MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
"Paranoimia" is a song by English synthpop group Art of Noise released in 1986, from their album In Visible Silence. The song's better-known version was a version released as a single, featuring television character Max Headroom on vocals; this version was first featured on the 1986 album Re-Works of Art of Noise. The 7" single features a monologue about Max Headroom being scared and unable to sleep; the 12" has a different vocal with Headroom as a master of ceremonies, talking about the music and introducing the band - which he identifies as Peter O'Toole on trumpet, Martina Navratilova on bass, Cher on vocals, the Pope on drums. The 12" single was available on a one-sided cassette tape with the following track listing: Paranoimia - 6:40 Paranoimia - 3:18 Why Me? - 2:56 A Nation Rejects - 2:57Some issues of the CD In Visible Silence, most notably the US version, include the single version in place of the original version, which did not include the Max Headroom vocals. Paranoimia at Zang Tuum Tumb Discography
Below the Waste
Below the Waste is Art of Noise's fourth full-length original album and their last album for China Records before Anne Dudley reformed with ZTT's Trevor Horn and Paul Morley for 1999's The Seduction of Claude Debussy. The album saw the group experimenting with world music, collaborating with South African Zulu group Mahlathini and the Mahotella Queens, who provide a heavy layer of non-English-language vocals on three tracks; the album was produced by Anne Dudley, Ted Hayton and J. J. Jeczalik; the album represents the diverging interests of the two remaining members of the original group, Anne Dudley and J. J. Jeczalik. Dudley's influence is evident in the album's ambient interludes of melodic, orchestral pieces, while Jeczalik's influence can be heard in the album's dub tracks and harder, rock-edged pieces; the latter songs feature arrangements more typical of the band's earlier material, utilising sampling techniques, lengthy fade-outs, a diverse mixture of classical instruments, guitar riffs and percussion typical of industrial music.
Like its predecessor, In No Sense? Nonsense!, the album features cover versions of recorded themes composed for television and film, namely "Robinson Crusoe" and "James Bond Theme", submitted for the soundtrack of the 1989 James Bond film Licence to Kill and subsequently rejected by the film's producers.. The "Emphasis Speakers" on the album cover were designed by Morten Villiers Warren for B&W; the orchestra was led by John Bradbury. Although the album was praised for its collaboration with Mahlathini and the Mahotella Queens, the reviews for the album were negative, with Allmusic music reviewer Dean Carlson calling the album a'misfire' and compared it to'world mall-music'. "Dan Dare" - 6:01 "Yebo" - 7:11 "Catwalk" - 5:29 "Promenade 1" - 0:32 "Dilemma" - 3:00 "Island" - 5:49 "Chain Gang" - 3:07 "Promenade 2" - 0:38 "Back To Back" - 3:53 "Flashback" - 1:45 "Spit" - 3:31 "Robinson Crusoe" - 3:47 "James Bond Theme" - 5:18 "Finale" - 2:38 Anne Dudley, Frank Ricotti, Hilda Tloubatla, J. J. Jeczalik, Keith Beauvais, Luis Jardim, Mildred Mangxola, Nobesuthu Mbadu, Simon Mahlathini Nkabinde, Simon Morton, Ted Hayton, West Nkosi Mahlathini and the Mahotella Queens - vocals on "Yebo", "Chain Gang" and "Spit" John Bradbury - orchestra leader Below the Waste at MusicBrainz Art Of Noise – Below The Waste at Discogs
In music, sampling is the reuse of a portion or sample of a sound recording in another recording. Samples may comprise rhythm, speech, or other sounds, they are integrated using hardware or software such as digital audio workstations. A process similar to sampling originated in the 1940s with musique concrète, experimental music created by splicing and looping tape; the term sampling was coined by in the late 1970s by the creators of the Fairlight CMI, an influential early sampler that became a staple of 1980s pop music. The 1988 release of the first Akai MPC, an affordable sampler with an intuitive interface, made sampling accessible to a wider audience. Sampling is a foundation of hip hop music, with producers sampling funk and soul records drum breaks, which could be rapped over. Musicians have created albums assembled from samples, such as DJ Shadow's 1996 album Endtroducing; the practice has influenced all genres of music and is important to electronic music, hip hop and pop. Sampling without permission can infringe copyright.
The process of acquiring permission for a sample is known as clearance, which can be a complex and costly process. Landmark legal cases, such as Grand Upright Music, Ltd. v. Warner Bros. Records Inc in 1991, changed how samples are used; as the court ruled that unlicensed sampling constitutes copyright infringement, samples from well known sources are now prohibitively expensive. In the 1940s, Pierre Schaeffer developed musique concrète, an experimental form of music created by recording sounds to tape, splicing them, manipulating them to create sound collages, he created pieces using recordings of sounds including the human body and kitchen utensils. The method involved the creation of tape loops, splicing lengths of tape end to end, by which a sound could be played indefinitely. Schaeffer developed a tape recorder, the Phonogene, which played loops at twelve different pitches triggered by a keyboard. Composers including John Cage, Edgar Varèse, Karheinz Stockhausen and Iannis Xenakis experimented with musique concrète, Bebe and Louis Barron used it to create the first electronic film soundtrack, for the 1956 science fiction film Forbidden Planet.
It was brought to a mainstream audience by the BBC Radiophonic Workshop, which used these early sampling techniques to produce soundtracks for shows including Doctor Who. In the 1960s, Jamaican dub reggae producers such as King Tubby and Lee "Scratch" Perry began using pre-recorded samples of reggae rhythms to produce riddim tracks, which were deejayed over. Jamaican immigrants introduced dub sampling techniques to American hip hop music in the 1970s; the term sampling was coined by in the late 1970s by Kim Ryrie and Peter Vogel to describe a feature of their Fairlight CMI synthesizer. Designers of early samplers used the term to describe the technical process of the instruments, rather than to describe how users would use the feature. While developing the Fairlight, Vogel sampled around a second of a piano piece from a radio broadcast, discovered that he could imitate a real piano by playing the sample back at different pitches, he recalled in 2005: It sounded remarkably like a piano, a real piano.
This had never been done before... By today's standards it was a pretty awful piano sound, but at the time it was a million times more like a piano than anything any synthesiser had churned out. So I realised that we didn't have to bother with all the synthesis stuff. Just take the sounds, whack them in the memory and away you go. Compared to samplers, the Fairlight offered limited control over samples, it allowed control over pitch and envelope, could only record a few seconds of sound. However, its ability to sample and play back acoustic sounds became its most popular feature. Though the concept of reusing recordings in larger recordings was not new, the Fairlight's built-in sequencer and design made the process simple. According to the Guardian, the Fairlight was the "first world-changing sampler". Though it was it was unaffordable for most hobbyists, early users included Kate Bush, Peter Gabriel, Thomas Dolby, Duran Duran, Herbie Hancock, Todd Rundgren and Ebn Ozn. An early pulse-code modulation digital sampler was Toshiba's LMD-649, created in 1981 by engineer Kenji Murata for Japanese electronic music band Yellow Magic Orchestra, who used it for extensive sampling and looping in their 1981 album Technodelic.
The LMD-649 played and recorded PCM samples at 12-bit audio depth and 50 kHz sampling rate, stored in 128 KB of dynamic RAM. The success of the Fairlight inspired competitors, improving the technology and driving down prices dramatically. Early competitors included the E-mu Emulator and the Akai S950. Drum machines such as the Oberheim DMX and Linn LM-1 began incorporating samples of drum kits rather than generating sounds from circuits; the designers of early samplers anticipated that users would sample short sounds, such as drum hits or individual notes, to use as "building blocks" for compositions. However and producers began sampling longer passages of music. In the words of Greg Milner, author of Perfecting Sound Forever, "They didn't just want the sound of John Bonham's kick drum, they wanted to loop and repeat the whole of'When the Levee Breaks'." Roger Linn, designer of the LM-1 and MPC, said: "It was a pleasant surprise. After sixty years of recording, there are so many. Why reinvent the wheel?"In response to demand, samplers such as E-mu's SP-1200 were developed to allow users to store longer samples.
In 1988, Akai released the first MPC sampler, which allowed artists to assign samples to separate pads and trigger them independently to playing a keyboard or drum kit. It h
And What Have You Done with My Body, God?
And What Have You Done with My Body, God? is a 4 CD collection of over 40 unreleased tracks and scrapped masters by Art of Noise. It features the complete vinyl version of Into Battle with the Art of Noise – sourced from the original masters – for the first time on CD; the project was conceived and compiled by music journalist Ian Peel, who wrote the box set's accompanying 36-page book, which featured new interviews with all of the original members. All songs written by Anne Dudley, Trevor Horn, J. J. Jeczalik, Gary Langan, Paul Morley CD 1 - THE VERY START OF NOISE Beat Box Once upon a lime War Close to the Edge Confession Moments in Love Sign of Relief Who's Afraid of Scale? So what happens now? The subject has moved left It's not fair Close to the Edge A Time for Fear Moments in bed Hands off love CD 2 - FOUND SOUNDS & FIELD TRIPS Moments in Love Tears Out of a Stone Samba #2 The Chain of Chance Fairlight-in-the-being Diversions 3 Close Diversions 5 Damn it all! Structure The Angel Reel: Hymn 1 The Angel Reel: Hymn 3 The Angel Reel: Fairground And what have you done with my body, God?
Klimax Who knew? CD 3 - WHO'S AFRAID OF... GOODBYE War The Focus of Satisfaction Moments in Love It Stopped The Uncertainty of Syrup The Long Hello The Vacuum Devine The Ambassadors Reel: Beat Box The Ambassadors Reel: Medley The Ambassadors Reel: Oobly Goodbye Art of Noise Moments in Love CD 4 - EXTENDED PLAYINTO BATTLE WITH THE ART OF NOISE Battle Beat Box The Army Now Donna Moments in Love Bright Noise Flesh in Armour Comes and Goes Moment in Love That was Close, Diversion Eight, Diversion Two, Close-Up, Closed Moments in Love Love Beat In Case We Sneezed A Time to Hear Donna Battle Outtakes Authorised Art of Noise website
Leftism is the debut studio album by English electronic music duo Leftfield, released in 1995 on Columbia Records. It contained a mixture of new tracks along with reworked versions of previous Leftfield singles; the album contains guest spots from musicians not associated with dance music at the time such as John Lydon from Public Image Ltd. and Toni Halliday from Curve. The album was described as progressive house, although some journalists found that label too limiting, suggesting the album incorporated many genres. After completing the album, the duo were not pleased with it. On its release, the album was well received from the British press with positive reviews from the NME and Q; the album was lost to Portishead. Leftism sold well and was released months in the United States. Critics have praised the album as one of the major album-length works of dance music, with Q referring to it as "the first complete album experience to be created by house musicians and the first quintessentially British one".
Leftism is an album that consists of singles recorded by Leftfield members Paul Daley and Neil Barnes between 1992 and 1995, with the exception of the single "Not Forgotten", not included, other new tracks. These earlier singles included "Release The Pressure", "Song of Life", "Open Up"; some of these singles were changed drastically from their original versions for Leftism. Barnes stated that "rethinking and re-recording a few of our older tracks put us on the right road."Barnes chose the guest vocalists who were not associated with dance music, as he "love taking people with nothing to do with dance music, like Toni, or Danny Red, putting them in a different environment, It's getting back to the original ethic of remixing, taking anything and turning it into dance music." Barnes was a fan of the group Curve, had Toni Halliday from Curve to come in and work on the song "Original". "Open Up" features John Lydon on vocals. Neil Barnes stated. Leftfield wanted to do a track with Lydon for about two years but were held up as "it took all that time to get him to commit to doing it and to get the track good enough."
Two reggae vocalists are featured on the album, including Danny Red on "Inspection" and Earl Sixteen on "Release the Pressure". Lemn Sissay guests on "21st Century Poem". After completing the production on Leftism, Rob Daley was unhappy with how the album turned out stating that "It sounded shit It seemed to have no cohesion, the tracks just didn't seem to hang well together, but having lived with it for a while it sounds much better." Paul Daley echoed these statements saying "We did all the tracks, listened to them and decided it sounded a fucking mess we went back, messed around with the running order and chopped a lot of things out. Now it sounds complete, something that can be listened to in one go."The album closes with a hidden track that follows an unique sequence: "21st Century Poem" climaxes and cuts off for dramatic effect, after a 30 second period of silence, a sub-bass loop plays. John Bush of the online music database Allmusic stated the album is not a "progressive house LP" and that it "spans a wide range of influences".
Clash expanded on this, describing "Release the Pressure" and "Inspection" as dub influenced tracks while "Storm 3000" is a bass-heavy track that includes jungle rhythms. The Q described "Original" as a "sultry rock / electro fusion" A review in Slant Magazine commented that "Leftism eschews mainstream categorization and manages to reside in the leftfield of all the electronic genres it propagates". Leftism was released on 30 January 1995 in the United Kingdom on Columbia Records. In the United States, it was released on 15 August; the single "Open Up" peaked at number 13 on the UK singles charts. In the United States, "Afro-Left" peaked at number 20 on the Club Play Singles chart in 1995. Leftism sold over 220,000 copies.. On 5 May 2017 the band released Leftism 22; this re-release features a remastered album as well a bonus disc of remixes by current artists, including Adrian Sherwood. Leftism lost to Portishead's Dummy. Mixmag praised the singles for Leftism, stating that "classics like'Release The Pressure' and'Song of Life' were the cement that welded a whole new British house scene together.
London proudly joined the league of house capitals. British dance music has never looked back." The NME praised the album as helping keep British house music alive "when the boffins were getting complacent, the junglists were lining their pockets and the trip-hoppers were muscling in, Leftfield have returned to save the night." The NME gave the album a nine out of ten, declaring that "there's a scope and spirit, an energy and a madness to'Leftism' which'll make it one of the few dance derived that'll stay up there, bouncing around in the great echo chamber of futurity for years." Q awarded the album four stars out of five, stating that "Leftfield unleash some of the most thumping techno to be housed under a major label" and "On this evidence, Leftfield join Underworld, The Prodigy and Orbital as dance acts to prove themselves across an album."Pitchfork gave a negative reception to Leftism when reviewing the group's follow-up Rhythm and Stealth, stating that when Leftism was released "few could say it was worth the wait" and "Had'Open Up' and'Release the Pressure' not been included in its track listing, it seems unlikely that anyone would be talking about Leftfield nowadays."
Reviews of the album were positive. In 2000, Q gave a re-issue of the album four stars out of five, opining that "It's hard
Kiss (Prince song)
"Kiss" is a song composed and produced by American singer and musician Prince, released as the lead single from Prince and The Revolution's eighth studio album, Parade, in February 5, 1986, by the Paisley Park label. It was a number-one hit worldwide, holding the number-one spot of the US Billboard Hot 100 chart for two weeks; the single was certified Gold in 1986 for sales of 1,000,000 copies by the RIAA. The song ranked number 464 on the Rolling Stone list of the 500 Greatest Songs of All Time. NME ranked the song number 4 in their list of The 150 Greatest Singles of All Time; the same magazine voted "Kiss" the best single of the year 1986. The song featured in the 2006 animated film Happy Feet as part of a mashup with "Heartbreak Hotel" by Elvis Presley performed by Nicole Kidman and Hugh Jackman, respectively. Following Prince's death, the song re-charted on the Billboard Hot 100 at number 28 and jumped to number 23 the week after; the song reached number two on the French Singles Chart. As of April 30, 2016, it has sold 1,330,336 copies in the United States.
Age of Chance and The Art of Noise released versions of the song that were critical and chart successes. The song has a tempo of 112 beats per minute in common time. "Kiss" started as an acoustic demo, with melody and basic song structure written by Prince. Prince gave his demo to the funk band Mazarati for their debut album, they worked on it with producer David Z. In the end, Prince decided to finish the song, retaining David Z's unique, funky rhythm and background vocal arrangement, along with Mazarati's background vocals; the final, minimalist song was a hard sell to Warner Bros. but upon Prince's insistence the song was released and added to Parade. Despite Warner Bros. not wanting to release it as a single, "Kiss" became Prince's third number-one US hit following 1984's successful "When Doves Cry" and "Let's Go Crazy". It was a big hit across the Atlantic, reaching number 6 on the UK Singles Chart; the song won Prince another 29th Annual Grammy Awards for Grammy Award for Best R&B Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocals, was nominated for Grammy Award for Best R&B Song.
The song became a staple at Prince's concerts and was sung by the audience. The 12" single of the song is an extension of the album track; the extended section is based on the funky guitar line and contains much fuller instrumentation than the main track, including bass guitar and horns. New lyrics are present from Prince, along with Jill Jones, that end with a humorous dialogue between a wife and her husband watching Prince on television; the B-side of "Kiss" was "♥ or $", sung in a processed, higher-pitched vocal, which Prince would use for his Camille material. The song relates to the theme in Under the Cherry Moon, a bit of the song was heard in the film, as was a bit of the extended version of "Kiss"; the extended "Kiss" was included on 2006's Ultimate. The music video was directed by Rebecca Blake. In the plot of the video, Prince appears in a half shirt and leather jacket and all shirtless and performs dance choreography in a hall; the trousers he wears are strip-off pants. He is accompanied by the veiled dancer Monique Mannen wearing black lingerie and sunglasses while Revolution member Wendy Melvoin sits playing guitar.
Prince – lead vocals and various instruments Mazarati – backing vocals Craig Powell – guitar Tony Christian – keyboards Marr Star – drums Aaron Keith – drums Kevin Patrick – backing vocals 7" single "Kiss" – 3:46 "♥ or $" – 3:5712" single "Kiss" – 7:16 "♥ or $" – 6:50CD single "Kiss" – 7:16 "Girls & Boys" – 5:30 "Under the Cherry Moon" – 2:57Digital Download "Kiss" — 4:49 An industrial cover of the song was released in November 1986 by Age of Chance. Bass player Geoff Taylor described it as: "We removed the sex and replaced it with lump hammers."The band worked out the music from hearing it in clubs and consulted Smash Hits for the lyrics, although they changed them substantially. The band first recorded the track for a Peel session in June 1986, when the Prince version was still in the UK charts, they were inspired by The Fire Engines having covered Heaven 17's " Fascist Groove Thang" for their first Peel session while that song was still in the charts. John Peel got many listener requests to play the track again, it made No. 2 in Peel's Festive Fifty for 1986.
The single version was recorded at Chakk's Fon Studios in Sheffield and released on the Fon label in the UK in November 1986. Its success led to a contract with Virgin Records; the single was accompanied by a video. The sleeve was one of the first major productions by The Designers Republic, helping make their reputation, it was available in white, orange or green. The band recorded a remix called "Kisspower" with Alan Smyth of Fon Studios in November 1986, using Fon's Akai S900 sampler, it included samples from the Prince original, Bruce Springsteen, Run–D. M. C. and other artists. Virgin wanted to release it but it was vetoed by Simon Draper of Virgin America over copyright concerns, it was released as a run of 500 white label promotional copies. It would have been one of the first mainstream sample-based singles, six months before "Pump Up the Volume" and "Say Kids What Time Is It?". "Kisspower" was acclaimed as a "landmark" and a "cut'n'paste trailblazer" by musician's magazine Electronic Sound.
On release, the single achieved Single Of The Wee