Staropramen Brewery is the second largest brewery in the Czech Republic, is situated in the Smíchov district of Prague. It was founded in 1869 and the brand name Staropramen meaning “old spring”, was registered in 1911, it is owned by Molson Coors and its products are exported to 37 different countries in Europe and North America. Staropramen Brewery's history begins in 1869 when shares for a "Joint Stock Brewery in Smíchov" were offered for sale; the brewery building was completed and beer first brewed in 1871. The Ostravar Brewery opened in 1898 followed a year by the Braník brewery. Due to competition from other Prague breweries, the brand name Staropramen, which translates as “old spring", was registered in 1911. After the First World War, all three breweries saw a period of sustained growth, by the 1930s Staropramen was the largest brewery in Czechoslovakia. With socialism after the Second World War, all Czechoslovakian breweries were nationalised, including Staropramen. After socialism ended in 1989, the brewery, along with the Braník and Měšťan breweries, became in 1992 part of the Prague Breweries group, which by 1996 came under control of the Bass company.
Bass brought Ostravar into the group in 1997 in 2000 sold its brewing operations to Interbrew, which merged with AmBev in 2004 to form Inbev. Staropramen has seen steady growth and is the Czech Republic's second largest beer producer with a 15.3% share of the domestic market. In mid October 2009, private equity fund CVC Capital Partners bought all of Anheuser–Busch InBev's holdings in Central Europe for €2.23 billion. They renamed the operations StarBev. In April 2012, Molson Coors bought StarBev. Staropramen Smíchov – a pale draught beer with 4.0% ABV. Staropramen Jedenáctka – pale lager, contains 4.7% ABV. Staropramen Ležák – pale lager and flagship of the brand, contains 5.0% ABV. Staropramen Černý – a dark dunkel with 4.4% ABV. Staropramen Nefiltr Pšeničný – an unfiltered wheat pale lager with 5.0% ABV. Staropramen Nealko – a low-alcohol beer with max. 0.5% ABV. Staropramen Extra Chmelená – an extra bitter pale lager, contains 5.2% ABV. Staropramen Déčko – pale beer with reduced sugar content, 4.0% ABV.
Staropramen Granát – a semi-dark lager with 4,8% ABV. The company produces beers under the Ostravar, Braník and Velvet brands. Staropramen beers are produced under licence in several other European countries, including Serbia and Romania. In September 2015, it was reported in Swedish media that Carlsberg Group had ordered a recall of Staropramen draft beer from 680 Swedish pubs, after the beer caused bleeding and blisters in the mouth for two people. According to Henric Byström at Carlsberg, two complaints had been received where the containers of draft beer had contained a corrosive cleaning agent instead of beer. Beer in the Czech Republic Czech site International site
Jupiler is a Belgian beer introduced in 1966, now brewed by Anheuser–Busch InBev at Piedboeuf Brewery in the Jupille-sur-Meuse neighbourhood of Liège. It is the biggest-selling beer in Belgium. Jupiler, the most distributed variety, is a 5.2% abv, pale lager. It is made from malt, water and yeast; the name comes from its place of Jupille. It was created in 1966. Jupiler Blue is a 3.3% abv pale lager, launched in 2006 Jupiler Blue Lemon and Lime, a 3.3% abv pale lager, launched in June 2016 Jupiler 0.0%: the successor of Jupiler N. A. a beer without any alcohol, launched at end of 2016. Jupiler Pure Blonde is a 3.3% abv pale lager, launched in 2018 aimed at people with an active lifestyle Jupiler N. A. was launched in 2004, production stopped as from 2017 Although NA stands for non-alcoholic, it was a 0.5% abv pale lager. Jupiler Force was a brewed soft drink, launched in 2011, production stopped in 2014. Jupiler Tauro was an 8.3% abv strong pale lager launched in 2008, production stopped in 2012 Jupiler New Tauro was a 6.4% abv strong pale lager launched in 2012 and it was the successor of Jupiler Tauro.
Production stopped some months later. Jupiler is the main sponsor of the Belgian Pro League, the highest Belgian football division, as well as the second division in the Netherlands, the Eerste Divisie, they sponsor the Belgium national football team and have sold special beer cans featuring photographs of the players. Its slogan is "Men know why". On 20 February 2018, AB InBev announced that the brand name "Jupiler" will be replaced for a period of 5 months by "Belgium", in support of the Belgian team during the 2018 FIFA World Cup. Official site
Beck's Brewery known as Brauerei Beck & Co. is a brewery in the northern German city of Bremen. In 2001, Interbrew agreed to buy Brauerei Beck for 1.8 billion euros. US manufacture of Beck's Brew has been based in St. Louis, since early 2012 but some customers have rebelled against the US market version. Since 2008, it has been owned by the Interbrew subsidiary of Anheuser-Busch InBev SA/NV; the Beck's Art Label Campaign has offered artists the opportunity to provide designs to replace the brand's label. It started in London in 1987 with George; the artists created an art label, because Beck's sponsored their retrospective at the Hayward Gallery. The labels of the 2000 limited edition Beck's bottles were matching their exhibition poster. Other participants of the Art Label Campaign are members of the loose group "Young British Artists" and nominees or winners of the Turner Prize. Damien Hirst for example, designed a label for Beck's in 1995. In 2000, Tracey Emin created a label, which shows herself.
Rachel Whiteread designed a label in 1993, presenting her artwork "house", financed by Beck's. The Art Label Campaign has been parodied by Matthew Higgs, a member of the British art collective "Bank". In the Bank exhibition "The Charge of the Light Brigade" in 1995, he brewed a beer, called "Kunstlerbrau". In 2012, Beck's started giving young and independent musicians the opportunity to design a label for the Beck's bottle. Beck's summer 2009 limited-edition labels were designed by the musical groups Ladyhawke. Beer portal Companies portal Germany portal Official international site Heinrich Brugsch 1876 trip to the city of Philadelphia: Beck's Bier wins top prize Vintage Beck's Beer Advertisement from 1921
Belgium the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, the North Sea to the northwest, it has a population of more than 11.4 million. The capital and largest city is Brussels; the sovereign state is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. Its institutional organisation is structured on both regional and linguistic grounds, it is divided into three autonomous regions: Flanders in the north, Wallonia in the south, the Brussels-Capital Region. Brussels is the smallest and most densely populated region, as well as the richest region in terms of GDP per capita. Belgium is home to two main linguistic groups or Communities: the Dutch-speaking Flemish Community, which constitutes about 59 percent of the population, the French-speaking Community, which comprises about 40 percent of all Belgians. A small German-speaking Community, numbering around one percent, exists in the East Cantons.
The Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual, although French is the dominant language. Belgium's linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments. Belgium was part of an area known as the Low Countries, a somewhat larger region than the current Benelux group of states that included parts of northern France and western Germany, its name is derived after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, the area of Belgium was a prosperous and cosmopolitan centre of commerce and culture. Between the 16th and early 19th centuries, Belgium served as the battleground between many European powers, earning the moniker the "Battlefield of Europe", a reputation strengthened by both world wars; the country emerged in 1830 following the Belgian Revolution. Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa.
The second half of the 20th century was marked by rising tensions between the Dutch-speaking and the French-speaking citizens fueled by differences in language and culture and the unequal economic development of Flanders and Wallonia. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Despite the reforms, tensions between the groups have remained, if not increased. Unemployment in Wallonia is more than double that of Flanders. Belgium is one of the six founding countries of the European Union and hosts the official seats of the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, as well as a seat of the European Parliament in the country's capital, Brussels. Belgium is a founding member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD, WTO, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union and the Schengen Area. Brussels hosts several of the EU's official seats as well as the headquarters of many major international organizations such as NATO.
Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy. It has high standards of living, quality of life, education, is categorized as "very high" in the Human Development Index, it ranks as one of the safest or most peaceful countries in the world. The name "Belgium" is derived from Gallia Belgica, a Roman province in the northernmost part of Gaul that before Roman invasion in 100 BC, was inhabited by the Belgae, a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings. A gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire; the Treaty of Verdun in 843 divided the region into Middle and West Francia and therefore into a set of more or less independent fiefdoms which, during the Middle Ages, were vassals either of the King of France or of the Holy Roman Emperor. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 15th centuries.
Emperor Charles V extended the personal union of the Seventeen Provinces in the 1540s, making it far more than a personal union by the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 and increased his influence over the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. The Eighty Years' War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands; the latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and comprised most of modern Belgium. This was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. Following the campaigns of 1794 in the French Revolutionary Wars, the Low Countries—including territories that were never nominally under Habsburg rule, such as the Prince-Bishopric of Liège—were annexed by the French First Republic, ending Austrian rule in the region; the reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, after the defeat of Napo
Brahma is a Brazilian beer made by the Companhia Cervejaria Brahma, founded in 1888. The brewery is the fifth largest in the world; the brands are now owned by Anheuser-Busch InBev. In 1914, Brahma produced their national Malzbier. After that, the company began expanding internationally; the company bought the license for distribution of the Germania brand, known as Guanabara, was one of the earliest of the Brazilian beer brands. In 1934, Brahma introduced the new bottled draft Brahma Chopp, it became a Brazilian bestseller. In 1989, Jorge Paulo Lemann, Carlos Alberto Sicupira and Marcel Telles bought Companhia Cervejaria Brahma for $50 million. Brahma – a 4.3% abv pale lager with a global distribution launched in 2004. It is based on the locally successful Brahma Chopp. Brahma Chopp – a 5% abv pale lager. Brahma's main brand in Brazil. Brahma Extra Brahma Malzbier – a 5% abv schwarzbier Brahma Black Brahma Fresh Brahma Light Brahma Ice Extra Light Brahma Brahma Morena Brahma Bock Brahma Bier – special FIFA World Cup 2006 edition released in Brazil Brahma Porter Brahma Stout Brahva – a 4.8% abv pale lager sold in Guatemala and other Central American countries Brahva Beats Brahma Malta – non-alcoholic carbonated drink sold in Venezuela Brahma Malta con Chocolate – Brahma Malta with chocolate.
It is sold in most supermarkets in Latrobe Valley. Brahma 0,0% – Alcohol-free beer. Edgar Helmut Köb: Die Brahma-Brauerei und die Modernisierung des Getränkehandels in Rio de Janeiro 1888 bis 1930, Stuttgart 2005. Brahma Brahma Brahma Brahma Light
Boddingtons Brewery was a regional brewery in Manchester, which owned pubs throughout the North West. Boddingtons was best known for Boddingtons Bitter, a straw-golden, hoppy bitter, one of the first beers to be packaged in cans containing a widget, giving it a creamy draught-style head. In the 1990s, the beer was promoted as The Cream of Manchester in a popular advertising campaign credited with raising Manchester's profile. Boddingtons became one of the city's most famous products after Manchester United and Coronation Street. Whitbread bought Boddingtons Brewery in 1989 and Boddingtons Bitter received an increased marketing budget and nationwide distribution. Boddingtons achieved its peak market share in 1997 and at the time was exported to over forty countries. Boddingtons beer brands are now owned by the global brewer Anheuser–Busch InBev which acquired the Whitbread Beer Company in 2000. Strangeways Brewery closed in 2004 and production of pasteurised Boddingtons was moved to Samlesbury in Lancashire.
Production of the cask conditioned beer moved to Hydes Brewery in Moss Side, until it was discontinued in 2012, ending the beer's association with the city. Strangeways Brewery was founded in 1778 by two grain merchants, Thomas Caister and Thomas Fry, just north of what is now Manchester city centre, their principal customers were the cotton workers of Manchester a burgeoning mill town. Henry Boddington, born in 1813 in Thame, joined the brewery in 1832 as a travelling salesman when the brewery was in the possession of Hole and Harrison. Like most Manchester breweries at the time, it was a modestly sized operation. Boddington had become a partner by 1848, alongside John and James Harrison, by this time the company went under the name John Harrison & Co. In January 1853, Boddington borrowed money to become its sole owner. Between Boddington's takeover until 1877, the brewery's output increased tenfold from 10,000 to 100,000 barrels a year, making it not only Manchester's largest brewery but one of the largest in the North of England, with over 100 tied houses.
By 1883 Henry Boddington & Co. was a limited liability company. Henry Boddington's estate was valued at £150,000 when he died in 1886. After Henry Boddington's death, his son, William Slater Boddington became company chairman, the company went public in 1888 when it was estimated to have assets of £320,465, it was now known as Boddingtons Breweries Ltd. Its major local competitors were Groves and Whitnall and the Manchester Brewing Company; the company owned 212 public houses by 1892, making it the twelfth largest tied estate in the United Kingdom. The tied estate was freehold. Boddingtons was one of the breweries implicated in the 1900 English beer poisoning epidemic, in which 6,000 people were poisoned by arsenic and 70 died.86 percent of production was of mild ale in January 1902. Following the death of W. Slater Boddington in 1908, the family retained an interest in the company and continued to take a practical hand in its running. Henry's youngest son, Robert Slater Boddington had a fifty-year association with the company and oversaw the installation of a bottling hall in the 1920s.
Robert's third and fourth sons Philip and Charles served as joint chairman following the death of their father in 1930, Charles took sole responsibility after Philip died. By the 1930s, the Boddington family shareholding had dwindled to around 40 per cent. On the 22 December 1940, the brewery water tanks were hit by bombs during the Manchester Blitz, the brewery had to be closed down for several months, with production moved temporarily to the nearby Hydes Brewery; the brewery was rebuilt with the most up-to-date and modern equipment of the time, was the first in Europe to install stainless steel brewing vats. Whitbread, a large brewery, took a 13 per cent stake in the company in 1961. In 1962 the company purchased Richard Clarke & Co of Reddish, adding 60 public houses to the firm. In 1969 the large Allied Breweries combine initiated a hostile takeover bid for Boddingtons, which valued the company at £5 million. Charles Boddington took the unusual step of issuing a spirited defence of the company to the shareholders: You will be only too aware that present-day pressures bear towards the elimination of individuality and character in many consumer goods.
There is an inexorable progression towards the mass-produced nationwide product of standardised quality. You, are still, at this moment in time, a shareholder in one of the remaining independent brewery companies whose traditional draught beers have a reputation for quality and individual character beyond the immediate area of the North of England in which we operate... The takeover of Boddingtons and its consequent elimination can achieve little, it will do nothing for the national economy, add nothing to the nation's exports, contribute nothing at all to the quality of life that we are all used to enjoy. The company's independence was maintained after Whitbread acted as a white knight by raising its stake in the company from 13 to 23 per cent, the family and many small shareholders refused to sell their stakes; the chairman of Whitbread, Colonel Whitbread, is reputed to have said, "You are a old firm. You have a good name. You mustn't go out." At the time, it was rare for a company to win the emotional argument for independence, it was the first time a regional brewery had headed off an offer from a national company.
In 1970, Charles Boddington retired and his son Ewart assumed the directorship. In 1971, Allied Breweries sold its 35 per cent stake in the company, leaving Whitbread 25 per cent and the Boddington family 10 per cent, with the remainder of company shares held by small shareh
The chairman is the highest officer of an organized group such as a board, a committee, or a deliberative assembly. The person holding the office is elected or appointed by the members of the group, the chairman presides over meetings of the assembled group and conducts its business in an orderly fashion. In some organizations, the chairman position is called president, in others, where a board appoints a president, the two different terms are used for distinctly different positions. Other terms sometimes used for the office and its holder include chair, chairwoman, presiding officer, moderator and convenor; the chairman of a parliamentary chamber is called the speaker. The term chair is sometimes used in lieu of chairman, in response to criticisms that using chairman is sexist, it is used today, has been used as a substitute for chairman since the middle of the 17th century, with its earliest citation in the Oxford English Dictionary dated 1658–1659, only four years after the first citation for chairman.
Major dictionaries state that the word derives from a person. A 1994 Canadian study found the Toronto Star newspaper referring to most presiding men as "chairman", to most presiding women as "chairperson" or as "chairwoman"; the Chronicle of Higher Education uses "chairman" for men and "chairperson" for women. An analysis of the British National Corpus found chairman used 1,142 times, chairperson 130 times and chairwoman 68 times; the National Association of Parliamentarians adopted a resolution in 1975 discouraging the use of “chairperson” and rescinded it in 2017. The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times and United Press International all use "chairwoman" or "chairman" when referring to women, forbid use of "chair" or of "chairperson" except in direct quotations. In World Schools Style debating, male chairs are called "Mr. Chairman" and female chairs are called "Madame Chair"; the FranklinCovey Style Guide for Business and Technical Communication, as well as the American Psychological Association style guide, advocate using "chair" or "chairperson", rather than "chairman".
The Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and Style suggests that the gender-neutral forms are gaining ground. It advocates using "chair" to refer both to women; the Telegraph style guide bans the use of both "Chair" and "Chairperson" on the basis that "Chairman" is correct English. The word chair can refer to the place from which the holder of the office presides, whether on a chair, at a lectern, or elsewhere. During meetings, the person presiding is said to be "in the chair" and is referred to as "the chair". Parliamentary procedure requires that members address the "chair" as "Mr. Chairman" rather than using a name – one of many customs intended to maintain the presiding officer's impartiality and to ensure an objective and impersonal approach. In the United States, the presiding officer of the lower house of a legislative body, such as the House of Representatives, is titled the Speaker, while the upper house, such as the Senate, is chaired by a President. In his 1992 State of the Union address, then-U.
S. President George H. W. Bush used "chairman" for men and "chair" for women. In the British music hall tradition, the Chairman was the master of ceremonies who announced the performances and was responsible for controlling any rowdy elements in the audience; the role was popularised on British TV in the 1960s and 1970s by Leonard Sachs, the Chairman on the variety show The Good Old Days."Chairman" as a quasi-title gained particular resonance when socialist states from 1917 onward shunned more traditional leadership labels and stressed the collective control of soviets by beginning to refer to executive figureheads as "Chairman of the X Committee". Vladimir Lenin, for example functioned as the head of Soviet Russia not as tsar or as president but in roles such as "Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Russian SFSR". Note in particular the popular standard method for referring to Mao Zedong: "Chairman Mao". In addition to the administrative or executive duties in organizations, the chairman has the duties of presiding over meetings.
Such duties at meetings include: Calling the meeting to order Determining if a quorum is present Announcing the items on the order of business or agenda as they come up Recognition of members to have the floor Enforcing the rules of the group Putting questions to a vote Adjourning the meetingWhile presiding, the chairman should remain impartial and not interrupt a speaker if the speaker has the floor and is following the rules of the group. In committees or small boards, the chairman votes along with the other members. However, in assemblies or larger boards, the chairman should vote only when it can affect the result. At a meeting, the chairman only has one vote; the powers of the chairman vary across organizations. In some organizations the chairman has the authority to hire staff and make financial decisions, while in others the chairman only makes recommendations to a board of directors, still others the chairman has no executive powers and is a spokesman for the organization; the amount of power given to the chairman depends on the type of organization, its structure, the rules it has created for itself.
If the chairman exceeds the given authority, engages in misconduct, or fails to perform t