A practical effect is a special effect produced physically, without computer-generated imagery or other post production techniques. In some contexts, "special effect" is used as a synonym of "practical effect", in contrast to "visual effects" which are created in post-production through photographic manipulation or computer generation. Many of the staples of action movies are practical effects. Gunfire, bullet wounds, wind and explosions can all be produced on a movie set by someone skilled in practical effects. Non-human characters and creatures produced with make-up, prosthetics and puppets – in contrast to computer-generated images – are examples of practical effects; the use of prosthetic makeup, puppetry, or creature suits to create the appearance of living creatures. Miniature effects, the use of scale models which are photographed in a way that they appear full sized. Mechanical effects, such as aerial rigging to simulate flight, stage mounted gimbals to make the ground move, or other mechanical devices to physically manipulate the environment.
Pyrotechnics for the appearance of fire and explosions. Weather effects such as sprinkler systems to create rain and fog machines to create smoke. Squibs to create the illusion of gunshot wounds. Special effects Computer-generated imagery Visual effects Optics: Visual effects
A camera is an optical instrument to capture still images or to record moving images, which are stored in a physical medium such as in a digital system or on photographic film. A camera consists of a lens which focuses light from the scene, a camera body which holds the image capture mechanism; the still image camera is the main instrument in the art of photography and captured images may be reproduced as a part of the process of photography, digital imaging, photographic printing. The similar artistic fields in the moving image camera domain are film and cinematography; the word camera comes from camera obscura, which means "dark chamber" and is the Latin name of the original device for projecting an image of external reality onto a flat surface. The modern photographic camera evolved from the camera obscura; the functioning of the camera is similar to the functioning of the human eye. The first permanent photograph was made in 1825 by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce. A camera works with the light of the visible spectrum or with other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum.
A still camera is an optical device which creates a single image of an object or scene and records it on an electronic sensor or photographic film. All cameras use the same basic design: light enters an enclosed box through a converging/convex lens and an image is recorded on a light-sensitive medium. A shutter mechanism controls the length of time. Most photographic cameras have functions that allow a person to view the scene to be recorded, allow for a desired part of the scene to be in focus, to control the exposure so that it is not too bright or too dim. On most digital cameras a display a liquid crystal display, permits the user to view the scene to be recorded and settings such as ISO speed and shutter speed. A movie camera or a video camera operates to a still camera, except it records a series of static images in rapid succession at a rate of 24 frames per second; when the images are combined and displayed in order, the illusion of motion is achieved. Traditional cameras capture light onto photographic film.
Video and digital cameras use an electronic image sensor a charge coupled device or a CMOS sensor to capture images which can be transferred or stored in a memory card or other storage inside the camera for playback or processing. Cameras that capture many images in sequence are known as movie cameras or as ciné cameras in Europe; however these categories overlap as still cameras are used to capture moving images in special effects work and many modern cameras can switch between still and motion recording modes. A wide range of film and plate formats have been used by cameras. In the early history plate sizes were specific for the make and model of camera although there developed some standardisation for the more popular cameras; the introduction of roll film drove the standardization process still further so that by the 1950s only a few standard roll films were in use. These included 120 film providing 8, 12 or 16 exposures, 220 film providing 16 or 24 exposures, 127 film providing 8 or 12 exposures and 135 providing 12, 20 or 36 exposures – or up to 72 exposures in the half-frame format or in bulk cassettes for the Leica Camera range.
For cine cameras, film 35 mm wide and perforated with sprocket holes was established as the standard format in the 1890s. It was used for nearly all film-based professional motion picture production. For amateur use, several smaller and therefore less expensive formats were introduced. 17.5 mm film, created by splitting 35 mm film, was one early amateur format, but 9.5 mm film, introduced in Europe in 1922, 16 mm film, introduced in the US in 1923, soon became the standards for "home movies" in their respective hemispheres. In 1932, the more economical 8 mm format was created by doubling the number of perforations in 16 mm film splitting it after exposure and processing; the Super 8 format, still 8 mm wide but with smaller perforations to make room for larger film frames, was introduced in 1965. Traditionally used to "tell the camera" the film speed of the selected film on film cameras, film speed numbers are employed on modern digital cameras as an indication of the system's gain from light to numerical output and to control the automatic exposure system.
Film speed is measured via the ISO system. The higher the film speed number the greater the film sensitivity to light, whereas with a lower number, the film is less sensitive to light. On digital cameras, electronic compensation for the color temperature associated with a given set of lighting conditions, ensuring that white light is registered as such on the imaging chip and therefore that the colors in the frame will appear natural. On mechanical, film-based cameras, this function is served by the operator's choice of film stock or with color correction filters. In addition to using white balance to register natural coloration of the image, photographers may employ white balance to aesthetic end, for example, white balancing to a blue object in order to obtain a warm color temperature; the lens of a camera brings it to a focus on the sensor. The design and manufacture of the lens is critical to the quality of the photograph being taken; the technological revolution in camera design in the 19th century revolutionized optical glass manufacture and lens design with great benefits for modern lens manufacture in a wide range of optical instruments from reading glasses to microscopes.
Pioneers included Leitz. Camera lenses are
For the technique used in photography and special effects filmmaking to combine two or more image elements into a single, final image, see Matte. A matte painting is a painted representation of a landscape, set, or distant location that allows filmmakers to create the illusion of an environment, not present at the filming location. Matte painters and film technicians have used various techniques to combine a matte-painted image with live-action footage. At its best, depending on the skill levels of the artists and technicians, the effect is "seamless" and creates environments that would otherwise be impossible or expensive to film. In the scenes the painting part is static and movements are integrated on it. Traditionally, matte paintings were made by artists using paints or pastels on large sheets of glass for integrating with the live-action footage; the first known matte painting shot was made in 1907 by Norman Dawn, who improvised the crumbling California Missions by painting them on glass for the movie Missions of California.
Notable traditional matte-painting shots include Dorothy’s approach to the Emerald City in The Wizard of Oz, Charles Foster Kane’s Xanadu in Citizen Kane, the bottomless tractor-beam set of Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope. The first Star Wars documentary made mentioned the technique used for the tractor beam scene as being a glass painting. By the mid-1980s, advancements in computer graphics programs allowed matte painters to work in the digital realm; the first digital matte shot was created by painter Chris Evans in 1985 for Young Sherlock Holmes for a scene featuring a computer-graphics animation of a knight leaping from a stained-glass window. Evans first painted the window in acrylics scanned the painting into LucasFilm’s Pixar system for further digital manipulation; the computer animation blended with the digital matte, which could not have been accomplished using a traditional matte painting. Throughout the 1990s, traditional matte paintings were still in use, but more in conjunction with digital compositing.
Die Hard 2 was the first film to use digitally composited live-action footage with a traditional glass matte painting, photographed and scanned into a computer. It was for the last scene. By the end of the decade, the time of hand-painted matte paintings was drawing to a close, although as late as 1997 some traditional paintings were still being made, notably Chris Evans’ painting of the RMS Carpathia rescue ship in James Cameron’s Titanic. Paint has now been superseded by digital images created using photo references, 3-D models, drawing tablets. Matte painters combine their digitally matte painted textures within computer-generated 3-D environments, allowing for 3-D camera movement. Lighting algorithms used to simulate lighting sources expanded in scope in 1995, when radiosity rendering was applied to film for the first time in Martin Scorsese’s Casino. Matte World Digital collaborated with LightScape to simulate the indirect bounce-light effect of millions of neon lights of the 70s-era Las Vegas strip.
Lower computer processing times continue to alter and expand matte painting technologies and techniques. The army barracks in All Quiet On The Western Front. Count Dracula's castle exteriors in other scenes; the view of Skull Island in King Kong. Charlie Chaplin′s blindfold roller-skating beside the illusory drop in Modern Times; the view of Nottingham Castle in The Adventures of Robin Hood. The 1942 spy thriller Saboteur, directed by Alfred Hitchcock, is enhanced by numerous matte shots, ranging from a California aircraft factory to the climactic scene atop New York's Statue of Liberty. Black Narcissus by Powell and Pressburger, scenes of the Hymalayan convent. In Alfred Hitchcock's North by Northwest shots of The United Nations building, Mount Rushmore and the Mount Rushmore house. Birds flying over Bodega Bay, looking down at the town below, in Alfred Hitchcock's The Birds. Mary Poppins gliding over London with her umbrella, the St Paul's Cathedral and London's rooftops and aerial views; the iconic image of the Statue of Liberty at the end of Planet of the Apes.
Diabolik directed by Mario Bava, extensive use of matte shots Diabolik's underground lair. The rooftops of Portobello Road, the English landscape, Miss Price's house and other scenes in Bedknobs and Broomsticks; the city railway line in The Sting. Views of a destroyed Los Angeles in Earthquake for which Albert Whitlock won an Academy Award. All of the exterior shots of San Francisco in The Love Bug; the stone column demolished by the locomotive in the Chicago station in the film Silver Streak. The Death Star's laser tunnel in Star Wars; the Starfleet headquarters in Star Trek The Motion Picture. The background for all scenes featuring Imperial walkers in The Empire Strikes Back; the final scene of the secret government warehouse in Steven Spielberg's Raiders of the Lost Ark. The Batty and Deckard chase scene in Blade Runner; the view of the crashed space ship in The Thing. The view of the OCP tower in RoboCop and other scenes. Gotham City street scene in Batman; the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array in Contact.
The Magic Railroad in Thomas and the Magic Railroad. The cityscape behind the Barnums' first apartment in The Greatest Showman. Michael Pangrazio Walter Percy Day Norman Dawn Linwood G. Dunn Emilio Ruiz del Rio Harrison Ellenshaw Peter Ellenshaw Albert Whitlock Matthew Yuricich Mathieu
Wire-flying is a theatrical stunt which involves suspending an actor from high-tension wires with a harness concealed under the costume, to simulate the action of flying or falling in the presence of other actors. Wire-flying has been done in film and live theatre for decades; as Superman, George Reeves was attached to wires for dramatic aerial exits
Theatrical blood, stage blood or fake blood is anything used as a substitute for blood in a theatrical or cinematic performance. For example, in the special effects industry, when a director needs to simulate an actor being shot or cut, a wide variety of chemicals and natural products can be used; the most common is red food coloring inside small balloons coupled with explosive devices called squibs. However, Alfred Hitchcock used Bosco Chocolate Syrup as fake blood in his 1960 thriller Psycho. Since the film was in black and white, the color was less important than the consistency. Tomato ketchup is a common alternative. There are many reasons for substituting for real blood in the film industry, such as ethical and sanitary concerns, concerns for the emotional well being of the actors. Actual blood's tendency to coagulate and solidify make it unsuitable for repeated takes without freshening. "Kensington Gore" was a trademark for fake blood used in theatre. It was manufactured by a retired British pharmacist, John Tinegate, during the 1960s and 1970s, in the village of Abbotsbury, Dorset.
Many varieties of blood, having various degrees of viscosity and textures were available. Since Tinegate's death, the name "Kensington Gore" has become a generic term for stage blood. Kensington Gore was used in the film The Shining. Theatrical blood has many other applications apart from its use in the film industry; the crime scene investigation science of bloodstain pattern analysis uses stage blood or sometimes cow's blood in mock-up crime scenes when training new investigators. The art of Moulage uses theatrical blood in applying mock injuries for the purpose of training Emergency Response Teams and other medical and military personnel. Theatrical blood is popularly used in Halloween costumes. Bodily mutilation in film Blood substitute Blood squirt Moulage Theatrical makeup Blood Recipes
In photography, a shutter is a device that allows light to pass for a determined period, exposing photographic film or a photosensitive digital sensor to light in order to capture a permanent image of a scene. A shutter can be used to allow pulses of light to pass outwards, as seen in a movie projector or a signal lamp. A shutter of variable speed is used to control exposure time of the film; the shutter is constructed. The speed of the shutter is controlled by a ring outside the camera, on which various timings are marked. Camera shutters can be fitted in several positions: Leaf shutters are fitted within a lens assembly, or more immediately behind or more in front of a lens, shut off the beam of light where it is narrow. Focal-plane shutters are mounted near move to uncover the film or sensor. Behind-the-lens shutters were used in some cameras with limited lens interchangeability. Shutters in front of the lens, sometimes a lens cap, removed and replaced for the long exposures required, were used in the early days of photography.
Other mechanisms than the dilating aperture and the sliding curtains have been used. The time for which a shutter remains open is determined by a timing mechanism; these were pneumatic or clockwork, but since the late twentieth century are electronic. Mechanical shutters had a Time setting, where the shutter opened when the button was pressed and remained open until it was pressed again, Bulb where the shutter remained open as long as the button was pressed, Instantaneous exposure, with settings ranging from 30" to 1/4000" for the best leaf shutters, faster for focal-plane shutters, more restricted for basic types; the reciprocal of exposure time in seconds is used for engraving shutter settings. For example, a marking of "250" denotes 1/250"; this does not cause confusion in practice. The exposure time and the effective aperture of the lens must together be such as to allow the right amount of light to reach the film or sensor. Additionally, the exposure time must be suitable to handle any motion of the subject.
It must be fast enough to "freeze" rapid motion, unless a controlled degree of motion blur is desired, for example to give a sensation of movement. Most shutters have a flash synchronization switch to trigger a flash; this was quite a complicated matter with mechanical shutters and flashbulbs which took an appreciable time to reach full brightness, focal-plane shutters making this more difficult. Special flashbulbs were designed which had a prolonged burn, illuminating the scene for the whole time taken by a focal plane shutter slit to move across the film; these problems were solved for non-focal-plane shutters with the advent of electronic flash units which fire instantaneously and emit a short flash. When using a focal-plane shutter with a flash, if the shutter is set at its X-sync speed or slower the whole frame will be exposed when the flash fires; some electronic flashes can produce a longer pulse compatible with a focal-plane shutter operated at much higher shutter speeds. The focal-plane shutter will still impart focal-plane shutter distortions to a moving subject.
Cinematography uses a rotary disc shutter in movie cameras, a continuously spinning disc which conceals the image with a reflex mirror during the intermittent motion between frame exposure. The disc spins to an open section that exposes the next frame of film while it is held by the registration pin. A focal-plane shutter is positioned just in front of the film, in the focal plane, moves an aperture across the film until the full frame has been exposed. Focal-plane shutters are implemented as a pair of light-tight cloth, metal, or plastic curtains. For shutter speeds slower than a certain point, which depends on the camera, one curtain of the shutter opens, the other closes after the correct exposure time. At shutter speeds faster than the X-sync speed, the top curtain of the shutter travels across the focal plane, with the second curtain following behind moving a slit across the focal plane until each part of the film or sensor has been exposed for the correct time; the effective exposure time can be much shorter than for central shutters, at the cost of some distortion of fast-moving subjects.
Focal plane shutters have the advantage over central leaf shutters of allowing the use of interchangeable lenses without requiring a separate shutter for each lens. They have several disadvantages as well: Distortion of fast-moving subjects: although no part of the film is exposed for longer than the time set on the dial, one edge of the film is exposed an appreciable time after the other, so that a horizontally moving shutter will, for example, elongate or shorten the image of a car speeding in the same or the opposite direction to the shutter movement, they are noisier, a detriment to candid and nature photography. Their more complex mechanical structure causes a shorter life-span than other shutter designs. If a focal-plane shutter camera is left with sunlight falling on the lens, it is possible to burn a hole in the closed curtain of a non-metal shutter. Camera shake due to the impact of the larger curtains stopping rapidly. Camera designers