but involving other species.
Over 140 cultivars of chrysanthemum have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. Chrysanthemums are divided into garden hardy and exhibition. Garden hardy mums are new perennials capable of wintering in most northern latitudes. Exhibition varieties are not as sturdy. Garden hardies are defined by their ability to produce an abundance of small blooms with little if any mechanical assistance, such as staking, withstanding wind and rain. Exhibition varieties, require staking, overwintering in a dry, cool environment, sometimes the addition of night lights; the exhibition varieties can be used to create many amazing plant forms, such as large disbudded blooms, spray forms, many artistically trained forms, such as thousand-bloom, fans, hanging baskets, topiary and cascades. Chrysanthemum blooms are divided into 13 different bloom forms by the US National Chrysanthemum Society, Inc., in keeping with the international classification system. The bloom forms are defined by the way in which the disk florets are arranged.
Chrysanthemum blooms are composed of each one capable of producing a seed. The disk florets are in the center of the bloom head, the ray florets are on the perimeter; the ray florets are considered imperfect flowers, as they only possess the female reproductive organs, while the disk florets are considered perfect flowers, as they possess both male and female reproductive organs. Irregular incurves are bred to produce a giant head called an ogiku; the disk florets are concealed in layers of curving ray florets that hang down to create a'skirt'. Regular incurves are similar, but with smaller blooms and a dense, globular form. Intermediate incurve blooms may have a less densely flowered head. In the reflex form, the disk florets are concealed and the ray florets reflex outwards to create a mop-like appearance; the decorative form is similar to reflex blooms, but the ray florets do not radiate at more than a 90° angle to the stem. The pompon form is double, of small size, globular in form. Single and semidoubl