Imperial Seal of the Mongols

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The Imperial Seal of the Mongols is a seal (tamgha-тамга) that was used by the Mongols. The imperial seals had inscriptions in Mongolian script or other scripts that used in various Mongol regimes such as the Mongol Empire and the Northern Yuan dynasty.

Seal of Güyük Khan using the classical Mongolian script, as found in a letter sent to the Roman Pope Innocent IV. Möngke ṭngri-yin küčündür. Yeke Mongγol ulus-un dalai-in qanu ǰrlγ. Il bulγa irgen-dür kürbesü, büsiretügüi azatuγai.

According to Plano Carpini, the Russian handicraftsman, Kozma, made a seal for Güyük Khan. This seal might have been a seal used to stamp the letter to Pope Innocent IV.

Translation of Oljeitu's message by Buscarello de Ghizolfi, on the back of the letter (visible here).

The Polish scholar, Cyrill Koralevsky, shot a photo of the seal in 1920. The prominent French Mongolist, P. Pelliot, translated the Mongolian scripts on the seal later. However, the Mongolists believe that Kozma made only one of the imperial seals and a seal on the letter is Genghis Khan's, which was inherited by his successors.[1]

During the Yuan dynasty, which ruled the whole of China, there were several seals. Ayushridar had an imperial seal with the script "Great Yuan".[citation needed] In the 16th century, the Mongols used a square-shaped seal. Ejei Khan gave one of those seals to the Manchus in 1635, who in turn established the Qing dynasty.

Imperial seal of Bogd Khan in 1911. From left to right: in Soyombo, Classical Mongolian and Phags-pa

Bogd Jivzundamba, ruler of the Bogd Khaganate had a tamgha (seal) with the inscription "Holiness - Bogd Khaan who holds religion and authority" in the 20th century.