Psychology is the science of behavior and mind. Psychology includes the study of conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought, it is an academic discipline of immense scope. Psychologists seek an understanding of the emergent properties of brains, all the variety of phenomena linked to those emergent properties; as a social science it aims to understand individuals and groups by establishing general principles and researching specific cases. In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social, behavioral, or cognitive scientist. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior, while exploring the physiological and biological processes that underlie cognitive functions and behaviors. Psychologists explore behavior and mental processes, including perception, attention, intelligence, motivation, brain functioning, personality; this extends to interaction between people, such as interpersonal relationships, including psychological resilience, family resilience, other areas.
Psychologists of diverse orientations consider the unconscious mind. Psychologists employ empirical methods to infer causal and correlational relationships between psychosocial variables. In addition, or in opposition, to employing empirical and deductive methods, some—especially clinical and counseling psychologists—at times rely upon symbolic interpretation and other inductive techniques. Psychology has been described as a "hub science" in that medicine tends to draw psychological research via neurology and psychiatry, whereas social sciences most draws directly from sub-disciplines within psychology. While psychological knowledge is applied to the assessment and treatment of mental health problems, it is directed towards understanding and solving problems in several spheres of human activity. By many accounts psychology aims to benefit society; the majority of psychologists are involved in some kind of therapeutic role, practicing in clinical, counseling, or school settings. Many do scientific research on a wide range of topics related to mental processes and behavior, work in university psychology departments or teach in other academic settings.
Some are employed in industrial and organizational settings, or in other areas such as human development and aging, sports and the media, as well as in forensic investigation and other aspects of law. The word psychology derives from Greek roots meaning study of soul; the Latin word psychologia was first used by the Croatian humanist and Latinist Marko Marulić in his book, Psichiologia de ratione animae humanae in the late 15th century or early 16th century. The earliest known reference to the word psychology in English was by Steven Blankaart in 1694 in The Physical Dictionary which refers to "Anatomy, which treats the Body, Psychology, which treats of the Soul."In 1890, William James defined psychology as "the science of mental life, both of its phenomena and their conditions". This definition enjoyed widespread currency for decades. However, this meaning was contested, notably by radical behaviorists such as John B. Watson, who in his 1913 manifesto defined the discipline of psychology as the acquisition of information useful to the control of behavior.
Since James defined it, the term more connotes techniques of scientific experimentation. Folk psychology refers to the understanding of ordinary people, as contrasted with that of psychology professionals; the ancient civilizations of Egypt, China and Persia all engaged in the philosophical study of psychology. In Ancient Egypt the Ebers Papyrus mentioned thought disorders. Historians note that Greek philosophers, including Thales and Aristotle, addressed the workings of the mind; as early as the 4th century BC, Greek physician Hippocrates theorized that mental disorders had physical rather than supernatural causes. In China, psychological understanding grew from the philosophical works of Laozi and Confucius, from the doctrines of Buddhism; this body of knowledge involves insights drawn from introspection and observation, as well as techniques for focused thinking and acting. It frames the universe as a division of, interaction between, physical reality and mental reality, with an emphasis on purifying the mind in order to increase virtue and power.
An ancient text known as The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine identifies the brain as the nexus of wisdom and sensation, includes theories of personality based on yin–yang balance, analyzes mental disorder in terms of physiological and social disequilibria. Chinese scholarship focused on the brain advanced in the Qing Dynasty with the work of Western-educated Fang Yizhi, Liu Zhi, Wang Qingren. Wang Qingren emphasized the importance of the brain as the center of the nervous system, linked mental disorder with brain diseases, investigated the causes of dreams and insomnia, advanced a theory of hemispheric lateralization in brain function. Distinctions in types of awareness appear in the ancient thought of India, influenced by Hinduism. A central idea of the Upanishads is the distinction between a person's transient mundane self and their eternal unchanging soul. Divergent Hindu doctrines, Buddhism, have challenged this hierarchy of selves, but have all emphasized the importance of reaching higher
Ethology is the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour with a focus on behaviour under natural conditions, viewing behaviour as an evolutionarily adaptive trait. Behaviourism is a term that describes the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour referring to measured responses to stimuli or trained behavioural responses in a laboratory context, without a particular emphasis on evolutionary adaptivity. Many naturalists have studied aspects of animal behaviour throughout history. Ethology has its scientific roots in the work of Charles Darwin and of American and German ornithologists of the late 19th and early 20th century, including Charles O. Whitman, Oskar Heinroth, Wallace Craig; the modern discipline of ethology is considered to have begun during the 1930s with the work of Dutch biologist Nikolaas Tinbergen and by Austrian biologists Konrad Lorenz and Karl von Frisch, joint awardees of the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Ethology is a combination of laboratory and field science, with a strong relation to some other disciplines such as neuroanatomy and evolutionary biology.
Ethologists are interested in a behavioural process rather than in a particular animal group, study one type of behaviour, such as aggression, in a number of unrelated animals. Ethology is a growing field. Since the dawn of the 21st century, many aspects of animal communication, culture and sexuality that the scientific community long thought it understood have been re-examined, new conclusions reached. New fields, such as neuroethology, have developed. Understanding ethology or animal behaviour can be important in animal training. Considering the natural behaviours of different species or breeds enables the trainer to select the individuals best suited to perform the required task, it enables the trainer to encourage the performance of occurring behaviours and the discontinuance of undesirable behaviours. The term ethology derives from the Greek language: ἦθος, ethos meaning "character" and -λογία, -logia meaning "the study of"; the term was first popularized by American myrmecologist William Morton Wheeler in 1902.
Because ethology is considered a topic of biology, ethologists have been concerned with the evolution of behaviour and its understanding in terms of natural selection. In one sense, the first modern ethologist was Charles Darwin, whose 1872 book The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals influenced many ethologists, he pursued his interest in behaviour by encouraging his protégé George Romanes, who investigated animal learning and intelligence using an anthropomorphic method, anecdotal cognitivism, that did not gain scientific support. Other early ethologists, such as Charles O. Whitman, Oskar Heinroth, Wallace Craig and Julian Huxley, instead concentrated on behaviours that can be called instinctive, or natural, in that they occur in all members of a species under specified circumstances, their beginning for studying the behaviour of a new species was to construct an ethogram. This provided an objective, cumulative database of behaviour, which subsequent researchers could check and supplement.
Due to the work of Konrad Lorenz and Niko Tinbergen, ethology developed in continental Europe during the years prior to World War II. After the war, Tinbergen moved to the University of Oxford, ethology became stronger in the UK, with the additional influence of William Thorpe, Robert Hinde, Patrick Bateson at the Sub-department of Animal Behaviour of the University of Cambridge. In this period, ethology began to develop in North America. Lorenz and von Frisch were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1973 for their work of developing ethology. Ethology is now a well-recognized scientific discipline, has a number of journals covering developments in the subject, such as Animal Behaviour, Animal Welfare, Applied Animal Behaviour Science, Animal Cognition, Behavioral Ecology and Journal of Ethology. In 1972, the International Society for Human Ethology was founded to promote exchange of knowledge and opinions concerning human behaviour gained by applying ethological principles and methods and published their journal, The Human Ethology Bulletin.
In 2008, in a paper published in the journal Behaviour, ethologist Peter Verbeek introduced the term "Peace Ethology" as a sub-discipline of Human Ethology, concerned with issues of human conflict, conflict resolution, war and peacekeeping behaviour. In 1972, the English ethologist John H. Crook distinguished comparative ethology from social ethology, argued that much of the ethology that had existed so far was comparative ethology—examining animals as individuals—whereas, in the future, ethologists would need to concentrate on the behaviour of social groups of animals and the social structure within them. In 1970, Robert Ardrey's book The Social Contract: A Personal Inquiry into the Evolutionary Sources of Order and Disorder was published; the book and study investigated animal behaviour and compared human behaviour to it as a similar phenomenon. E. O. Wilson's book Sociobiology: The New Synthesis appeared in 1975, since that time, the study of behaviour has been much more concerned with social aspects.
It has been driven by the stronger, but more sophisticated, Darwinism associated with Wilson, Robert Trivers, W. D. Hamilton; the related development of behavioural ecology has helped transform ethology. Furthermore, a substantial rapprochement with comparative psychology has occurred, so the modern scientific study of behaviour offers a mor
The Siberian crane known as the Siberian white crane or the snow crane, is a bird of the family Gruidae, the cranes. They are distinctive among the cranes, adults are nearly all snowy white, except for their black primary feathers that are visible in flight and with two breeding populations in the Arctic tundra of western and eastern Russia; the eastern populations migrate during winter to China while the western population winters in Iran and in India and Nepal. Among the cranes, they make the longest distance migrations, their populations those in the western range, have declined drastically in the 20th century due to hunting along their migration routes and habitat degradation. The world population was estimated in 2010 at about 3,200 birds belonging to the eastern population with about 95% of them wintering in the Poyang Lake basin in China, a habitat that may be altered by the Three Gorges Dam. In western Siberia there are only around ten of these cranes in the wild; the Siberian crane was formally described by Peter Simon Pallas in 1773 and given the binomial name Grus leucogeranus.
The specific epithet is derived from the classical Greek words leukos for "white" and geranos for a "crane". Ustad Mansur, a 17th-century court artist and singer of Jahangir, had illustrated a Siberian crane about 100 years earlier; the genus Megalornis was used for the cranes by George Robert Gray and this species was included in it, while Richard Bowdler Sharpe suggested a separation from Grus and used the genus Sarcogeranus. The Siberian crane lacks the complex tracheal coils found in most other cranes but shares this feature with the wattled crane; the unison call differed from that of most cranes and some authors suggested that the Siberian crane belonged in the genus Bugeranus along with the wattled crane. Comparisons of the DNA sequences of cytochrome-b however suggest that the Siberian crane is basal among the Gruinae and the wattled crane is retained as the sole species in the genus Bugeranus and placed as a sister to the Anthropoides cranes. A molecular phylogenetic study published in 2010 found that the genus Grus, as defined, was polyphyletic.
In the resulting rearrangement to create monophyletic genera, the Siberian crane was moved to the resurrected genus Leucogeranus. The genus Leucogeranus had been introduced by the French biologist Charles Lucien Bonaparte in 1855. Adults of both genders have a pure white plumage except for the black primaries and primary coverts; the fore-crown and side of head is bare and brick red, the bill is dark and the legs are pinkish. The iris is yellowish. Juveniles are feathered on the face and the plumage is dingy brown. There are no elongated tertial feathers as in some other crane species. During breeding season, both the male and female cranes are seen with mud streaking their feathers, they smear it on their feathers. The call is different from the trumpeting of most cranes and is a goose-like high pitched whistling toyoya, they weigh 4.9–8.6 kg and stand about 140 cm tall. The wingspan is 210–230 cm and length is 115–127 cm. Males are on average larger than females. There is a single record of an outsized male of this species weighing 15 kg.
The breeding area of the Siberian crane extended between the Urals and Ob river south to the Ishim and Tobol rivers and east to the Kolyma region. The populations declined with changes in landuse, the draining of wetlands for agricultural expansion and hunting on their migration routes; the breeding areas in modern times are restricted to two disjunct regions. The western area in the river basins of the Ob, Konda and Sossva and to the east a much larger population in Yakutia between the Yana and the Alazeya rivers. Like most cranes, the Siberian crane inhabits shallow marshlands and wetlands and will forage in deeper water than other cranes, they show high site fidelity for both their wintering and breeding areas, making use of the same sites year after year. The western population winters in Iran and some individuals wintered in India south to Nagpur and east to Bihar; the eastern populations winter in the Poyang Lake area in China. Siberian cranes are dispersed in their breeding areas and are territorial.
They maintain feeding territories in winter but may form small and loose flocks, gather closer at their winter roosts. They are diurnal, feeding all throughout the day; when feeding on submerged vegetation, they immerse their heads underwater. When calling, the birds stretch their neck forward; the contexts of several calls have been identified and several of these vary with sex. Individual variation is slight and most calls have a dominant frequency of about 1.4 kHz. The unison calls, duets between paired males and female however are more distinctive with marked differences across pairs; the female produces a higher pitched call, the "loo" in the duetted "doodle-loo" call. Pairs will walk around other pairs to drive them away from their territory. In captivity, one individual was recorded to have lived for nearly 62 years while another lived for 83 years; these cranes feed on plants although they are omnivorous. In the summer grounds they feed on a range of plants including the roots of hellebore, seeds of Empetrum nigrum as well as small rodents and fish.
They were earlier thought to be predominantly fish eating on the basis of the serrated edge to their bill, but studies suggest that they take animal prey when the vegetation is covered by snow. They swallow pebbles and grit to aid in crushing food in their crop. In their wintering grounds in
A syringe is a simple reciprocating pump consisting of a plunger that fits within a cylindrical tube called a barrel. The plunger can be linearly pulled and pushed along the inside of the tube, allowing the syringe to take in and expel liquid or gas through a discharge orifice at the front end of the tube; the open end of the syringe may be fitted with a hypodermic needle, a nozzle or a tubing to help direct the flow into and out of the barrel. Syringes are used in clinical medicine to administer injections, infuse intravenous therapy into the bloodstream, apply compounds such as glue or lubricant, draw/measure liquids; the word "syringe" is derived from the Greek σύριγξ. Sectors in the syringe and needle market include disposable and safety syringes, injection pens, needleless injectors, insulin pumps, specialty needles. Hypodermic syringes are used with hypodermic needles to inject liquid or gases into body tissues, or to remove from the body. Injecting of air into a blood vessel is hazardous.
The barrel of a syringe is made of plastic or glass has graduated marks indicating the volume of fluid in the syringe, is nearly always transparent. Glass syringes may be sterilized in an autoclave. However, most modern medical syringes are plastic with a rubber piston, because this type seals much better between the piston and the barrel and because they are cheap enough to dispose of after being used only once, reducing the risk of spreading blood-borne diseases. Reuse of needles and syringes has caused spread of diseases HIV and hepatitis, among intravenous drug users. Syringes are commonly reused by diabetics, as they can go through several in a day with multiple daily insulin injections, which becomes an affordability issue for many. Though the syringe and needle are only used by a single person, this practice is still unsafe as it can introduce bacteria from the skin into the bloodstream and cause serious and sometimes lethal infections. In medical settings, single-use needles and syringes reduce the risk of cross-contamination.
Medical syringes are sometimes used without a needle for orally administering liquid medicines to young children or animals, or milk to small young animals, because the dose can be measured and it is easier to squirt the medicine into the subject's mouth instead of coaxing the subject to drink out of a measuring spoon. Syringes come with a number of designs for the area; the most well known of these is the Luer lock, which twists the two together. Bodies featuring a small, plain connection are known as slip tips and are useful for when the syringe is being connected to something not featuring a screw lock mechanism. Similar to this is the catheter tip, a slip tip but longer and tapered, making it good for pushing into things where there the plastic taper can form a tight seal; these can be used for rinsing out wounds or large abscesses in veterinary use. There is an eccentric tip, where the nozzle at the end of the syringe is not in the centre of the syringe but at the side; this causes the blade attached to the syringe to lie in line with the walls of the syringe itself and they are used when the blade needs to get close to parallel with the skin.
Syringes for insulin users are designed for standard U-100 insulin. The dilution of insulin is such. Since insulin vials are 10 mL, each vial has 1000 units. Insulin syringes are made for self injections and have friendly features: shorter needles, as insulin injections are subcutaneous rather than intramuscular, finer gauge needles, for less pain, markings in insulin units to simplify drawing a measured dose of insulin. Low dead space to reduce complications caused by improper drawing order of different insulin strengths. There are needle syringes designed to reload from a built-in tank after each injection, so they can make several or many injections on a filling; these are not used much in human medicine because of the risk of cross-infection via the needle. An exception is the personal insulin autoinjector used by diabetic patients. Venom extraction syringes are different from standard syringes, because they do not puncture the wound; the most common types have a plastic nozzle, placed over the affected area, the syringe piston is pulled back, creating a vacuum that sucks out the venom.
Attempts to treat snakebites in this way are advised against, as they are ineffective and can cause additional injury. Syringes of this type are sometimes used for extracting human botfly larvae from the skin. An oral syringe is a measuring instrument used to measure doses of liquid medicine which are expressed in millilitres, they do not have threaded tips, because other device needs to be screwed onto them. The contents are squirted or sucked from the syringe directly into the mouth of the person or animal. Oral syringes are available in various sizes, from 1 -- larger; the sizes most used are 1 mL, 2.5 mL and 5 mL. A dental syringe is a used by dentists for the injection of an anesthetic, it consists of a breech-loading syringe fitted with a sealed cartridge containing anesthetic solution. The ancillary to
The zebra finch is the most common estrildid finch of Central Australia and ranges over most of the continent, avoiding only the cool moist south and some areas of the tropical far north. It can be found natively in Indonesia and East Timor; the bird has been introduced to Puerto Portugal. The zebra finch was first collected in 1801 during Nicolas Baudin's expedition to Australia, it was described in 1817 by Louis Jean Pierre Vieillot in his Nouveau Dictionnaire d'Histoire Naturelle, where he gave it the scientific name Fringilla guttata. The Australian subspecies was described in 1837 by John Gould as Amadina castanotis, its current genus, was described in 1862 by Ludwig Reichenbach. It is placed in the tribe Poephilini, along with the genus Poephila, which it was included in. There are two subspecies of the zebra finch: Taeniopygia guttata guttata, the Timor zebra finch, extends from Lombok in the Lesser Sunda Islands or Nusa Tenggara in Indonesia to Sermata, in addition to coastal areas around the continent of Australia.
Taeniopygia guttata castanotis is found over the wide range of continental Australia. The zebra finch evolved in Australia, with either northern or southeastern Australia postulated as two places where the genus arose; the present-day distribution of the subspecies T. g. guttata is due to a Pleistocene glaciation event where the sea level dropped between about 100 and 150 metres, putting the coasts of Timor and Australia closer. This allowed birds swept out to sea by cyclones to see mountains near the west coast of Timor, which prompted them to make landfall on the island; the morphological differences between the subspecies include differences in size. T. g. guttata is smaller than T. g. castanotis. In addition, the T. g. guttata males do not have the fine barring found on the throat and upper breast and have smaller breast bands. The zebra finch has the most extensive mainland distribution of the Australian estrilids, being found in about 75% of mainland Australia, as the subspecies Taeniopygia guttata castanotis.
This subspecies is not found on the coasts, except for the arid western edge. As the subspecies T. g. guttata, it is distributed from the islands Lombok and Sumbawa in the Lesser Sundas east to Luang and Sermata, south to Sumba, Dao, Roti and Timor. The zebra finch is found in more arid areas; the areas it chooses to occupy are close to water, places where rain is concentrated after it falls. However, this is more related to the abundance of vegetation than the abundance of water as a resource in itself.. Within these areas, it is found in grasslands with scattered trees and shrubs, in open or grassy woodlands, it is found in cultivated areas, such as rice fields It stays confined to the low coastal areas of the islands it inhabits, but it can move to elevations up to 2,300 metres to exploit expanding cultivation and grasslands. Although zebra finch breeding, for example, is initiated by rainfall, Klaus Immelmann proposed that sustained heavy precipitation is detrimental to the zebra finch; this is supported by the observation that the nest does not shield the chicks or eggs from rain, rainfall can sometimes result in clutches being abandoned.
Furthermore, it is supported by Immelmann's finding that zebra finches left Wyndham after the first heavy rains in November 1959, but returned to breed in April. It is hypothesized that birds in parts of northern Australia migrate inland during the wet season from October to May, return to the coastal regions during the dryer months; the life expectancy of a zebra finch is variable because of genetic and environmental factors. The zebra finch may reach up to five years in its natural environment. If they are kept caged, they live for 5 to 9 years but may live as long as 12 years, with an exceptional case of 14.5 years reported for a caged specimen. The greatest threats to zebra finch survival are predation by cats and loss of natural food. Zebra finches are boisterous singers, their calls can be a loud beep, meep, oi! or a-ha!. Their song is a few small beeps; each male's song is different, although birds of the same bloodline will exhibit similarities, all finches will overlay their own uniqueness onto a common rhythmic framework.
Sons learn the song of their fathers with little variation. There is a critical sensitive period during which juvenile males learn their songs by imitating a mature, male tutor. Subsong evolve into'plastic song'; this plastic song is variable between renditions but begins to incorporate some recognizable elements of tutor songs. A study conducted by Nottebohm et al. has shown that birds were able to imitate their tutor’s song after short exposure over the duration of their sensitive learning period. These birds form a “template” of what their correct song should sound like, they rely on auditory feedback for both song learning and practice as juveniles and song maintenance as adults. Adult birds maintain their songs by correcting any deviations from their target song template. During adulthood, by around 90 days, the bird's song goes through a crystallization phase where their song template is stable and it no longer changes. Male zebra finches begin to sing at puberty; this is due to a developmental difference, where in
A kibbutz is a collective community in Israel, traditionally based on agriculture. The first kibbutz, established in 1909, was Degania. Today, farming has been supplanted by other economic branches, including industrial plants and high-tech enterprises. Kibbutzim began as a combination of socialism and Zionism. In recent decades, some kibbutzim have been privatized and changes have been made in the communal lifestyle. A member of a kibbutz is called a kibbutznik. In 2010, there were 270 kibbutzim in Israel, their factories and farms account for 9% of Israel's industrial output, worth US$8 billion, 40% of its agricultural output, worth over $1.7 billion. Some kibbutzim had developed substantial high-tech and military industries. For example, in 2010, Kibbutz Sasa, containing some 200 members, generated $850 million in annual revenue from its military-plastics industry; the kibbutzim are organised in the secular Kibbutz Movement with some 230 kibbutzim, the Religious Kibbutz Movement with 16 kibbutzim and the much smaller religious Poalei Agudat Yisrael with two kibbutzim, all part of the wider communal settlement movement.
The kibbutzim were founded by members of the Bilu movement. Like the members of the First Aliyah who came before them and established agricultural villages, most members of the Second Aliyah planned to become farmers; the first kibbutz was Degania Alef, founded in 1909. Joseph Baratz, one of the pioneers of the kibbutz movement, wrote a book about his experiences. We were happy enough working on the land, but we knew more and more that the ways of the old settlements were not for us; this was not the way we hoped to settle the country—this old way with Jews on top and Arabs working for them. There must be a better way. Though Baratz and others wanted to farm the land themselves, becoming independent farmers was not a realistic option in 1909; as Arthur Ruppin, a proponent of Jewish agricultural colonization of the Trans-Jordan would say, "The question was not whether group settlement was preferable to individual settlement. The Galilee was swampy, the Judaean Mountains rocky, the south of the country, the Negev, was a desert.
To make things more challenging, most of the settlers had no prior farming experience. The sanitary conditions were poor. Malaria and cholera were rampant. Bedouins settled areas. Sabotage of irrigation canals and burning of crops were common. Living collectively was the most logical way to be secure in an unwelcoming land. On top of safety considerations, establishing a farm was a capital-intensive project; the land had been purchased by the greater Jewish community. From around the world, Jews dropped coins into Jewish National Fund "Blue Boxes" for land purchases in Palestine. In 1909, nine other men, two women established themselves at the southern end of the Sea of Galilee near the Arab village of Umm Juni/Juniya; these teenagers had hitherto worked as day laborers converting wetlands for human development, as masons, or as hands at the older Jewish settlements. Their dream was now to work for themselves, they called their community "Kvutzat Degania", now Degania Alef. The founders of Degania endured backbreaking labor: "The body is crushed, the legs fail, the head hurts, the sun burns and weakens," wrote one of the pioneers.
At times, half of the kibbutz members could not report for many left. Despite the difficulties, by 1914, Degania had fifty members. Other kibbutzim were founded around the Sea of the nearby Jezreel Valley; the fall of the Ottoman Empire at the end of World War I, followed by the arrival of the British, brought with it benefits for the Jewish community of Palestine and its kibbutzim. The Ottoman authorities had made immigration to Palestine restricted land purchases. Rising antisemitism forced many Jews to flee Eastern Europe. To escape the pogroms, tens of thousands of Russian Jews immigrated to Palestine in the early 1920s, in a wave of immigration, called the Third Aliyah. Zionist Jewish youth movements flourished in the 1920s, from right-wing movements like Betar to left-wing socialist groups such as Dror, Brit Haolim, HabBonim, Hashomer Hatzair. In contrast to those who came as part of the Second Aliyah, these youth group members had some agricultural training before embarking. Members of the Second Aliyah and Third Aliyah were less to be Russian, since emigration from Russia was closed off after the Russian Revolution.
European Jews who settled on kibbutzim between the World Wars were from other countries in Eastern Europe, including Germany. In the early days, communal meetings were limited to practical matters, but in the 1920s and 1930s, they became more informal. Instead of meeting in the dining room, the group would sit around a campfire. Rather than reading minutes, the session would begin with a group dance. Remembering her youth on a kibbutz on the shores of the Kinneret, one woman said: "Oh, how beautiful it was when we all took part in the discussions, nights of searching for one another—that is what I call