A documentary film is a nonfictional motion picture intended to document some aspect of reality for the purposes of instruction, education, or maintaining a historical record. "Documentary" has been described as a "filmmaking practice, a cinematic tradition, mode of audience reception", continually evolving and is without clear boundaries. Documentary films were called'actuality' films and were only a minute or less in length. Over time documentaries have evolved to be longer in length and to include more categories, such as educational and even'docufiction'. Documentaries are educational and used in schools to teach various principles. Social media platforms such as YouTube, have allowed documentary films to improve the ways the films are distributed and able to educate and broaden the reach of people who receive the information. Polish writer and filmmaker Bolesław Matuszewski was among those who identified the mode of documentary film, he wrote two of the earliest texts on cinema Une nouvelle source de l'histoire and La photographie animée.
Both were published in 1898 in French and among the early written works to consider the historical and documentary value of the film. Matuszewski is among the first filmmakers to propose the creation of a Film Archive to collect and keep safe visual materials. In popular myth, the word documentary was coined by Scottish documentary filmmaker John Grierson in his review of Robert Flaherty's film Moana, published in the New York Sun on 8 February 1926, written by "The Moviegoer". Grierson's principles of documentary were that cinema's potential for observing life could be exploited in a new art form. In this regard, Grierson's definition of documentary as "creative treatment of actuality" has gained some acceptance, with this position at variance with Soviet film-maker Dziga Vertov's provocation to present "life as it is" and "life caught unawares"; the American film critic Pare Lorentz defines a documentary film as "a factual film, dramatic." Others further state that a documentary stands out from the other types of non-fiction films for providing an opinion, a specific message, along with the facts it presents.
Documentary practice is the complex process of creating documentary projects. It refers to what people do with media devices, content and production strategies in order to address the creative and conceptual problems and choices that arise as they make documentaries. Documentary filmmaking can be used as a form of advocacy, or personal expression. Early film was dominated by the novelty of showing an event, they were single-shot moments captured on film: a train entering a station, a boat docking, or factory workers leaving work. These short films were called "actuality" films. Many of the first films, such as those made by Auguste and Louis Lumière, were a minute or less in length, due to technological limitations. Films showing many people were made for commercial reasons: the people being filmed were eager to see, for payment, the film showing them. One notable film clocked in at over an hour and The Corbett-Fitzsimmons Fight. Using pioneering film-looping technology, Enoch J. Rector presented the entirety of a famous 1897 prize-fight on cinema screens across the United States.
In May 1896, Bolesław Matuszewski recorded on film few surigical operations in Warsaw and Saint Petersburg hospitals. In 1898, French surgeon Eugène-Louis Doyen invited Bolesław Matuszewski and Clément Maurice and proposed them to recorded his surigical operations, they started in Paris a series of surgical films sometime before July 1898. Until 1906, the year of his last film, Doyen recorded more than 60 operations. Doyen said that his first films taught him how to correct professional errors he had been unaware of. For scientific purposes, after 1906, Doyen combined 15 of his films into three compilations, two of which survive, the six-film series Extirpation des tumeurs encapsulées, the four-film Les Opérations sur la cavité crânienne; these and five other of Doyen's films survive. Between July 1898 and 1901, the Romanian professor Gheorghe Marinescu made several science films in his neurology clinic in Bucharest: Walking Troubles of Organic Hemiplegy, The Walking Troubles of Organic Paraplegies, A Case of Hysteric Hemiplegy Healed Through Hypnosis, The Walking Troubles of Progressive Locomotion Ataxy, Illnesses of the Muscles.
All these short films have been preserved. The professor called his works "studies with the help of the cinematograph," and published the results, along with several consecutive frames, in issues of "La Semaine Médicale" magazine from Paris, between 1899 and 1902. In 1924, Auguste Lumiere recognized the merits of Marinescu's science films: "I've seen your scientific reports about the usage of the cinematograph in studies of nervous illnesses, when I was still receiving "La Semaine Médicale," but back I had other concerns, which left me no spare time to begin biological studies. I must say I am thankful to you that you reminded them to me. Not many scientists have followed your way." Travelogue films were popular in the early part of the 20th century. They were referred to by distributors as "scenics." Scenics were among the most popu
Justine Clarke is an Australian actress and television host. She has been acting since the age of seven and has appeared in some of Australia's best-known TV shows, she is a film and stage actor, won the Best Actress Award at the Mar del Plata International Film Festival in Argentina in 2006 for her role in independent film Look Both Ways. Justine Clarke was born in Sydney. At the age of seven, whilst attending Woollahra Public School with other up and coming talents like Mouche Phillips and Deni Hines, she began appearing in television commercials, one of, Arnott's Humphrey B. Bear biscuits. At eleven she played the role of Brigitta in the stage musical, The Sound of Music. Clarke's first significant acting role was as the character Anna Goanna in the 1985 film Mad Max Beyond Thunderdome; the same year she appeared in the TV series The Maestro's Company and featured in the 1986 mini-series Professor Poopsnaggle's Steam Zeppelin. The following year she made appearances in Willing and Abel. In 1988, Clarke began an eighteen months role on the soap opera and Away, as one of 17 original cast members, playing the character of Ruth "Roo" Stewart.
The character of Roo was reinstated in the cast list in 2010, portrayed by Georgie Parker, making the character of Roo one of only two remaining original characters in the series. Clarke was one of several Home and Away cast-members to star in a stage musical about the soap, which toured the UK in 1991. Following her departure from Home and Away in 1989, Clarke appeared in the short-lived series Family and Friends before going on to act in several mini-series including Come In Spinner, Golden Fiddles and Tracks of Glory. Clarke's film Turning April in 1996 was followed by Blackrock with Heath Ledger in 1997. More she has starred in the films Danny Deckchair and Look Both Ways; the role of Meryl Lee in Look Both Ways scored Clarke a nomination for an Australian Film Institute Lead Actress award in 2005 and the award for Best Actress at the Mar del Plata International Film Festival. In 1999, Clarke became a presenter on long-running ABC Kids television program, Play School, a role that she maintains to the present day.
The first time I stepped onto that set I felt like I was a child again and I had climbed into the television! I remember feeling nervous about meeting old pros like Jemima and Big Ted, but they were warm and welcoming and just the same as they are on the show. After appearing in three episodes of the series Wildside, she played Dr Samantha O'Hara in 21 episodes of All Saints, she played the leading role in the Australian medical drama The Surgeon and appeared in the third season of the critically acclaimed Australian TV Drama series Love My Way, as Simone, the estranged sister of Asher Keddie's Julia. 2009 saw Clarke star in the Showcase television series Tangle. In 2012, she appeared in Woodley. Other television appearances followed, including playing the role of Bernadette in The Time of Our Lives from 2013-2014. In 2010, Clarke starred in the short film Peekaboo, she has provided the voice of Miss Cassandra in the Maya The Bee films. Clarke created the popular children's television series The Justine Clarke Show!, which premiered in 2017 on ABC KIDS.
An experienced stage actor, Clarke has worked with the Sydney Theatre Company in productions such as The Man with Five Children, Trelawey of the Wells, Cyrano de Bergerac, The Herbal Bed, Hedda Gabler and Muriel's Wedding, for Belvoir Company B in Michael Gow's Toy Symphony. Clarke has released multiple gold and platinum-selling albums and DVDs of Children's music through ABC Music, her albums include I Like To Sing. Clarke has twice won the ARIA Award for Best Children's Album, in 2013 for A Little Day Out With Justine Clarke and in 2018 for The Justine Clarke Show!. Music videos for some of Clarke's most well-known songs, including'Watermelon' and'Dinosaur Roar', are broadcast on ABC KIDS TV. In 2016, Clarke collaborated with singer-songwriter Josh Pyke on'Words Make The World Go Around', a song to celebrate and raise funds for the work of the Indigenous Literacy FoundationIn the 1990s, Clarke performed in a number of bands with fellow Australian thespians, including Loene Carmen and Noah Taylor.
These groups included western combo The Honky Tonk Angels. In the late'90s she was a backing vocalist in the Sydney band Automatic Cherry, which featured The Cruel Sea guitarist James Cruickshank; the band released the album Slow Burner in 1997. In 2014, Clarke teamed up with Tex Perkins for series of shows paying tribute to Lee Hazlewood and Nancy Sinatra. Clarke is a jazz vocalist and cabaret singer, popular on the Sydney club circuit. Clarke has three children named Josef and Max with her husband, actor Jack Finsterer and are living in Sydney. I Like To Sing Songs To Make You Smile Great Big World A Little Day Out With Justine Clarke Pyjama Jam! The Justine Clarke Show! Official website Justine Clarke on IMDb
Brooklyn Academy of Music
The Brooklyn Academy of Music is a performing arts venue in Brooklyn, New York City, known as a center for progressive and avant garde performance. It presented its first performance in 1861 and began operations in its present location in 1908. Katy Clark has been president since 2015 and David Binder became artistic director in 2019. Founded in 1861, the first BAM facility at 176–194 Montague Street in Brooklyn Heights was conceived as the home of the Philharmonic Society of Brooklyn; the building, designed by architect Leopold Eidlitz, housed a large theater seating 2,109, a smaller concert hall and chorus rooms, a vast "baronial" kitchen. BAM presented amateur and professional music and theater productions, including performers such as Ellen Terry, Edwin Booth, Fritz Kreisler. After the building burned to the ground on November 30, 1903, plans were made to relocate to a new facility in the fashionable neighborhood of Fort Greene; the cornerstone was laid at 30 Lafayette Avenue in 1906 and a series of opening events were held in the fall of 1908 culminating in a grand gala evening featuring Geraldine Farrar and Enrico Caruso in a Metropolitan Opera production of Charles Gounod's Faust.
The Met would continue to present seasons in Brooklyn, featuring star singers such as Caruso until 1921. BAM is adjacent to downtown Brooklyn, near the Long Island Rail Road's Atlantic Terminal, the Barclays Center arena, the Williamsburgh Savings Bank Tower, once the tallest building in Brooklyn. BAM is part of the Brooklyn Cultural District. In 1967, Harvey Lichtenstein was appointed executive director and during his 32 years in that role, BAM experienced a turnaround, attracting audiences with new programming and establishing an endowment. BAM, a multi-venue cultural center, hosts the annual Next Wave Festival in the fall, it began in 1983, features performances by international and American artists. Its Winter/Spring season of theater and music is presented from January through June. Humanities and events for children take place throughout the year, plus first-run and repertory films and series. From 1999 to 2015, Karen Brooks Hopkins was president and Joseph V. Melillo was executive producer through 2018.
Artists who have presented work at BAM include Philip Glass, Trisha Brown, Peter Brook, Pina Bausch, Merce Cunningham, Bill T. Jones/Arnie Zane Company, Laurie Anderson, Lee Breuer, ETHEL, Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, Steve Reich, Mark Morris, Robert Wilson, Peter Sellars, BLACKstreet, Ingmar Bergman, Ralph Lemon, Ivo van Hove, the Mariinsky Theater and conducted by Valery Gergiev, among others. Lichtenstein gave a home to the Chelsea Theater Center, in residence from 1967–77. Another regular event is a festival focusing on independent films. BAM's facilities include: The Peter Jay Sharp Building houses the Howard Gilman Opera House and the BAM Rose Cinemas, it was designed by the firm Herts & Tallant in 1908. It is a "U" shaped building with an open court in the center of the lot between two theater wings above the first story; the building has a high base of gray granite with cream colored brick trimmed in terra cotta with some marble detail above. It is located within the Fort Greene Historic District.
The Howard Gilman Opera House has 2,109 seats and BAM Rose Cinemas, which opened in 1998, comprises four screens, shows first-run and repertory films and series. Within the Peter Jay Sharp Building is the Lepercq Space a ballroom and now a flexible event space which houses the BAMcafé, the Hillman Attic Studio, a flexible rehearsal/performing space; the 874-seat BAM Harvey Theater known as the Majestic Theater, was named in Lichtenstein's honor in 1999. A renovation by architect Hugh Hardy left the interior paint faded, with exposed masonry, giving the theater a unique feel of a "modern ruin." In April 2014, CNN named the BAM Harvey as one of the "15 of the World's Most Spectacular Theaters". Today, the BAM Harvey has become a top choice of venues at BAM among directors and actors for presenting traditional theater; the BAM Fisher Building, opened in 2012 contains Fishman Space, a 250-seat black box theater, Fisher Hillman Studio, a flexible rehearsal and performance space. The BAM Hamm Archives is located off-site in Crown Heights at 1000 Dean St. and maintains the publicly accessible Levy Digital Archive.
The BAM Sharp and Fisher Buildings are located within the Brooklyn Academy of Music Historic District created by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission in 1978. List of museums and cultural institutions in New York City List of concert halls Notes Brooklyn Academy of Music Brooklyn Academy of Music on NYC-ARTS.org Brooklyn Academy of Music on NYCkidsARTS.org Brooklyn Academy of Music at Google Cultural Institute
Santa Barbara International Film Festival
The Santa Barbara International Film Festival is an eleven-day film festival held in Santa Barbara, California since 1986. In 2014, the festival screened over 200 films, including feature films and short films, from different countries and regions. Besides screenings, the festival contains different sections, including celebrity tributes, industry panels and education programs. Though founded in 1986, the festival has changed over years; when the present executive director, Roger Durling, first took over in 2002, he was confused by the low attendances of the film festival. It was believed that he noticed the "Sundance Effect" which refers to the popularity of Sundance Film Festival taken place in January, he decided to move the festival to late January. Durling believed that by holding the film festival just days before Academy Awards in the spring, SBIFF can invite celebrities that have potential to win awards and provide audiences a chance meet them. Over the years, SBIFF has invited numerous potential award-winning celebrities, including Cate Blanchett, Martin Scorsese, Leonardo DiCaprio, Angelina Jolie, Jennifer Lawrence, Kate Winslet, Heath Ledger.
It was believed that Santa Barbara International Film Festival tries to shines a light on independent and ethnic film-makers. In the past, Roger Durling saved a third of his festival's slots to films by Hispanic filmmakers in order to better represent Latino population in the area. Durling decided to add nature films. "Now between you and me, I fall asleep at nature films," he said.'"But hey — they draw a huge crowd." He decided to bring in surf flicks and adventure-sports film that would attract young college students. "Film festivals have a tradition of being for the elite, but they shouldn't be", Durling said. "It should be like a candy store. Anyone should be able to walk in and grab whatever they want."In the past, the festival has honored numerous independent filmmakers. Organizers of the festival have pointed out that some of their honorees were not the most popular stars, they all contributed to the industry at a great level; when Tom Selleck received a salute at SBIFF, Phyllis de Picciotto, the artistic director and founder of the festival back said that "He's not a movie star like Sigourney Weaver, but he's such a special actor who's been all over the place.
He's just tremendously appealing." Modern Master Award Santa Barbara Award Outstanding Performance of the Year The American Riviera™ Award Cinema Vanguard Award Virtuosos Award The Panavision Spirit Award for Independent Cinema The Best International Film Award The Nueva Vision Award for the best Spanish/Latin American film Best Documentary Film Award Bruce Corwin Award for Best Live Action Short Film Bruce Corwin Award for Best Animation Short Film The Fund for Santa Barbara Social Justice Award The Audience Choice Award 10-10-10 Student Filmmaking Competition 10-10-10 Student Screenwriting Competition 2005: Annette Bening 2006: Naomi Watts 2007: Bill Condon 2008: Javier Bardem 2009: Kate Winslet 2010: Julianne Moore 2011: Geoffrey Rush 2013: Daniel Day-Lewis 2014: Oprah Winfrey 2015: Jennifer Aniston 2016: Sylvester Stallone 2017: Isabelle Huppert 2018: Saoirse Ronan 2004: Charlize Theron for The Italian Job and Monster 2005: Kate Winslet for Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind and Finding Neverland 2006: Heath Ledger for Brokeback Mountain 2007: Helen Mirren for The Queen 2008: Angelina Jolie for A Mighty Heart 2009: Penélope Cruz for Elegy and Vicky Cristina Barcelona 2010: Colin Firth for A Single Man 2011: James Franco for 127 Hours 2012: Viola Davis for The Help 2013: Jennifer Lawrence for Silver Linings Playbook and The Hunger Games 2014: Cate Blanchett for Blue Jasmine 2015: Steve Carell for Foxcatcher 2016: Brie Larson for Room & Saoirse Ronan for Brooklyn 2017: Ryan Gosling & Emma Stone for La La Land 2018: Allison Janney & Margot Robbie for I, Tonya 2019: Rami Malek for Bohemian Rhapsody 2004: Diane Lane 2005: Kevin Bacon 2006: Philip Seymour Hoffman 2007: Forest Whitaker 2008: Tommy Lee Jones 2009: Mickey Rourke 2010: Sandra Bullock 2011: Annette Bening 2012: Martin Scorsese 2013: Quentin Tarantino 2014: Robert Redford 2015: Patricia Arquette and Ethan Hawke 2016: Michael Keaton, Rachel McAdams and Mark Ruffalo 2017: Jeff Bridges 2018: Sam Rockwell 2019: Viggo Mortensen One feature of the film festival is the 10-10-10 competition.
Students enrolled at Santa Barbara area high schools and colleges are invited to submit either a 10-page sample of writing for the Screenwriting portion of the competition, or a five-minute sample of their best filmmaking efforts for the directing portion. Ten writers are selected to write one 10-minute script each; those students have ten days to shoot and edit the completed ten-minute short film, during the ten days of the festival. Films are screened and winners are announced on closing night. A selection committee consisting of representatives from each school, Industry professionals and SBIFF representatives select the participants. SBIFF Website Santa Barbara Film Commission Santa Barbara International Film Festival - A Photoessay by Scott London
Melbourne International Film Festival
The Melbourne International Film Festival is an annual film festival held over three weeks in Melbourne, Australia. It is one of the oldest film festivals in the world. MIFF is one of Melbourne's four major film festivals, in addition to the Melbourne International Animation Festival, Melbourne Queer Film Festival and Melbourne Underground Film Festival; as of 2017, the festival's Artistic Director is Michelle Carey. Melbourne is a significant city in the history of film: The Story of the Kelly Gang, the world's first full-length feature film, was filmed in the city. Established in 1952, the Melbourne International Film Festival is one of the oldest film festivals in the world and has become the most notable screen event in Australia. An iconic Melbourne event, the festival takes place annually in various theatres in the Melbourne CBD, presenting an acclaimed screening program including films from local and international filmmakers, alongside industry events. MIFF is the largest film festival in both Australia and the southern hemisphere, is Australia's largest showcase of new Australian cinema.
The 2012 festival generated A$8 million for the Victorian economy. As of 2013, the festival is accredited by the American Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, the Australian Film Institute and the British Academy of Film and Television Arts; as of 2013, the festival's CEO is Maria Amato, Carey is the Artistic Director and Mark Woods is MIFF's Industry Director/Executive Producer. In 2013, the festival program consisted of the following categories: International Panorama - a handpicked selection of world cinema TeleScope – curated program of 12 new films from 12 European Union countries Australian Showcase – new Australian cinema NextGen - a program of films aimed at younger audiences Accent on Asia - showcase of films from Asia-Pacific region Inside the DPRK - two film exploring life within North Korea Juche Showtime: Films of the DPRK - North Korean cinema Defying the Times: Activism on Film – films on political activism Documentaries A League of Their Own: New Arabic Cinema – films from the pan-Arabic world States of Play: American Independents – independent cinema from the United States Masters and Restorations – documentaries on filmmaking and film restorations Backbeat – music films Animation Shining Violence: Italian Giallo – films of the Italian'giallo' subgenre Night Shift – thriller and gore movies This Sporting Life – sporting films Short Film Packages – short film category that features the Accelerator programs, Best MIFF Shorts Screening and the MIFF Shorts Awards Ceremony Pre-Feature Shorts – short films featured prior to feature film screenings Special Events – includes the opening night feature film and a screening at the Melbourne Planetarium Talking Pictures – discussion and Q&A events with the festival's filmmakers and personalities MIFF Premiere Fund – Australian films supported by the MIFF Premiere Fund 37ºSouth - see: #37ºSouth Market The festival is conducted across various venues located in Melbourne and in 2013 the following venues were used: Australian Centre for the Moving Image, Forum Theatre, Greater Union Cinemas, Mandala Festival Wine Bar, Hoyts Melbourne Central, the Arts Centre Melbourne, Kino Cinemas, Wheeler Centre, Village Roadshow Theatrette, Speakeasy Cinema.
The 37ºSouth Market is the only international film financing marketplace to take place during a film festival in Australia or New Zealand. The event occurs during the opening days of the festival and is a forum for around 45 invited sales agents/distributors to meet with up to 100 pre-selected Australian and NZ producers who are seeking co-financing support; as of 2013, the 37ºSouth Market is the exclusive partner of the London's Production Finance Market for Australia and NZ. As of 2013, the 37ºSouth Market has attracted companies such as: Studio Canal, Wild Bunch, Paramount Pictures, BBC Films, HanWay, Miramax Films, Bankside, The Works, eOne, West End, Level K. Since 1962, MIFF has staged a short film competition, as well as numerous feature film award categories, it presents audience popularity awards for feature film and documentary. The festival's inaugural award was'Best Short Film', but the title was changed to'Grand Prix for Best Short Film' in 1965. From 1985 onwards, the Grand Prix has been presented by the City of Melbourne.
People's Choice Award for Best Feature People's Choice Award for Best Documentary TeleScope Best European Feature Award The Age Critics' Award City of Melbourne Grand Prix for Best Short Film Film Victoria Erwin Rado Award for Best Australian Short Film Swinburne Award for Emerging Australian Filmmaker Cinema Nova Award for Best Fiction Short Film Holmesglen Award for Best Animation Short Film BBC Knowledge Award for Best Documentary Short Film The Astor Theatre Award for Best Experimental Short Film Jury Special MentionAs of 2013, the MIFF short film awards are accredited by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, the British Academy of Film and Television Arts and the Australian Academy of Cinema and Television Arts, winners in the Best Short, Best Fiction, Best Animation and Best Documentary categories are eligible to submit their films for Academy Award consideration. The judges for the 2013 MIFF short film awards were Lorin Clarke, Michael Matrenza and Ramona Telecican. During the 58th festival in 2009, the controversial film The 10 Conditions of Love, which documents the life of the exiled Uyghur leader Rebiya Kadeer, was screened despite many attempts by the Go
Australians, colloquially known as Aussies, are citizens and nationals of the Commonwealth of Australia, although some dual citizens and permanent residents may claim Australian nationality. Home to people of many different ethnic origins and national origins, the Australian culture and law does not correspond nationality with race or ethnicity, but with citizenship and loyalty to the country. Despite the fact that over half of the citizens descend from the peoples of the British Isles, Australia is a multicultural society and has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Many early settlements were penal colonies and transported convicts made up a significant proportion of the population in most colonies. Large-scale immigration did not occur. Further waves of immigration occurred after the First and Second World Wars, with many post-World War II migrants coming from Europe, the Middle East, Pacific Islands, Latin America and Africa.
Prior to British settlement, Australia was inhabited by various indigenous peoples – Aboriginal Australians, Aboriginal Tasmanians and Torres Strait Islanders, a Melanesian people. A small percentage of present-day Australians descend from these peoples; the development of a separate Australian identity and national character is most linked with the period surrounding the First World War, which gave rise to the concept of the Anzac spirit. The Eureka Rebellion of 1854 and various events of the Second World War, most notably the Kokoda Track campaign, are frequently mentioned in association with Australian identity. However, Australian culture predates the federation of the Australian colonies by several decades – Australian literature, most notably the work of the bush poets, dates from colonial times. Modern Australian identity draws on a multicultural and British cultural heritage; the majority of Australians or their ancestors immigrated within the past four centuries, with the exception of the Indigenous population and other outer lying islands who became Australian through expansion of the country.
Despite its multi-ethnic composition, the culture of Australia held in common by most Australians can be referred to as mainstream Australian culture, a Western culture derived from the traditions of British and Irish colonists and immigrants. The Colony of New South Wales was established by the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1788, with the arrival of the First Fleet, five other colonies were established in the early 19th century, now forming the six present-day Australian states. Large-scale immigration occurred after the First and Second World Wars, with many post-World War II migrants coming from Southern and Eastern Europe introducing a variety of elements. Immigration from the Middle East and east Asia, Pacific Islands and Latin America has been having an impact; the predominance of the English language, the existence of a democratic system of government drawing upon the British traditions of Westminster Government, Parliamentarianism and constitutional monarchy, American constitutionalist and federalist traditions, Christianity as the dominant religion, the popularity of sports originating in the British Isles, are all evidence of a significant Anglo-Celtic heritage.
Australian culture has diverged since British settlement. Sporting teams representing the whole of Australia have been in existence since the 1870s. Australians are referred to as "Aussie" and "Antipodean". Australians were referred to as "Colonials", "British" and "British subjects"; as a result of many shared linguistic, historical and geographic characteristics, Australians have identified with New Zealanders in particular. Furthermore, elements of Indigenous, American and more recent immigrant customs and religions have combined to form the modern Australian culture. Today, Australians of English and other European descent are the majority in Australia, estimated at around 70% of the total population. European immigrants had great influence over Australian history and society, which resulted in the perception of Australia as a Western country. Since soon after the beginning of British settlement in 1788, people of European descent have formed the majority of the population in Australia; the majority of Australians are of British – English, Welsh, Cornish, or Manx – and Irish ancestral origin.
Although some observers stress Australia's convict history, the vast majority of early settlers came of their own free will. Far more Australians are descended from assisted immigrants than from convicts, the majority being British and Irish. About 20% of Australians are descendants of convicts. Most of the first Australian settlers came from London, the Midlands and the North of England, Ireland. Settlers that arrived throughout the 19th century were from all parts of the United Kingdom and Ireland, a significant proportion of settlers came from the Southwest and Southeast of England, from Ireland and from Scotland. Anglo-Celtic Australians have been influential in shaping the nation's character. By the mid-1840s, the numbers of freeborn settlers had overtaken the convict population. In 1888, 60 percent of the Australian population had been born in Australia, all had British ancestral origins. Out of the remaining 40 percent, 34 percent had been born in the British Isles, 6 percent were of European origin from Germany and Scandinavia.
In the 1840s, Scots-born immigrants constituted 12 percent of
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s