In God We Trust
"In God We Trust" is a phrase used in Civil Religion. It is the official motto of the United States of America, of the U. S. state of Florida. It was adopted as the United States' motto in 1956 as a replacement or alternative to the unofficial motto of E pluribus unum, adopted when the Great Seal of the United States was created and adopted in 1782."In God We Trust" first appeared on the two-cent piece in 1864 and has appeared on paper currency since 1957. A law passed in a Joint Resolution by the 84th Congress and approved by President Dwight Eisenhower on July 30, 1956, declared "In God We Trust" must appear on American currency; this phrase was first used on paper money in 1957, when it appeared on the one-dollar silver certificate. The first paper currency bearing the phrase entered circulation on October 1, 1957; the 84th Congress passed legislation signed by President Eisenhower on July 30, 1956, declaring the phrase to be the national motto. Some groups and people have expressed objections to its use, contending that its religious reference violates the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment.
These groups believe the phrase should be removed from public property. In lawsuits, this argument has so far not overcome the interpretational doctrine of accommodationism, which allows government to endorse religious establishments as long as they are all treated equally. According to a 2003 joint poll by USA Today, CNN, Gallup, 90% of Americans support the inscription "In God We Trust" on U. S. coins. In 2006, "In God We Trust" was designated as the motto of the U. S. state of Florida. Its Spanish equivalent, En Dios Confiamos, is the motto of the Republic of Nicaragua. In 1860, the phrase was used in the Coat of arms of Canada; the phrase has been included in religious-patriotic songs. During the American Civil War, the 125th Pennsylvania Infantry for the Union Army assumed the motto "In God we trust" in early August 1862. William W. Wallace, circa August 1862, of the motto "In God We Trust" was Captain of Company C of the 125th Pennsylvania Infantry; the Reverend Mark R. Watkinson of'Ridleyville', Pennsylvania, in a letter dated November 13, 1861, petitioned the Treasury Department to add a statement recognizing "Almighty God in some form on our coins" in order to "relieve us from the ignominy of heathenism".
At least part of the motivation was to declare. Treasury Secretary Salmon P. Chase acted on this proposal and directed the then-Philadelphia Director of the Mint, James Pollock, to begin drawing up possible designs that would include the religious phrase. Chase chose his favorite designs and presented a proposal to Congress for the new designs in late 1863. In December 1863, Abraham Lincoln's Secretary of the Treasury decided on a new motto, "In God We Trust," to engrave on U. S. coins. Lincoln's involvement in this decision is unclear. A version of the motto made an early appearance on obverse side of the twenty dollar interest bearing note issued in 1864 along with the motto "God and our Right"; as Chase was preparing his recommendation to Congress, it was found that the Act of Congress dated January 18, 1837 prescribed the mottoes and devices that should be placed upon the coins of the United States. This meant that the mint could make no changes without the enactment of additional legislation by the Congress.
Such legislation was introduced and passed as the Coinage Act of 1864 on April 22, 1864, allowing the Secretary of the Treasury to authorize the inclusion of the phrase on one-cent and two-cent coins. An Act of Congress passed on March 3, 1865, allowed the Mint Director, with the Secretary's approval, to place the motto on all gold and silver coins that "shall admit the inscription thereon". In 1873, Congress passed the Coinage Act, granting that the Secretary of the Treasury "may cause the motto IN GOD WE TRUST to be inscribed on such coins as shall admit of such motto"; the similar phrase'In God is our Trust' appears in "The Star-Spangled Banner", adopted as the national anthem of the United States in 1931. Written by Francis Scott Key during the War of 1812, the fourth stanza includes the phrase, "And this be our motto:'In God is our Trust'", adapted as the national motto; the use of "In God We Trust" has been interrupted. The motto disappeared from the five-cent coin in 1883, did not reappear until production of the Jefferson nickel began in 1938.
However, at least two other coins minted in every year in the interim still bore the motto, including the Morgan dollar and the Seated Liberty half dollar. The omission of the motto "In God We Trust" on the Indian Head eagle coin caused public outrage, prompted Congress to pass a bill mandating its inclusion. Mint Chief Engraver Charles E. Barber made minor modifications to the design. In 1908, Congress made it mandatory that the phrase be printed on all coins upon which it had appeared; this decision was motivated after a public outcry following the release of a $20 coin which did not bear the motto. The motto has been in continuous use on the one-cent coin since 1909, on the ten-cent coin since 1916, it has appeared on all gold coins and silver dollar coins, half-dollar coins, quarter-dollar coins struck since July 1, 1908. Since 1938, all US coins have borne the motto. During the Cold War era, the government of the United States sought to distinguish itself from the Soviet Union, which promoted state atheism and thus implemented antireligious legislation.
The 84th Congress passed a joint resolution "declaring IN GOD WE TRUST the national motto of the United States". The resolution passed both the House and the Sena
The Chicago Sun-Times is a daily newspaper published in Chicago, United States. It is the flagship paper of the Sun-Times Media Group, with the biggest circulation in Chicago and the 9th overall in the US; the Chicago Sun-Times claims to be the oldest continuously published daily newspaper in the city. That claim is based on the 1844 founding of the Chicago Daily Journal, the first newspaper to publish the rumor, now believed false, that a cow owned by Catherine O'Leary was responsible for the Chicago fire; the Evening Journal, whose West Side building at 17–19 S. Canal was undamaged, gave the Chicago Tribune a temporary home until it could rebuild. Though the assets of the Journal were sold to the Chicago Daily News in 1929, its last owner Samuel Emory Thomason immediately launched the tabloid Chicago Daily Illustrated Times; the modern paper grew out of the 1948 merger of the Chicago Sun, founded December 4, 1941 by Marshall Field III, the Chicago Daily Times. The newspaper was owned by Field Enterprises, controlled by the Marshall Field family, which acquired the afternoon Chicago Daily News in 1959 and launched WFLD television in 1966.
When the Daily News ended its run in 1978, much of its staff, including Pulitzer Prize-winning columnist Mike Royko, were moved to the Sun-Times. During the Field period, the newspaper had a populist, progressive character that leaned Democratic but was independent of the city's Democratic establishment. Although the graphic style was urban tabloid, the paper was well regarded for journalistic quality and did not rely on sensational front-page stories, it ran articles from The Washington Post/Los Angeles Times wire service. Among the most prominent members of the newspaper's staff was cartoonist Jacob Burck, hired by the Chicago Times in 1938, won a Pulitzer Prize in 1941 and continued with the paper after it became the Sun-Times, drawing nearly 10,000 cartoons over a 44-year career; the advice column "Ask Ann Landers" debuted in 1943. Ann Landers was the pseudonym of staff writer Ruth Crowley, who answered readers' letters until 1955. Eppie Lederer, sister of "Dear Abby" columnist Abigail van Buren, assumed the role thereafter as Ann Landers.
"Kup's Column", written by Irv Kupcinet made its first appearance in 1943. Jack Olsen joined the Sun-Times as editor-in-chief in 1954, before moving on to Time and Sports Illustrated magazines and authoring true-crime books. Hired as literary editor in 1955 was Hoke Norris, who covered the civil-rights movement for the Sun-Times. Jerome Holtzman became a member of the Chicago Sun sports department after first being a copy boy for the Daily News in the 1940s, he and Edgar Munzel, another longtime sportswriter for the paper, both would end up honored by the Baseball Hall of Fame. Famed for his World War II exploits, two-time Pulitzer Prize-winning cartoonist Bill Mauldin made the Sun-Times his home base in 1962; the following year, Mauldin drew one of his most renowned illustrations, depicting a mourning statue of Abraham Lincoln after the November 1963 assassination of John F. Kennedy. Two years out of college, Roger Ebert became a staff writer in 1966, a year was named Sun-Times's film critic.
He continued in this role for the remainder of his life. In 1975, a new sports editor at the Sun-Times, Lewis Grizzard, spiked some columns written by sportswriter Lacy J. Banks and took away a column Banks had been writing, prompting Banks to tell a friend at the Chicago Defender that Grizzard was a racist. After the friend wrote a story about it, Grizzard fired Banks. With that, the editorial employees union intervened, a federal arbitrator ruled for Banks and 13 months he got his job back. A 25-part series on the Mirage Tavern, a saloon on Wells Street bought and operated by the Sun-Times in 1977, exposed a pattern of civic corruption and bribery, as city officials were investigated and photographed without their knowledge; the articles received considerable publicity and acclaim, but a nomination for the Pulitzer Prize met resistance from some who believed the Mirage series represented a form of entrapment. In March 1978, the venerable afternoon publication the Chicago Daily News, sister paper of the Sun-Times, went out of business.
The two newspapers shared the same office building. James F. Hoge, Jr. editor and publisher of the Daily News, assumed the same positions at the Sun-Times, which retained a number of the Daily News's editorial personnel. In 1980, the Sun-Times hired syndicated TV columnist Gary Deeb away from the rival Chicago Tribune. Deeb left the Sun-Times in the spring of 1983 to try his hand at TV, he joined Chicago's WLS-TV in September 1983. In July 1981, prominent Sun-Times investigative reporter Pam Zekman, part of a Pulitzer Prize-winning team with the Chicago Tribune in 1976, announced she was leaving the Sun-Times to join WBBM-TV in Chicago in August 1981 as chief of its new investigative unit. "Salary wasn't a factor," she told the Tribune. "The station showed a commitment to investigative journalism. It was something I wanted to try."Pete Souza left the Sun-Times in 1983 to become official White House photographer for President Ronald Reagan until his second term's end in 1989. Souza returned to that position to be the official photographer for President Barack Obama.
Baseball writer Jerome Holtzman defected from the Sun-Times to the Tribune in late 1981, while Mike Downey left Sun-Times sports in September 1981 to be a columnist at the Detroit Free Press. In January 1984, noted Sun-Times business reporter James Warren quit to join the rival Chicago Tribune, he became the Tribune's Washington bureau chief and its managing editor for features. In 1984, Field Enterprises co-owners, half-brothers Marshall Field
WOR is a 50,000 watt Class A clear-channel AM radio station owned by iHeartMedia and licensed to New York City. The station airs a mix of local and syndicated talk radio shows from co-owned Premiere Networks, including The Rush Limbaugh Show, The Sean Hannity Show, Coast to Coast AM with George Noory; the independently syndicated Dave Ramsey Show is heard at night. Since 2016, the station has served as the New York network affiliate for co-owned NBC News Radio; the station's studios are located in the Tribeca neighborhood of Manhattan at the former AT&T Building, with its transmitter in Rutherford, New Jersey. WOR began broadcasting in February 1922 and is one of the oldest radio stations in the United States with a three–letter call sign, characteristic of a station dating from the 1920s. WOR is the only New York City station to have retained its original three-letter call sign, making it the oldest continually used call letters in the New York City area. WOR's original owner was Bamberger's Department Store in New Jersey.
In the early 1920s, the store was selling radio receivers and wanted to put a radio station on the air to help promote receiver sales as well as for general publicity. Effective December 1, 1921 the U. S. Department of Commerce had set aside a single wavelength, 360 meters for radio stations to broadcast "entertainment" programs; the store applied for a license, granted on February 20, 1922 with the randomly assigned call sign of WOR. The station's original city of license was Newark; the station made its debut broadcast on February 22, 1922, from a studio located on an upper floor of the store. A 250-watt De Forest transmitter was constructed on the roof of the department store; the station's first broadcast was made with a homemade microphone constructed by attaching a megaphone to a telephone mouthpiece. Al Jolson's "April Showers" was the first record played on WOR. Three other broadcasting stations were on the air in the region transmitting on 360 meters: WJZ in Newark, operated by the Radio Corporation of America.
The use of the common wavelength required a time–sharing agreement between the stations designating transmitting hours. This soon became complicated, as by June there were a total of ten regional stations using 360 meters; this restricted the number of hours available to WOR, now limited to just a few hours per week. In September 1922, the Department of Commerce set aside a second entertainment wavelength, 400 meters for "Class B" stations that had quality equipment and programming. In the New York City region, WOR, along with two New York City American Telephone & Telegraph Company stations, WBAY and WEAF, were assigned to this new wavelength. In May 1923 additional "Class B" broadcasting frequencies were announced, including three for the Newark/New York City area. WOR moved to 740 kHz, where it shared time with WDT and a new RCA station, WJY. WJY used the time periods assigned to it, by the summer of 1926, WOR began operating full-time, stating that the silent WJY was considered to have forfeited its hours.
In June 1927, the Federal Radio Commission moved WOR to 710 kHz, which it has occupied since. On November 11, 1928, under the provisions of the FRC's General Order 40, this assignment was designated a "clear channel" frequency, with WOR the dominant station. In December 1924, although still licensed to Newark, WOR opened a second studio in Manhattan to originate programs, so that stars of the day based in New York City would have better access to the station. In 1926, WOR left its original New York City studio on the 9th floor of Chickering Hall at 27 West 57th Street, it relocated two blocks from Times Square. WOR was a charter member of the CBS Radio Network, acting as the flagship of the 16 stations that aired the first Columbia Broadcasting System network program on September 18, 1927. In partnership with Chicago radio station WGN and Cincinnati radio station WLW, WOR formed the Mutual Broadcasting System in 1934 and became its New York City flagship station. Mutual was one of the "Big Four" national radio networks in the United States during the 1930s–1980s.
In 1941, the station changed its city of license from Newark to New York City. However, for all intents and purposes it had been a New York City station since its early days, had set up studios across the Hudson two years after it signed on. In 1957, WOR became an independent station. Mutual's new outlet in New York City was AM 970 WAAT in Newark, but WOR continued to carry Mutual's "Top of the News" with Fulton Lewis for 15 minutes each evening, Monday to Friday at 7:00 p.m. for several more years. It aired Mutual's all night talk show hosted by Larry King for several years. For a few years in the late-1950s, WOR aired selected St. Louis Cardinals baseball games sponsored by Budweiser due to the departures of the Dodgers and Giants from New York City to California. In 1941, WOR put W71NY, on the air. WOR had been experimenting with FM broadcasts as W2XWI from its Carteret, New Jersey transmitter site from 1938. For most of its first two decades, W71NY WOR-FM simulcast the same programming as WOR.
In 1949, WOR signed on a sister television station, Channel 9 WOR-TV. It started as an independent station, showing movies and reruns of network shows, with some local children's and talk programs. In 1952, WOR-AM-FM-TV were sold to RKO General; the TV station became WWOR-TV, re
Amazon.com, Inc. is an American multinational technology company based in Seattle, Washington that focuses in e-commerce, cloud computing, artificial intelligence. Amazon is the largest e-commerce marketplace and cloud computing platform in the world as measured by revenue and market capitalization. Amazon.com was founded by Jeff Bezos on July 5, 1994, started as an online bookstore but diversified to sell video downloads/streaming, MP3 downloads/streaming, audiobook downloads/streaming, video games, apparel, food and jewelry. The company owns a publishing arm, Amazon Publishing, a film and television studio, Amazon Studios, produces consumer electronics lines including Kindle e-readers, Fire tablets, Fire TV, Echo devices, is the world's largest provider of cloud infrastructure services through its AWS subsidiary. Amazon has separate retail websites for some countries and offers international shipping of some of its products to certain other countries. 100 million people subscribe to Amazon Prime.
Amazon is the largest Internet company by revenue in the world and the second largest employer in the United States. In 2015, Amazon surpassed Walmart as the most valuable retailer in the United States by market capitalization. In 2017, Amazon acquired Whole Foods Market for $13.4 billion, which vastly increased Amazon's presence as a brick-and-mortar retailer. The acquisition was interpreted by some as a direct attempt to challenge Walmart's traditional retail stores. In 1994, Jeff Bezos incorporated Amazon. In May 1997, the organization went public; the company began selling music and videos in 1998, at which time it began operations internationally by acquiring online sellers of books in United Kingdom and Germany. The following year, the organization sold video games, consumer electronics, home-improvement items, software and toys in addition to other items. In 2002, the corporation started Amazon Web Services, which provided data on Web site popularity, Internet traffic patterns and other statistics for marketers and developers.
In 2006, the organization grew its AWS portfolio when Elastic Compute Cloud, which rents computer processing power as well as Simple Storage Service, that rents data storage via the Internet, were made available. That same year, the company started Fulfillment by Amazon which managed the inventory of individuals and small companies selling their belongings through the company internet site. In 2012, Amazon bought Kiva Systems to automate its inventory-management business, purchasing Whole Foods Market supermarket chain five years in 2017; as of March 2019, the board of directors is: Jeff Bezos, President, CEO, Chairman Tom Alberg, Managing partner, Madrona Venture Group Rosalind Brewer, Group President, COO, Starbucks Jamie Gorelick, Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale, Dorr Daniel P. Huttenlocher and Vice Provost, Cornell University Judy McGrath, former CEO, MTV Networks Indra Nooyi, former CEO, PepsiCo Jon Rubinstein, former Chairman, CEO, Inc. Thomas O. Ryder, former Chairman, CEO, Reader's Digest Association Patty Stonesifer, CEO, Martha's Table Wendell P. Weeks, President, CEO, Corning Inc.
In 2000, U. S. toy retailer Toys "R" Us entered into a 10-year agreement with Amazon, valued at $50 million per year plus a cut of sales, under which Toys "R" Us would be the exclusive supplier of toys and baby products on the service, the chain's website would redirect to Amazon's Toys & Games category. In 2004, Toys "R" Us sued Amazon, claiming that because of a perceived lack of variety in Toys "R" Us stock, Amazon had knowingly allowed third-party sellers to offer items on the service in categories that Toys "R" Us had been granted exclusivity. In 2006, a court ruled in favor of Toys "R" Us, giving it the right to unwind its agreement with Amazon and establish its own independent e-commerce website; the company was awarded $51 million in damages. In 2001, Amazon entered into a similar agreement with Borders Group, under which Amazon would co-manage Borders.com as a co-branded service, Borders pulled out of the arrangement in 2007, with plans to launch its own online store. On October 18, 2011, Amazon.com announced a partnership with DC Comics for the exclusive digital rights to many popular comics, including Superman, Green Lantern, The Sandman, Watchmen.
The partnership has caused well-known bookstores like Barnes & Noble to remove these titles from their shelves. In November 2013, Amazon announced a partnership with the United States Postal Service to begin delivering orders on Sundays; the service, included in Amazon's standard shipping rates, initiated in metropolitan areas of Los Angeles and New York because of the high-volume and inability to deliver in a timely way, with plans to expand into Dallas, New Orleans and Phoenix by 2014. In June 2017, Nike confirmed a "pilot" partnership with Amazon to sell goods directly on the platform; as of October 11, 2017, AmazonFresh sells a range of Booths branded products for home delivery in selected areas. In September 2017, Amazon ventured with one of its sellers JV Appario Retail owned by Patni Group which has recorded a total income of US$ 104.44 million in financial year 2017–18. In November 2018, Amazon reached an agreement with Apple Inc. to sell selected products through the service, via the company and selected Apple Authorized Resellers.
As a result of this partnership, only Apple Authorized Resellers may sell Apple products on Amazon effective January 4, 2019. Amazon.com's product lines available at its website include several media, baby products, consumer electronics, beauty products, gourmet food, groceries and perso
Radio is the technology of signalling or communicating using radio waves. Radio waves are electromagnetic waves of frequency between 300 gigahertz, they are generated by an electronic device called a transmitter connected to an antenna which radiates the waves, received by a radio receiver connected to another antenna. Radio is widely used in modern technology, in radio communication, radio navigation, remote control, remote sensing and other applications. In radio communication, used in radio and television broadcasting, cell phones, two-way radios, wireless networking and satellite communication among numerous other uses, radio waves are used to carry information across space from a transmitter to a receiver, by modulating the radio signal in the transmitter. In radar, used to locate and track objects like aircraft, ships and missiles, a beam of radio waves emitted by a radar transmitter reflects off the target object, the reflected waves reveal the object's location. In radio navigation systems such as GPS and VOR, a mobile receiver receives radio signals from navigational radio beacons whose position is known, by measuring the arrival time of the radio waves the receiver can calculate its position on Earth.
In wireless remote control devices like drones, garage door openers, keyless entry systems, radio signals transmitted from a controller device control the actions of a remote device. Applications of radio waves which do not involve transmitting the waves significant distances, such as RF heating used in industrial processes and microwave ovens, medical uses such as diathermy and MRI machines, are not called radio; the noun radio is used to mean a broadcast radio receiver. Radio waves were first identified and studied by German physicist Heinrich Hertz in 1886; the first practical radio transmitters and receivers were developed around 1895-6 by Italian Guglielmo Marconi, radio began to be used commercially around 1900. To prevent interference between users, the emission of radio waves is regulated by law, coordinated by an international body called the International Telecommunications Union, which allocates frequency bands in the radio spectrum for different uses. Radio waves are radiated by electric charges undergoing acceleration.
They are generated artificially by time varying electric currents, consisting of electrons flowing back and forth in a metal conductor called an antenna. In transmission, a transmitter generates an alternating current of radio frequency, applied to an antenna; the antenna radiates the power in the current as radio waves. When the waves strike the antenna of a radio receiver, they push the electrons in the metal back and forth, inducing a tiny alternating current; the radio receiver connected to the receiving antenna detects this oscillating current and amplifies it. As they travel further from the transmitting antenna, radio waves spread out so their signal strength decreases, so radio transmissions can only be received within a limited range of the transmitter, the distance depending on the transmitter power, antenna radiation pattern, receiver sensitivity, noise level, presence of obstructions between transmitter and receiver. An omnidirectional antenna transmits or receives radio waves in all directions, while a directional antenna or high gain antenna transmits radio waves in a beam in a particular direction, or receives waves from only one direction.
Radio waves travel through a vacuum at the speed of light, in air at close to the speed of light, so the wavelength of a radio wave, the distance in meters between adjacent crests of the wave, is inversely proportional to its frequency. In radio communication systems, information is carried across space using radio waves. At the sending end, the information to be sent is converted by some type of transducer to a time-varying electrical signal called the modulation signal; the modulation signal may be an audio signal representing sound from a microphone, a video signal representing moving images from a video camera, or a digital signal consisting of a sequence of bits representing binary data from a computer. The modulation signal is applied to a radio transmitter. In the transmitter, an electronic oscillator generates an alternating current oscillating at a radio frequency, called the carrier wave because it serves to "carry" the information through the air; the information signal is used to modulate the carrier, varying some aspect of the carrier wave, impressing the information on the carrier.
Different radio systems use different modulation methods: AM - in an AM transmitter, the amplitude of the radio carrier wave is varied by the modulation signal. FM - in an FM transmitter, the frequency of the radio carrier wave is varied by the modulation signal. FSK - used in wireless digital devices to transmit digital signals, the frequency of the carrier wave is shifted periodically between two frequencies that represent the two binary digits, 0 and 1, to transmit a sequence of bits. OFDM - a family of complicated digital modulation methods widely used in high bandwidth systems such as WiFi networks, digital television broadcasting, digital audio broadcasting to transmit digital data using a minimum of radio spectrum bandwidth. OFDM has higher spectral efficiency and more resistance to fading than AM or FM. Multiple radio carrier waves spaced in frequency are transmitted within the radio channel, with each carrier modulated with bits from the incoming bitstream
My Summer Story
My Summer Story released in theaters as It Runs in the Family, is a 1994 film that follows the further adventures of the Parker family from A Christmas Story. Like the previous film, it is based on semi-autobiographical stories by Jean Shepherd from his book In God We Trust, All Others Pay Cash; the opening of the film makes direct reference to the events of A Christmas Story, the ending narration parallels it. Charles Grodin stars as the Old Man, Mary Steenburgen plays Mrs. Parker, Kieran Culkin plays Ralphie. Shepherd provides the narration; the film takes place in the summer of 1941, after the events of A Christmas Story, which took place in December 1940. It has several plot lines, one each for Ralphie, his father, his mother, followed by one involving him and his dad on a fishing trip, his quest for most of the film is to find a top tough enough to knock that of a bully's out of a chalk circle in a game of "Kill". Meanwhile, his dad has a series of skirmishes with his hillbilly neighbors, the Bumpuses, all forty-three Bloodhounds named Big Red.
He calls in the family dog, to distract the Bumpuses' hounds when he comes home from work. When he gets out of the car, he accidentally steps in dog poop. Ralphie's mom would like to get something other than a Ronald Colman gravy boat on dish night at the local cinema. Scut, the main bully, is demoted, with a new head bully ruling over him. Ralphie does get a top just as powerful as the bully's, they both end up disappearing into the sewer, never to be seen again. Charles Grodin as Mr. Parker, the Old Man Mary Steenburgen as Mrs. Parker Kieran Culkin as Ralphie Parker Christian Culkin as Randy Parker Whit Hertford as Lug Chris Owen as Scut Farkus Geoffrey Wigdor as Flick David Zahorsky as Schwartz Tedde Moore as Miss Shields T. J. McInturff as Grover Dill Shepherd had begun work on the film in 1989, after wrapping up production on the television film Ollie Hopnoodle's Haven of Bliss, he admitted making the sequel as a money-making enterprise. Because the cast of A Christmas Story had aged to the point where they no longer fit their roles, it was recast, with the exception of Tedde Moore, who returns as Ralphie's teacher, Miss Shields.
Mixed reviews have appeared about the film. Entertainment Weekly gave it a B+, noting that the film "improves on A Christmas Story, with better pacing and better defined characters, but found Shepherd's narration to be "oh-so-drolly exaggerated — and therefore condescending". Robert Butler at the Kansas City Star called it "a sequel worth seeing" which revisits the humor of the original. Upon the release of the film on DVD in 2006, DVDtalk wrote "if you squint just right, My Summer Story is reasonably good", while criticizing the casting, but praising Shepherd's narration as "easily the film's saving grace". Christopher Null at MovieCritic.com referred to the film as a "lackluster sequel" with "little of the same charm" as A Christmas Story, "not funny, really". A 2011 summary of best and worst movies filmed in Cleveland called the film a "dog", which "features none of the original cast -- and none of the original heart". Released in few theaters, the film grossed under $71,000. Prior to the making of the theatrical film, PBS co-produced a series of TV movies based on the Parker family for American Playhouse including Ollie Hopnoodle's Haven of Bliss, The Great American Fourth of July and Other Disasters, The Phantom of the Open Hearth.
It Runs in the Family on IMDb My Summer Story at Rotten Tomatoes Beyond a Christmas Story
Warren G. Harding
Warren Gamaliel Harding was the 29th president of the United States from 1921 until his death in 1923. A member of the Republican Party, he was one of the most popular U. S. presidents to that point. After his death a number of scandals, such as Teapot Dome, came to light, as did his extramarital affair with Nan Britton, he is rated as one of the worst presidents in historical rankings. Harding lived in rural Ohio all his life, except; as a young man, he built it into a successful newspaper. In 1899, he was elected to the Ohio State Senate, he was defeated for governor in 1910, but was elected to the United States Senate in 1914. He ran for the Republican nomination for president in 1920, he was considered a long shot until after the convention began; the leading candidates could not gain the needed majority, the convention deadlocked. Harding's support grew until he was nominated on the tenth ballot, he conducted a front porch campaign, remaining for the most part in Marion and allowing the people to come to him, running on a theme of a return to normalcy of the pre-World War I period.
He won in a landslide over Democrat James M. Cox and Socialist Party candidate Eugene Debs and became the first sitting senator to be elected president. Harding appointed a number of well-regarded figures to his cabinet, including Andrew Mellon at Treasury, Herbert Hoover at the Department of Commerce, Charles Evans Hughes at the State Department. A major foreign policy achievement came with the Washington Naval Conference of 1921–1922, in which the world's major naval powers agreed on a naval limitations program that lasted a decade, his cabinet members Albert Fall and Harry Daugherty were each tried for corruption in office. Harding died of a heart attack in San Francisco while on a western tour, succeeded by Vice President Calvin Coolidge. Harding was born on November 1865, in Blooming Grove, Ohio. Nicknamed "Winnie" as a small child, Harding was the eldest of eight children born to George Tryon Harding and Phoebe Elizabeth Harding. Phoebe was a state-licensed midwife. Tryon taught school near Mount Gilead, Ohio.
Through apprenticeship, study and a year of medical school, Tryon became a doctor and started a small practice. Some of Harding's mother's ancestors were Dutch, including the well-known Van Kirk family. Harding had ancestors from England and Scotland, it was rumored by a political opponent in Blooming Grove that one of Harding's great-grandmothers was African American. His great-great grandfather Amos Harding claimed that a thief, caught in the act by the family, started the rumor in an attempt at extortion or revenge. In 2015, genetic testing of Harding's descendants determined, with more than a 95% chance of accuracy, that he lacked sub-Saharan African forebears within four generations. In 1870, the Harding family, who were abolitionists, moved to Caledonia, where Tryon acquired The Argus, a local weekly newspaper. At The Argus, from the age of 11, learned the basics of the newspaper business. In late 1879, at the age of 14, Harding enrolled at his father's alma mater – Ohio Central College in Iberia – where he proved an adept student.
He and a friend put out a small newspaper, the Iberia Spectator, during their final year at Ohio Central, intended to appeal to both college and town. During his final year, the Harding family moved to Marion, about 6 miles from Caledonia, when he graduated in 1882, he joined them there. In Harding's youth, the majority of the population still lived in small towns, he would spend much of his life in Marion, a small city in rural Ohio, would become associated with it. When Harding rose to high office, he made clear his love of Marion and its way of life, telling of the many young Marionites who had left and enjoyed success elsewhere, while suggesting that the man, once the "pride of the school", who had remained behind and become a janitor, was "the happiest one of the lot". Upon graduating, Harding had stints as a teacher and as an insurance man, made a brief attempt at studying law, he raised $300 in partnership with others to purchase a failing newspaper, The Marion Star, weakest of the growing city's three papers, its only daily.
The 18-year-old Harding used the railroad pass that came with the paper to attend the 1884 Republican National Convention, where he hobnobbed with better-known journalists and supported the presidential nominee, former Secretary of State James G. Blaine. Harding returned from Chicago to find. During the election campaign, Harding worked for the Marion Democratic Mirror and was annoyed at having to praise the Democratic presidential nominee, New York Governor Grover Cleveland, who won the election. Afterward, with the financial aid of his father, the budding newspaperman redeemed the paper. Through the years of the 1880s, Harding built the Star; the city of Marion tended to vote Republican. Accordingly, Harding adopted a tempered editorial stance, declaring the daily Star nonpartisan and circulating a weekly edition, moderate Republican; this policy put the town's Republican weekly out of business. According to his biographer, Andrew Sinclair: The success of Harding with the Star was in the model of Horatio Alger.
He started with nothing, t