The Twilight Zone (1959 TV series)
The Twilight Zone is an American anthology television series created and presented by Rod Serling, which ran for five seasons on CBS from 1959 to 1964. Each episode presents a stand-alone story in which characters find themselves dealing with disturbing or unusual events, an experience described as entering "the Twilight Zone," ending with a surprise ending and a moral. Although predominantly science-fiction, the show's paranormal and Kafkaesque events leaned the show towards fantasy and horror; the phrase “twilight zone,” inspired by the series, is used to describe surreal experiences. The series featured both established stars and younger actors who would become much better known later. Serling served as executive head writer, he was the show's host and narrator, delivering monologues at the beginning and end of each episode. Serling's opening and closing narrations summarize the episode's events encapsulating how and why the main character had entered the Twilight Zone. In 1997, the episodes "To Serve Man" and "It's a Good Life" were ranked at 11 and 31 on TV Guide's 100 Greatest Episodes of All Time.
Serling himself stated that his favorite episodes of the series were "The Invaders" and "Time Enough at Last". In 2016, the series was ranked No. 7 on Rolling Stone's list of the 100 greatest shows of all time. In 2002, The Twilight Zone was ranked No. 26 on TV Guide's 50 Greatest TV Shows of All Time. In 2013, the Writers Guild of America ranked it as the third best-written TV series and TV Guide ranked it as the fourth greatest drama and the fifth greatest show of all time. By the late 1950s, Rod Serling was a prominent name in American television, his successful television plays included Patterns and Requiem for a Heavyweight, but constant changes and edits made by the networks and sponsors frustrated Serling. In Requiem for a Heavyweight, the line "Got a match?" had to be struck because the sponsor sold lighters. But according to comments in his 1957 anthology Patterns, Serling had been trying to delve into material more controversial than his works of the early 1950s; this led to Noon on Doomsday for the United States Steel Hour in 1956, a commentary by Serling on the defensiveness and total lack of repentance he saw in the Mississippi town where the murder of Emmett Till took place.
His original script paralleled the Till case was moved out of the South and the victim changed to a Jewish pawnbroker, watered down to just a foreigner in an unnamed town. Despite bad reviews, activists sent numerous wires protesting the production. Serling thought that a science-fictional setting, with robots and other supernatural occurrences, would give him more freedom and less interference in expressing controversial ideas than more realistic settings. "The Time Element" was Serling's 1957 pilot pitch for his show, a time travel adventure about a man who travels back to Honolulu in 1941 and unsuccessfully tries to warn everyone about the impending attack on Pearl Harbor. The script, was rejected and shelved for a year until Bert Granet discovered and produced it as an episode of Desilu Playhouse in 1958; the show was a great success and enabled Serling to begin production on his anthology series, The Twilight Zone. Serling's editorial sense of ironic fate in the writing done for the series was identified as significant to its success by the BFI Film Classics library which stated that for Serling "the cruel indifference and implacability of fate and the irony of poetic justice" were recurrent themes in his plots.
There is a fifth dimension, beyond that, known to man. It is a dimension as timeless as infinity, it is the middle ground between light and shadow, between science and superstition, it lies between the pit of man's fears and the summit of his knowledge. This is the dimension of imagination, it is an area. The Twilight Zone premiered the night of October 1959, to rave reviews. "Twilight Zone is about the only show on the air that I look forward to seeing. It's the one series that I will let interfere with other plans", said Terry Turner for the Chicago Daily News. Others agreed. Daily Variety ranked it with "the best, accomplished in half-hour filmed television" and the New York Herald Tribune found the show to be "certainly the best and most original anthology series of the year"; as the show proved popular to television's critics, it struggled to find a receptive audience of television viewers. CBS was banking on a rating of at least 21 or 22; the series' future was jeopardized when its third episode, "Mr. Denton on Doomsday" earned a 16.3 rating.
Still, the show attracted a large enough audience to survive a brief hiatus in November, after which it surpassed its competition on ABC and NBC and convinced its sponsors to stay on until the end of the season. With one exception, the first season featured scripts written only by Rod Serling, Charles Beaumont or Richard Matheson; these three were responsible for 127 of the 156 episodes in the series. Additionally, with one exception, Serling never appeared on camera during any first-season episode (as he woul
In His Image (novel)
In His Image is a science fiction novel by American writer James BeauSeigneur, the first book in the Christ Clone Trilogy. On a trip to Turin to analyse the Shroud of Turin, journalist Decker Hawthorne and Professor Harry Goodman discover human dermal cells remaining. After the trip, Goodman takes some samples back to his laboratory, in the United States, discovers that they are still alive, he invites Decker to show him his discoveries. Once Decker arrives, Goodman explains several of his theories about the cells, has engineered a strain of "C Cells" which are resilient to damage and disease. Goodman is searching for ways these C Cells could be implemented to insert into one's body to cure disease, due to their strange properties and signs of immortality; the professor proposes to Decker the idea of cloning the cells, but Decker does not support this idea. Some years pass and Decker visits Professor Goodman with one of his two daughters. While Hawthorne and Goodman talk for some time, Decker's daughter meets and interacts with the Goodmans' adopted son, Christopher.
On the way back home, Decker deduces Christopher's origin. He returns to Goodman's home and confronts him about Christopher being the Clone of Jesus Christ. Goodman explains that Christopher is like any usual boy, but that he shows a high degree of intelligence and has never suffered from disease of any kind, he convinces Decker not to do Christopher's life will be ruined. Before leaving, Decker assumes out loud that Goodman named the child "Christopher" because of Jesus Christ, of whom he was cloned. Several years Decker visits Israel on business and stays with old friends and Ilyana Rosen. There he learns lots of things about its notable culture. During his visit, Decker receives an anonymous phone call saying that "Dogs will cry, but their tears will find no place to land" following the shootings of several Palestinians by Israeli troops in a riot, he calls the police and they tell him that the call must have come from Muslim terrorists, making a threat of some kind of massacre or attack against the Jews, but they remain uncertain about where they plan to attack.
Decker realizes that the terrorists who called him were referring to The Wailing Wall when they said that the Jews tears would have "no place to land". He rushes to the historical site, just in time to watch it blow up entirely, he saves a young boy from being killed by the blast. In retaliation for the destruction of The Western Wall, Israel destroys the Dome of the Rock and retakes the Temple Mount. Decker goes to check on the boy, but he is kidnapped by terrorists, along with his companion journalist and long time friend and confidant, Tom Donafin, they are held captive in an unknown building in Lebanon. He and Tom remain imprisoned for three years. Decker and Tom escape, after one day Decker had a dream of Christopher Goodman, who leads him to the exit. In the dream his captors are lie throughout the building. Decker reminds the Dream Christopher that Tom was held prisoner, Christopher absent-mindedly shows Decker where he is. Upon waking Decker discovers that his door is unlocked and his captors were dispatched in the same fashion as in his dream, Tom was right where Christopher had shown him.
Decker and Tom make their escape into the countryside where they are rescued by United Nations troops under none other than the Secretary General, Jon Hansen, with whom Decker forms an instant friendship and bond. They are housed temporarily in Israel, under attack by Russians, until it is safe for them to fly home. Transport is arranged for them to get out of the besieged city, however a dogfight in progress causes Tom and Decker to exit the car to document the duel and Tom tries to get pictures; the car, the driver and Tom are hit by a blast from one of the fighter planes. Decker survives, Tom is assumed dead, it is revealed that Tom, does not die. He is stricken blind, from the explosion and from flying glass. Decker is informed that he is presumed dead. Decker is reunited with his family, they return to the United States while Decker recovers from captivity. During his recovery period, there is a worldwide catastrophe that has no explanation. Millions of people wake up next to dead loved ones, whole families have died.
This event is called "The Disaster" by most people, however sudden converts to Christianity begin to call it The Rapture. Decker's entire family, along with his friends abroad, The Rosens, perish in the tragedy; some collateral damage is suffered: people driving cars die and their cars careen out of control. Decker buries his family, falls into a catatonic stupor as the weight of his loss consumes him. Christopher Goodman arrives at Decker's house explaining that his adoptive parents died in a plane crash piloted by a casualty of the Disaster. Decker shakes off his catatonia and invites Christopher to stay with him, Christopher becomes his new family. Jon Hansen offers Decker a position as his assistant at the United Nations, where Christopher encounters Robert Milner, a retired Secretary General, involved in occult practices, recognizes Christopher as one, prophesied in New Age Councils to usher in a new era of peace and prosperity and enhanced consciousness for mankind. Alice Bernley (a thinly veiled reference to Alice Bailey - an actual noted
In Christianity, evangelism is the commitment to or act of publicly preaching of the Gospel with the intention of spreading the message and teachings of Jesus Christ. Christians who specialize in evangelism are known as evangelists, whether they are in their home communities or living as missionaries in the field, although some Christian traditions refer to such people as missionaries in either case; some Christian traditions consider evangelists to be in a leadership position. Christian groups who encourage evangelism are sometimes known as evangelist; the scriptures do not use the word evangelism, but evangelist is used in Acts 21:8, Ephesians 4:11, 2 Timothy 4:5. The word evangelist comes from the Koine Greek word εὐαγγέλιον via Latinised evangelium as used in the canonical titles of the Four Gospels, authored by Matthew, Mark and John; the Greek word εὐαγγέλιον meant a reward given to the messenger for good news and "good news" itself. The verb form of euangelion, occurs in older Greek literature outside the New Testament, making its meaning more difficult to ascertain.
Parallel texts of the Gospels of Luke and Mark reveal a synonymous relationship between the verb euangelizo and a Greek verb kerusso, which means "to proclaim". Some Christians distinguish between evangelism and proselytism, the latter viewed as unethical because it is taken to involve the abuse of people's freedom and the distortion of the gospel of grace by means of coercion, deception and exploitation; the term "proselytize" might be used when one group does not approve of the missional activities of another when one group is losing members to another group. Different denominations follow different theological interpretations which reflect upon the point of, doing the actual conversion, whether the evangelist or the Holy Spirit or both. Calvinists, among other Christian denominations, believe the soul is converted salutary to Christ only if the Holy Spirit is effective in the act. Catholic missionary work in Russia is seen as evangelism, not proselytism. Archbishop Kondrusiewicz stated, "that proselytism is unacceptable and cannot constitute a strategy for the development of our structures either in Russia or in any other country in the world".
Regarding claims by the Orthodox church that spreading the faith and receiving converts amounts to proselytism, the Catholic Church's Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith issued a document called "Doctrinal Note on some Aspects of Evangelization" which states that evangelism is "an inalienable right and duty, an expression of religious liberty...", added, "The incorporation of new members into the Church is not the expansion of a power group, but rather entrance into the network of friendship with Christ which connects heaven and earth, different continents and age. It is entrance into the gift of communion with Christ...." In recent history, certain Bible passages have been used to promote evangelism. William Carey, in a book entitled,'An Enquiry into the Obligations of Christians to Use Means for the Conversion of the Heathens' popularised a quotation, according to the Bible, during his last days on earth Jesus commanded his eleven disciples as follows: Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you.
And I am with you always, to the end of the age. However, recent scholarship by Chris Wright and others has suggested that such activity is promoted by the entire Bible, or at least the wider term'mission', although the meaning of the word'mission' and its relationship to'evangelism' is disputed amongst Christians. Breaking from tradition and going beyond television and radio a wide range of methods have been developed to reach people not inclined to attend traditional events in churches or revival meetings. Dramas such as Heaven's Gates, Hell's Flames have gained enormous popularity since the 1980s; these dramas depict fictional characters who die and learn whether they will go to heaven or hell. The child evangelism movement is a Christian evangelism movement that originated in the 20th century, it focuses on the 4/14 Window which centers on evangelizing children between the ages of 4 and 14 years old. Beginning in the 1970s, a group of Christian athletes known as The Power Team spawned an entire genre of Christian entertainment based on strong-man exploits mixed with a Christian message and accompanied by an opportunity to respond with a prayer for salvation.
Other entertainment-based Christian evangelism events include live theater and music. The Christian music industry has played a significant role in modern evangelism. Rock concerts in which the artist exhort non-believing attendees to pray a prayer for salvation have become common, just as common are concerts that are focused on activity not on prayer and conversion, thus forming an environment, not driven by conversion, but instead relaying of a message. Evangelists such as Reinhard Bonnke conduct mass evangelistic crusades around the world. Hundreds of church denominations and organizations participate in an evangelism movement known as the Billion Soul Harvest, a comprehensive initiative to convert a billion people to Christianity. New opportunities for evangelization have been provided in recen
Mirror Image (The Twilight Zone)
"Mirror Image" is episode 21 of the American television anthology series The Twilight Zone. It aired on February 26, 1960 on CBS. Millicent Barnes waits in a bus depot in Marathon, New York, for a bus to Cortland, en route to a new job. Looking at a wall clock she notices, she asks the ticket agent when the bus will arrive, he gruffly complains that this is her third time asking. Millicent denies this. While speaking with the ticket agent, she notices a bag just like hers in the luggage pile behind her, she mentions this to the ticket agent. She does not believe this, she washes her hands in the restroom and the cleaning lady there insists this is her second time there. Again, Millicent denies this. Upon leaving the restroom, she glances in the mirror and sees, in addition to her reflection, an exact copy of herself sitting on the bench outside, she meets a young man from Binghamton named Paul Grinstead, waiting for the same bus. Millicent tells Paul about encountering her double. Paul, attempting to calm Millicent, says it is either a joke or a misunderstanding caused by a look-alike.
When the bus arrives and the two of them prepare to board, Millicent looks in the window and sees the copy of herself seated on the bus. In shock, she faints. Millicent lies unconscious on a bench inside the depot while Paul and the cleaning lady attend to her. Paul agrees to wait for the 7:00 bus. While they wait, now coming to, insists the strange events are caused by an evil double from a parallel world - a nearby, yet distant alternative plane of existence that comes into convergence with this world by powerful forces, or unnatural, unknown events; when this happens, the impostors enter this realm. Millicent's doppelgänger can survive in this world only by replacing her. Paul says the explanation is "a little metaphysical" for him, believes that Millicent's sanity is beginning to unravel. Paul tells Millicent he will call a friend in Tully who has a car and may be able to drive them to Syracuse. Instead, he calls the police. After Millicent is taken away by two policemen, Paul begins to settle himself.
After drinking from a water fountain, Paul notices. Looking up towards the doors, Paul notices another man running out the door of the bus depot. Pursuing this individual down the street, Paul discovers that he is chasing his own copy, whose face shows excited delight, his copy disappears as Paul calls out "Where are you?" while looking around in confusion and shock. Vera Miles as Millicent Barnes Martin Milner as Paul Grinstead Joe Hamilton as Ticket agent Naomi Stevens as Washroom Attendant In a short film pitching the Twilight Zone series to a Dutch television station, creator Rod Serling claimed to have gotten the idea for "Mirror Image" following an encounter at an airport. Serling noticed a man at the other side of the terminal who wore the same clothes and carried the same suitcase as himself. However, the man turned out to be younger and "more attractive"; this is one of several episodes from season one with its opening title sequence plastered over with the opening for season two. This was done during the Summer of 1961 as to help the season one shows fit in with the new look the show had taken during the following season.
This episode inspired Jordan Peele's 2019 film Us. DeVoe, Bill.. Trivia from The Twilight Zone. Albany, GA: Bear Manor Media. ISBN 978-1-59393-136-0 Grams, Martin.. The Twilight Zone: Unlocking the Door to a Television Classic. Churchville, MD: OTR Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9703310-9-0 "Mirror Image" on IMDb
Walter Reed, better known by his stage name Killah Priest, is an American rapper and Wu-Tang Clan affiliate, raised in Bedford-Stuyvesant and Brownsville, Brooklyn. He is known for his intensely spiritual lyrics, containing religious metaphors, he is connected to the Black Hebrew Israelites through his rhymes, is known for his controversial and political subject matter. He is a part of supergroup the HRSMN along with Canibus, Ras Kass, Kurupt. Killah Priest first made himself known to the hip hop world rapping on two songs on the Gravediggaz album 6 Feet Deep in 1994, followed this with two appearances on each of two Wu-Tang Clan solo albums, Ol' Dirty Bastard's Return to the 36 Chambers: The Dirty Version and GZA's Liquid Swords, both from 1995. Liquid Swords in fact included a Killah Priest solo track titled "B. I. B. L. E.". In 1995, Priest's group Sunz Of Man with rappers Hell Razah, 60 Second Assassin, Prodigal Sunn, Shabazz the Disciple were signed to Wu-Tang Records and released three 12" singles through the label.
Sunz Of Man included Shabazz the Disciple, in a duo with Priest called The Disciples Of Armageddon. Killah Priest's first solo album was Heavy Mental, released on Geffen Records on February 24, 1998, it expanded on the themes of "B. I. B. L. E.", featuring religious references and allegory woven into commentary on African American society and history. The album was produced by the Wu-Elements producers, a group of in-house Wu-Tang producers mentored by Wu leader RZA. Sunz Of Man released their debut album The Last Shall Be First in 1998, but by that time Priest's ties to the Wu were beginning to weaken, as he and long-time friend Shabazz clashed with RZA. After unsuccessful attempts by the pair to create new post-Wu Tang crews they both went their separate ways and cut their respective Wu-Tang ties. After leaving the Wu stable, also leaving Sunz Of Man, Priest helped form the hip hop supergroup The HRSMN with Ras Kass and Kurupt. In October 2003, Killah Priest and Dreddy Kruger released a nine track album entitled The Horsemen Project.
It was released independently through Think Differently Music/Proverbs Music Inc. and was only available to purchase off the internet. Each track featured at least two members of the group as well as an appearance by Pak Man, it is unknown who handled the majority of the production on the album, although it is known that Mark Sparks was responsible for two songs. On Killah Priest's HipHopGame.com journal, he mentions the Horsemen a few times. The talks about a new album were mentioned on the May 2006 entry, he said "The Horsemen project is going to come. Right now we just have to get Kurupt. He's been doing the Dogg Pound thing, but it's going to come. We have songs recorded and we have more in store."Ras Kass and Canibus were featured on Priest's second album, View From Masada, which featured no Wu-Tang input whatsoever. The album had a decidedly more commercially minded style than Heavy Mental, introduced his new Maccabeez crew, featuring a crew of then-unknown rappers; the album was an important early stepping stone to stardom for producer Just Blaze, who would go on to produce countless mainstream hip hop hits for the likes of Cam'ron, Erick Sermon and Jay-Z.
However, View From Masada received mixed reviews. Priest had to leave the major labels behind after View From Masada sold poorly, his first independent release Priesthood, released on Proverbs Music, his own record label, was critically acclaimed though it suffered from limited distribution. Black August followed in 2003 on Recon Records, was well received. Priest released an album on the Internet titled Black August Revisited a few months after the release of Black August which shared few similarities with the original, save its title. Black August Revisited saw Priest rediscover his Wu-Tang ties, including collaborations with Hell Razah and Ol' Dirty Bastard, he appeared in the music video for the single "Made You Look" by fellow New York rapper Nas. In 2009, Killah Priest launched the controversial music video "Redemption" directed by One_Over; the video promotes the beliefs of the Black Hebrew Israelites that believe in the 12 Tribes of Israel in the name of Jesus Christ. In 2004, Priest performed numerous times with other Wu-Tang Killa Beez and appeared on Masta Killa's album No Said Date.
November 2005 saw the re-release of Priesthood on Mic Club Music, a label owned by Louis Lombard III, who produced Priesthood as well as recent albums by Canibus. March 2007 saw the release of Killah Priest's mixtape album "End of the World". On August 21, 2007, Killah Priest released The Offering, sequenced by his former manager, Stacey Castro and featured appearances from Nas, Immortal Technique, his fellow HRSMN, & 4th Disciple as well as Hell Razah, who appears on the advance single title track, released in October 2005. Killah Priest next album titled Behind the Stained Glass, was released on May 20, 2008 on the label Good Hands Records, it is reported that he's in the midst of recording Behind the Stained Glass Part Two. Killa
A telephone directory called a telephone book, telephone address book, phone book, or the white/yellow pages, is a listing of telephone subscribers in a geographical area or subscribers to services provided by the organization that publishes the directory. Its purpose is to allow the telephone number of a subscriber identified by name and address to be found; the advent of the Internet and smartphones in the 21st century reduced the need for a paper phone book. Some communities, such as Seattle and San Francisco, sought to ban their unsolicited distribution as wasteful and harmful to the environment. Subscriber names are listed in alphabetical order, together with their postal or street address and telephone number. In principle every subscriber in the geographical coverage area is listed, but subscribers may request the exclusion of their number from the directory for a fee. A telephone directory may provide instructions: how to use the telephone service, how to dial a particular number, be it local or international, what numbers to access important and emergency services, hospitals and organizations who can provide support in times of crisis.
It may have civil defense or emergency management information. There may be transit maps, postal code/zip code guides, international dialing codes or stadium seating charts, as well as advertising. In the US, under current rules and practices, mobile phone and voice over IP listings are not included in telephone directories. Efforts to create cellular directories have met stiff opposition from several fronts, including those who seek to avoid telemarketers. A telephone directory and its content may be known by the color of the paper. White pages indicates personal or alphabetic listings. Yellow pages, golden pages, A2Z, or classified directory is a "business directory", where businesses are listed alphabetically within each of many classifications always with paid advertising. Grey pages, sometimes called a "reverse telephone directory", allowing subscriber details to be found for a given number. Not available in all jurisdictions. Other colors may have other meanings. Telephone directories can be published in electronic form.
In the latter case, the directory can be used provided as an online service through proprietary terminals or over the Internet, or on physical media such as CD-ROM. In many countries directories are both published in book form and available over the Internet. Printed directories were supplied free of charge. Telephone directories are a type of city directory. Books listing the inhabitants of an entire city were published starting in the 18th century, before the invention of the telephone; the first telephone directory, consisting of a single piece of cardboard, was issued on 21 February 1878. The first British telephone directory was published on 15 January 1880 by The Telephone Company, it contained 248 addresses of individuals and businesses in London. The directory is preserved as part of the British phone book collection by BT Archives. In 1938, AT&T commissioned the creation of a new type font, known as BELL GOTHIC, the purpose of, to be readable at small font sizes when printed on newsprint where small imperfections were common.
In 1981 France was the first country to have an electronic directory on a system called Minitel. The directory is called "11" after its telephone access number. In 1991 the U. S. Supreme Court ruled that telephone companies do not have a copyright on telephone listings, because copyright protects creativity and not the mere labor of collecting existing information. 1996 was the year the first telephone directories went online in the USA. Yellowpages.com and Whitepages.com both saw their start in April. In 1999, the first online telephone directories and people-finding sites such as LookupUK.com went online in the UK. In 2003, more advanced UK searching including Electoral Roll became available on LocateFirst.com. In the 21st century, printed telephone directories are criticized as waste. In 2012, after some North American cities passed laws banning the distribution of telephone books, an industry group sued and obtained a court ruling permitting the distribution to continue. Manufacture and distribution of telephone directories produces over 1,400,000 metric tons of greenhouse gases and consumes over 600,000 tons of paper annually.
A reverse telephone directory is sorted by number, which can be looked up to give the name and address of the subscriber. Ripping phone books in half has been considered a feat of strength. There are Guinness World Records for ripping the most phone books within a specific time period: the record for most phone books ripped within three minutes was established by Tina Shelton in 2007 for females and by Edward Charon in 2006 for males; the 1984 James Cameron film The Terminator features a titular'cyborg assassin' antagonist sent back in time to murder the character Sarah Connor. Knowing only the name and general location of the target, the cyborg uses telephone direc
Television in the United States
Television is one of the major mass media of the United States. As of 2011, household ownership of television sets in the country is 96.7%, with 114,200,000 American households owning at least one television set as of August 2013. The majority of households have more than one set; the peak ownership percentage of households with at least one television set occurred during the 1996–97 season, with 98.4% ownership. As a whole, the television networks that broadcast in the United States are the largest and most distributed in the world, programs produced for U. S.-based networks are the most syndicated internationally. Due to a recent surge in the number and popularity of critically acclaimed television series during the 2000s and the 2010s to date, many critics have said that American television is undergoing a modern golden age. In the United States, television is available via broadcast – the earliest method of receiving television programming, which requires an antenna and an equipped internal or external tuner capable of picking up channels that transmit on the two principal broadcast bands high frequency and ultra high frequency, in order to receive the signal – and four conventional types of multichannel subscription television: cable, unencrypted satellite, direct-broadcast satellite television and IPTV.
There are competing video services on the World Wide Web, which have become an popular mode of television viewing since the late 2000s with younger audiences as an alternative or a supplement to the aforementioned traditional forms of viewing television content. Individual broadcast television stations in the U. S. transmit on either VHF channels 2 through 13 or UHF channels 14 through 51. During the era of analog television, broadcast stations transmitted on a single universal channel; the UHF band spanned from channels 14 to 83, though the Federal Communications Commission has twice rescinded the high-end portions of the band from television broadcasting use for emergency and other telecommunications purposes in 1983 and 2009. As in other countries, television stations require a license to broadcast and must comply with certain requirements in order to retain it. Free-to-air and subscription television networks, are not required to file for a license to operate. Over-the-air and free-to-air television do not necessitate any monthly payments, while cable, direct broadcast satellite, IPTV and virtual MVPD services require monthly payments that vary depending on the number of channels that a subscriber chooses to pay for in a particular package.
Channels are sold in groups, rather than singularly. Most conventional subscription television services offer a limited basic tier, a minimum base package that includes only broadcast stations within the television market where the service is located, public and government access cable channels. Elevated programming tiers start with an expanded basic package, offering a selection of subscription channels intended for wide distribution. A la carte subscription services in the U. S. are limited to pay television channels that are offered as add-ons to any programming package that a customer of a multichannel video programming distributor can subscribe to for an additional monthly fee. The United States has a "decentralized", market-oriented television system in regard to broadcast television; the nation has a national publi