Manuel de Falla
Manuel de Falla y Matheu was a Spanish composer. Along with Isaac Albéniz, Francisco Tárrega, Enrique Granados, he was one of Spain's most important musicians of the first half of the 20th century, his image appeared on Spain's 1970 100-pesetas banknote. Falla was born Manuel María de los Dolores Falla y Matheu in Cádiz, he was the son of José María Falla, a Valencian, María Jesús Matheu, from Catalonia. In 1889 he continued his piano lessons with Alejandro Odero and learned the techniques of harmony and counterpoint from Enrique Broca. At age 15 he became interested in literature and journalism and founded the literary magazines El Burlón and El Cascabel. By 1900 he was living with his family in the capital, where he attended the Real Conservatorio de Música y Declamación, he studied piano with José Tragó, a colleague of Isaac Albéniz, composition with Felipe Pedrell. In 1897 he composed Melodía for cello and piano and dedicated it to Salvador Viniegra, who hosted evenings of chamber music that Falla attended.
In 1899, by unanimous vote, he was awarded the first prize at the piano competition at his school of music. He premiered his first works: Romanza para violonchelo y piano, Nocturno para piano, Melodía para violonchelo y piano, Serenata andaluza para violín y piano, Cuarteto en Sol y Mireya; that same year he started to use de with his first surname, making Manuel de Falla the name he became known as from that time on. When only the surname is used, the de is omitted. In 1900 he composed his Canción para piano and various other vocal and piano pieces, he premiered his Serenata andaluza y Vals-Capricho para piano in the Ateneo de Madrid. Due to the precarious financial position of his family, he began to teach piano classes, it was from Pedrell, during the Madrid period, that Falla became interested in native Andalusian music Andalusian flamenco, the influence of which can be felt in many of his works. Among his early pieces are a number of zarzuelas like La Juana y la Petra and La casa de tócame Roque.
On 12 April 1902 he premiered. The same year he met the composer Joaquín Turina and saw his Vals-Capricho y Serenata andaluza published by the Society of Authors; the following year he composed and performed Allegro de concierto for the Madrid Royal Conservatory competition. Enrique Granados took first prize with his composition of the same title, but the Society of Authors published Falla's works Tus ojillos negros and Nocturno. Falla began his collaboration with composer Amadeo Vives on the zarzuelas Prisionero de guerra, El cornetín de órdenes and La cruz de Malta, his first important work was the one-act opera La vida breve. With a libretto by Carlos Fernández Shaw, La vida breve won Falla first prize in the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando musical competition, with a prize of 2500 pesetas and a promise of a production at the Teatro Royal in Madrid—a pledge, not fulfilled. In April 1905 he won the first prize in a piano competition sponsored by the firm of Ortiz and Cussó. On 15 May his work Allegro de concierto premiered in the Ateneo de Madrid and on 13 November the Real Academia presented him with his prize for La vida breve.
Falla moved to Paris in 1907. There he met a number of composers who had an influence on his style, including the impressionists Maurice Ravel, Claude Debussy and Paul Dukas, as well as Igor Stravinsky, Florent Schmitt, Isaac Albéniz, the impresario Sergei Diaghilev. In 1908 King Alfonso XIII awarded him a royal grant that enabled him to remain in Paris while he finished his Cuatro piezas españolas. In 1910 Falla met Stravinsky and in 1911–12 traveled to London and Milan, to give concerts and investigate possible venues for La vida breve, which he had composed shortly after his arrival in Paris in 1907 but which, despite the support of Dukas and Falla's own best efforts, was not performed until 1 April 1913 at the Municipal Casino in Nice, with the libretto translated into French by the dramatist Paul Milliet. A second production was given the following year at the Opéra-Comique, to acclaim from critics such as Pierre Lalo and André Coeuroy, he wrote Siete canciones populares españolas, which he finished in mid-1914.
Shortly after, World War I began. While at no stage was he a prolific composer, it was that he entered into his mature creative period. In Madrid he composed several of his best-known pieces, including: The nocturne for piano and orchestra Noches en los jardines de España The ballet El amor brujo which includes the much excerpted and arranged Danza ritual del fuego The ballet The Magistrate and the Miller's Wife which, after revision, became El sombrero de tres picos and was produced by Serge Diaghilev with set design and costumes by Pablo Picasso, it derives from a novel written by Pedro Antonio de Alarcón. From 1921 to 1939 Manuel de Falla lived in Granada, where he organized the Concurso de Cante Jondo in 1922. In Granada he wrote the puppet opera El retablo de maese Pedro and a concerto for harpsichord and chamber ensemble; the puppet opera marked. Both of these works were written with Wanda Landowska in mind. In these works, the Spanish folk influen
Baroque music is a period or style of Western art music composed from 1600 to 1750. This era followed the Renaissance music era, was followed in turn by the Classical era. Baroque music forms a major portion of the "classical music" canon, is now studied and listened to. Key composers of the Baroque era include Johann Sebastian Bach, Antonio Vivaldi, George Frideric Handel, Claudio Monteverdi, Domenico Scarlatti, Alessandro Scarlatti, Henry Purcell, Georg Philipp Telemann, Jean-Baptiste Lully, Jean-Philippe Rameau, Marc-Antoine Charpentier, Arcangelo Corelli, Tomaso Albinoni, François Couperin, Giuseppe Tartini, Heinrich Schütz, Giovanni Battista Pergolesi, Dieterich Buxtehude, Johann Pachelbel; the Baroque period saw the creation of common-practice tonality, an approach to writing music in which a song or piece is written in a particular key. During the Baroque era, professional musicians were expected to be accomplished improvisers of both solo melodic lines and accompaniment parts. Baroque concerts were accompanied by a basso continuo group while a group of bass instruments—viol, double bass—played the bassline.
A characteristic Baroque form was the dance suite. While the pieces in a dance suite were inspired by actual dance music, dance suites were designed purely for listening, not for accompanying dancers. During the period and performers used more elaborate musical ornamentation, made changes in musical notation, developed new instrumental playing techniques. Baroque music expanded the size and complexity of instrumental performance, established the mixed vocal/instrumental forms of opera and oratorio and the instrumental forms of the solo concerto and sonata as musical genres. Many musical terms and concepts from this era, such as toccata and concerto grosso are still in use in the 2010s. Dense, complex polyphonic music, in which multiple independent melody lines were performed was an important part of many Baroque choral and instrumental works; the term "baroque" comes from the Portuguese word barroco, meaning "misshapen pearl". Negative connotations of the term first occurred in 1734, in a criticism of an opera by Jean-Philippe Rameau, in a description by Charles de Brosses of the ornate and ornamented architecture of the Pamphili Palace in Rome.
Although the term continued to be applied to architecture and art criticism through the 19th century, it was not until the 20th century that the term "baroque" was adopted from Heinrich Wölfflin's art-history vocabulary to designate a historical period in music. The term "baroque" is used by music historians to describe a broad range of styles from a wide geographic region in Europe, composed over a period of 150 years. Although it was long thought that the word as a critical term was first applied to architecture, in fact it appears earlier in reference to music, in an anonymous, satirical review of the première in October 1733 of Rameau's Hippolyte et Aricie, printed in the Mercure de France in May 1734; the critic implied that the novelty in this opera was "du barocque", complaining that the music lacked coherent melody, was filled with unremitting dissonances changed key and meter, speedily ran through every compositional device. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, a musician and composer as well as philosopher, wrote in 1768 in the Encyclopédie: "Baroque music is that in which the harmony is confused, loaded with modulations and dissonances.
The singing is harsh and unnatural, the intonation difficult, the movement limited. It appears that term comes from the word'baroco' used by logicians." Rousseau was referring to the philosophical term baroco, in use since the 13th century to describe a type of elaborate and, for some, unnecessarily complicated academic argument. The systematic application by historians of the term "baroque" to music of this period is a recent development. In 1919, Curt Sachs became the first to apply the five characteristics of Heinrich Wölfflin's theory of the Baroque systematically to music. Critics were quick to question the attempt to transpose Wölfflin's categories to music, in the second quarter of the 20th century independent attempts were made by Manfred Bukofzer and by Suzanne Clercx-Lejeune to use autonomous, technical analysis rather than comparative abstractions, in order to avoid the adaptation of theories based on the plastic arts and literature to music. All of these efforts resulted in appreciable disagreement about time boundaries of the period concerning when it began.
In English the term acquired currency only in the 1940s, in the writings of Bukofzer and Paul Henry Lang. As late as 1960, there was still considerable dispute in academic circles in France and Britain, whether it was meaningful to lump together music as diverse as that of Jacopo Peri, Domenico Scarlatti, Johann Sebastian Bach under a single rubric; the term has become used and accepted for this broad range of music. It may be helpful to distinguish the Baroque from both the preceding and following periods of musical history; the Baroque perio
Charles Tomlinson Griffes
Charles Tomlinson Griffes was an American composer for piano, chamber ensembles and voice. Griffes was born in New York. After early studies on piano and organ in his home town, he went to Berlin to study with pianist Ernst Jedliczka at the Stern Conservatory. While there, Griffes enjoyed a brief but influential mentorship by composer Engelbert Humperdinck. On returning to the U. S. in 1907, he became director of music studies at the Hackley School for boys in Tarrytown, New York, a post which he held until his early death thirteen years later. Griffes is the most famous American representative of musical Impressionism, he was fascinated by the exotic, mysterious sound of the French Impressionists, was compositionally much influenced by them while he was in Europe. He studied the work of contemporary Russian composers, whose influence is apparent in his work, for example in his use of synthetic scales, his most famous works are the White Peacock, for piano. He wrote numerous programmatic pieces for piano, chamber ensembles, for voice.
The amount and quality of his music is impressive considering his short life and his full-time teaching job, much of his music is still performed. His unpublished Sho-jo, a one-act pantomimic drama based on Japanese themes, is one of the earliest works by an American composer to show direct inspiration from the music of Japan. Griffes died of influenza in New York City during the worldwide pandemic at the age of 35 and is buried in Bloomfield Cemetery in Bloomfield, New Jersey, his papers passed to his younger sister Marguerite, who chose to destroy many that explicitly related to his life as a homosexual. Donna Anderson is his current literary executor. Griffes kept meticulous diaries, some in German, which chronicled his musical accomplishments from 1907 to 1919, dealt with his homosexuality, including his regular patronage of the Lafayette Place Baths and the Produce Exchange Baths. Charles Tomlinson Griffes was drawn into the gay world by the baths not just because he had sex there, but because he met men there who helped him find apartments and otherwise make his way through the city, who appreciated his music, who gave him new insights into his character, who became his good friends.
The gay world became a central part of his everyday world though he kept it hidden from his nongay associates. During his time as a student in Berlin he was devoted to his "special friend" Emil Joèl. In life, he had a long term relationship with John Meyer, a married New York policeman; the Kairn of Koridwen, fl, 2 cl, 2 hn, hp, cel, pf, 1916, New York, 10 Feb 1917. P. Monteux, Boston, 28 November 1919 Notturno für Orchester,?1918, Philadelphia Orch. cond. L. Stokowski, Philadelphia, 19 December 1919. Poem and orchestra, 1918, G. Barrère, New York Symphony Orch. cond. W. Damrosch, 16 November 1919 Bacchanale,?1919, Philadelphia Orch. cond. Stokowski, Philadelphia, 19 December 1919 Clouds,?1919, Philadelphia Orch. cond. Stokowski, Philadelphia, 19 December 1919 The White Peacock,?1919, Philadelphia Orch. cond. Stokowski, Philadelphia, 19 Dec 1919 Nocturne, 1919 Notturno, strings Three Tone-Pictures and harp, 1915, nos. 1–2 Barrère Ensemble, New York, 19 Dec 1916. Chin. Drum,?1917 Two Sketches based on Indian Themes: Lento e mesto, Allegro giocoso, str quartet, 1918–19.
1919 Fantasy Pieces, Op. 6: Barcarolle, 1912, Lowell, MA, 3 Nov 1914.
Classical period (music)
The Classical period was an era of classical music between 1730 and 1820. The Classical period falls between the Romantic periods. Classical music is less complex, it is homophonic, using a clear melody line over a subordinate chordal accompaniment, but counterpoint was by no means forgotten later in the period. It makes use of style galant which emphasized light elegance in place of the Baroque's dignified seriousness and impressive grandeur. Variety and contrast within a piece became more pronounced than before and the orchestra increased in size and power; the harpsichord was replaced as the main keyboard instrument by the piano. Unlike the harpsichord, which plucked strings with quills, pianos strike the strings with leather-covered hammers when the keys are pressed, which enables the performer to play louder or softer and play with more expression. Instrumental music was considered important by Classical period composers; the main kinds of instrumental music were the sonata, string quartet and the solo concerto, which featured a virtuoso solo performer playing a solo work for violin, flute, or another instrument, accompanied by an orchestra.
Vocal music, such as songs for a singer and piano, choral works, opera were important during this period. The best-known composers from this period are Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven, Franz Schubert. Ludwig van Beethoven is regarded either as a Romantic composer or a Classical period composer, part of the transition to the Romantic era. Franz Schubert is a transitional figure, as were Johann Nepomuk Hummel, Luigi Cherubini, Gaspare Spontini, Gioachino Rossini, Carl Maria von Weber; the period is sometimes referred to as the era of Viennese Classic or Classicism, since Gluck, Haydn, Salieri and Beethoven all worked in Vienna. In the middle of the 18th century, Europe began to move toward a new style in architecture and the arts known as Classicism; this style sought to emulate the ideals of Classical antiquity those of Classical Greece. Classical music used formality and emphasis on order and hierarchy, a "clearer", "cleaner" style that used clearer divisions between parts, brighter contrasts and "tone colors".
In contrast with the richly layered music of the Baroque era, Classical music moved towards simplicity rather than complexity. In addition, the typical size of orchestras began to increase, giving orchestras a more powerful sound; the remarkable development of ideas in "natural philosophy" had established itself in the public consciousness. In particular, Newton's physics was taken as a paradigm: structures should be well-founded in axioms and be both well-articulated and orderly; this taste for structural clarity began to affect music, which moved away from the layered polyphony of the Baroque period toward a style known as homophony, in which the melody is played over a subordinate harmony. This move meant that chords became a much more prevalent feature of music if they interrupted the melodic smoothness of a single part; as a result, the tonal structure of a piece of music became more audible. The new style was encouraged by changes in the economic order and social structure; as the 18th century progressed, the nobility became the primary patrons of instrumental music, while public taste preferred lighter, funny comic operas.
This led to changes in the way music was performed, the most crucial of, the move to standard instrumental groups and the reduction in the importance of the continuo—the rhythmic and harmonic groundwork of a piece of music played by a keyboard and accompanied by a varied group of bass instruments, including cello, double bass, bass viol, theorbo. One way to trace the decline of the continuo and its figured chords is to examine the disappearance of the term obbligato, meaning a mandatory instrumental part in a work of chamber music. In Baroque compositions, additional instruments could be added to the continuo group according to the group or leader's preference. By 1800, basso continuo was extinct, except for the occasional use of a pipe organ continuo part in a religious Mass in the early 1800s. Economic changes had the effect of altering the balance of availability and quality of musicians. While in the late Baroque, a major composer would have the entire musical resources of a town to draw on, the musical forces available at an aristocratic hunting lodge or small court were smaller and more fixed in their level of ability.
This was a spur to having simpler parts for ensemble musicians to play, in the case of a resident virtuoso group, a spur to writing spectacular, idiomatic parts for certain instruments, as in the case of the Mannheim orchestra, or virtuoso solo parts for skilled violinists or flautists. In addition, the appetite by audiences for a continual supply of new music carried over from the Baroque; this meant that works had to be performable with, at best, one or two r
The Swan of Tuonela
The Swan of Tuonela is an 1895 tone poem by the Finnish composer Jean Sibelius. It is part of Op. 22, based on the Finnish mythological epic the Kalevala. The tone poem is scored for a small orchestra of cor anglais, bass clarinet, two bassoons, four horns, three trombones, bass drum and divided strings; the cor anglais is the voice of the swan, its solo is one of the best known cor anglais solos in the orchestral literature. The music paints a gossamer, transcendental image of a mystical swan floating through Tuonela, the realm of the dead. Lemminkäinen, the hero of the epic, has been tasked with killing the sacred swan. In the next part of the story he is restored to life; the Swan of Tuonela was composed in 1893 as the prelude to a projected opera called The Building of the Boat. Sibelius revised it two years making it the second section of his Lemminkäinen Suite of four tone poems, premiered in 1896, he twice further revised the piece, in 1897 and 1900. Sibelius left posterity no personal account of his writing of the tone poem, its original manuscript no longer exists.
The work was first published by K. F. Wasenius in Helsingfors, Finland, in April 1901; the German firm Breitkopf & Härtel published it in Leipzig in 1901. The Swan of Tuonela, Op.22 No.2: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
Frederick Theodore Albert Delius, CH Fritz Delius, was an English composer. Born in the north of England to a prosperous mercantile family, he resisted attempts to recruit him to commerce, he was sent to Florida in the United States in 1884 to manage an orange plantation. He soon in 1886 returned to Europe. Having been influenced by African-American music during his short stay in Florida, he began composing. After a brief period of formal musical study in Germany beginning in 1886, he embarked on a full-time career as a composer in Paris and in nearby Grez-sur-Loing, where he and his wife Jelka lived for the rest of their lives, except during the First World War. Delius's first successes came in Germany, where Hans Haym and other conductors promoted his music from the late 1890s. In Delius's native Britain, his music did not make regular appearances in concert programmes until 1907, after Thomas Beecham took it up. Beecham conducted the full premiere of A Mass of Life in London in 1909. After 1918, Delius began to suffer the effects of syphilis, contracted during his earlier years in Paris.
He became paralysed and blind, but completed some late compositions between 1928 and 1932 with the aid of an amanuensis, Eric Fenby. The lyricism in Delius's early compositions reflected the music he had heard in America and the influences of European composers such as Edvard Grieg and Richard Wagner; as his skills matured, he developed a style uniquely his own, characterised by his individual orchestration and his uses of chromatic harmony. Delius's music has been only intermittently popular, subject to critical attacks; the Delius Society, formed in 1962 by his more dedicated followers, continues to promote knowledge of the composer's life and works, sponsors the annual Delius Prize competition for young musicians. Delius was born in Bradford in Yorkshire, he was baptised as "Fritz Theodor Albert Delius", used the forename Fritz until he was about 40. He was the second of four sons born to his wife Elise Pauline, née Krönig. Delius's parents were born in Westphalia, of Dutch origin. Julius's father, Ernst Friedrich Delius, had served under Blücher in the Napoleonic Wars.
Julius moved to England to further his career as a wool merchant, became a naturalised British subject in 1850. He married Elise in 1856; the Delius household was musical. Despite his German parentage, the young Fritz was drawn to the music of Chopin and Grieg rather than the Austro-German music of Mozart and Beethoven, a preference that endured all his life; the young Delius was first taught the violin by a Mr. Rudolph Bauerkeller of the Hallé Orchestra, had more advanced studies under Mr. George Haddock of Leeds. Although he achieved enough skill as a violinist to set up as a violin teacher in years, his chief musical joy was to improvise at the piano, it was a piano piece, a waltz by Chopin, that gave him his first ecstatic encounter with music. From 1874 to 1878, Delius was educated at Bradford Grammar School, where the singer John Coates was his older contemporary, he attended the International College at Isleworth between 1878 and 1880. As a pupil he was neither quick nor diligent, but the college was conveniently close to the city for Delius to be able to attend concerts and opera.
Julius Delius assumed that his son would play a part in the family wool business, for the next three years he tried hard to persuade him to do so. Delius's first job was as the firm's representative in Stroud in Gloucestershire, where he did moderately well. After being sent in a similar capacity to Chemnitz, he neglected his duties in favour of trips to the major musical centres of Germany, musical studies with Hans Sitt, his father sent him to Sweden, where he again put his artistic interests ahead of commerce, coming under the influence of the Norwegian dramatists Henrik Ibsen and Gunnar Heiberg. Ibsen's denunciations of social conventions further alienated Delius from his commercial background. Delius was sent to represent the firm in France, but he absented himself from business for excursions to the French Riviera. After this, Julius Delius recognised that there was no prospect that his son would succeed in the family business, but he remained opposed to music as a profession, instead sent him to America to manage an orange plantation.
Whether the move to America was Julius's idea or his son's is unknown. A leading Florida property firm had branches in several English cities including Bradford. Delius was in Florida from the spring of 1884 to the autumn of 1885, living on a plantation at Solano Grove between Picolata and Tocoi on the Saint Johns River, about 35 miles south of Jacksonville, he continued to be engrossed in music, in Jacksonville he met Thomas Ward, who became his teacher in counterpoint and composition. Delius said that Ward's teaching was the only useful mus
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical and secular music. While a more precise term is used to refer to the period from 1750 to 1820, this article is about the broad span of time from before the 6th century AD to the present day, which includes the Classical period and various other periods; the central norms of this tradition became codified between 1550 and 1900, known as the common-practice period. The major time divisions of Western art music are as follows: the ancient music period, before 500 AD the early music period, which includes the Medieval including the ars antiqua the ars nova the ars subtilior the Renaissance eras. Baroque the galant music period the common-practice period, which includes Baroque the galant music period Classical Romantic eras the 20th and 21st centuries which includes: the modern that overlaps from the late-19th century, impressionism that overlaps from the late-19th century neoclassicism, predominantly in the inter-war period the high modern the postmodern eras the experimental contemporary European art music is distinguished from many other non-European classical and some popular musical forms by its system of staff notation, in use since about the 11th century.
Catholic monks developed the first forms of modern European musical notation in order to standardize liturgy throughout the worldwide Church. Western staff notation is used by composers to indicate to the performer the pitches, tempo and rhythms for a piece of music; this can leave less room for practices such as improvisation and ad libitum ornamentation, which are heard in non-European art music and in popular-music styles such as jazz and blues. Another difference is that whereas most popular styles adopt the song form or a derivation of this form, classical music has been noted for its development of sophisticated forms of instrumental music such as the symphony, fugue and mixed vocal and instrumental styles such as opera and mass; the term "classical music" did not appear until the early 19th century, in an attempt to distinctly canonize the period from Johann Sebastian Bach to Ludwig van Beethoven as a golden age. The earliest reference to "classical music" recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary is from about 1829.
Given the wide range of styles in European classical music, from Medieval plainchant sung by monks to Classical and Romantic symphonies for orchestra from the 1700s and 1800s to avant-garde atonal compositions for solo piano from the 1900s, it is difficult to list characteristics that can be attributed to all works of that type. However, there are characteristics that classical music contains that few or no other genres of music contain, such as the use of music notation and the performance of complex forms of solo instrumental works. Furthermore, while the symphony did not exist prior to the late 18th century, the symphony ensemble—and the works written for it—have become a defining feature of classical music; the key characteristic of European classical music that distinguishes it from popular music and folk music is that the repertoire tends to be written down in musical notation, creating a musical part or score. This score determines details of rhythm, and, where two or more musicians are involved, how the various parts are coordinated.
The written quality of the music has enabled a high level of complexity within them: fugues, for instance, achieve a remarkable marriage of boldly distinctive melodic lines weaving in counterpoint yet creating a coherent harmonic logic that would be difficult to achieve in the heat of live improvisation. The use of written notation preserves a record of the works and enables Classical musicians to perform music from many centuries ago. Musical notation enables 2000s-era performers to sing a choral work from the 1300s Renaissance era or a 1700s Baroque concerto with many of the features of the music being reproduced; that said, the score does allow the interpreter to make choices on. For example, if the tempo is written with an Italian instruction, it is not known how fast the piece should be played; as well, in the Baroque era, many works that were designed for basso continuo accompaniment do not specify which instruments should play the accompaniment or how the chordal instrument should play the chords, which are not notated in the part.
The performer and the conductor have a range of options for musical expression and interpretation of a scored piece, including the phrasing of melodies, the time taken during fermatas or pauses, the use of effects such as vibrato or glissando. Although Classical music in the 2000s has lost most of its tradition for musical improvisation, from the Baroque era to the Romantic era, there are examples of performers who could improvise in the style of their era. In the Baroque era, organ performers would improvise preludes, keyboard performers playing harpsichord would improvise chords from the figured bass symbols beneath the bass notes of the basso continuo part and b