Childrens literature or juvenile literature includes stories, books and poems that are enjoyed by children. Modern childrens literature is classified in two different ways, genre or the age of the reader. Childrens literature can be traced to stories and songs, part of an oral tradition. The development of childrens literature, before printing was invented, is difficult to trace. Even after printing became widespread, many childrens tales were originally created for adults. Since the 15th century, a quantity of literature, often with a moral or religious message, has been aimed specifically at children. The late nineteenth and early centuries became known as the Golden Age of Childrens Literature as this period included the publication of many books acknowledged today as classics. There is no single or widely used definition of childrens literature and it can be broadly defined as anything that children read or more specifically defined as fiction, non-fiction, poetry, or drama intended for and used by children and young people.
The International Companion Encyclopedia of Childrens Literature notes that the boundaries of genre. are not fixed but blurred, sometimes, no agreement can be reached about whether a given work is best categorized as literature for adults or children. Rowlings Harry Potter series was written and marketed for young adults, the series extreme popularity led The New York Times to create a separate best-seller list for childrens books. Despite the widespread association of childrens literature with picture books, spoken narratives existed before printing, seth Lerer, in the opening of Childrens Literature, A Readers History from Aesop to Harry Potter, This book presents a history of what children have heard and read. The history I write of is a history of reception, early childrens literature consisted of spoken stories and poems that were used to educate and entertain children. It was only in the 18th century, with the development of the concept of childhood, that a genre of childrens literature began to emerge, with its own divisions, expectations.
French historian Philippe Ariès argues in his 1962 book Centuries of Childhood that the concept of childhood only emerged in recent times. He explains that children were in the past not considered as different from adults and were not given significantly different treatment. Pre-modern childrens literature, tended to be of a didactic and moralistic nature, with the purpose of conveying conduct-related, during the 17th century, the concept of childhood began to emerge in Europe. Adults saw children as separate beings, innocent and in need of protection, the English philosopher John Locke developed his theory of the tabula rasa in his 1690 An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. A corollary of this doctrine was that the mind of the child was born blank, and he suggested that picture books be created for children
The Wishing-Chair (series)
The Wishing-Chair is a series of two novels by the English author Enid Blyton, and a third book published in 2000 compiled from Blytons short stories. Mollie and Peter, searching for a present for their mother. There, they find a magic Wishing-Chair with the power to grow wings, after the chair rescues them from the shop, and gets them home, they decide to keep the chair in their playroom. On their first adventure, they rescue a pixie called Chinky from a giant, the pixie comes to live in their playroom, and the remainder of the book concerns the adventures of the children, as the chair takes them, and Chinky to various magical places. Its the first day of the holidays and Peter and Mollie are dying to go on more adventures with their Wishing-Chair. Peter inadvertently asks to go to the land of Goodness-Knows-Where, and they eventually get it back and a few days later, the Wishing-Chair only grows three wings. They end up in the Land of Slipperies and when Peter offends one of them, they retaliate by chopping all the wings off.
On the next day, they inadvertedly grow wings on their toys. They befriend a brownie called Winks and successfully get Mr Grim to relinquish the toys. Winks takes up residence in Peter and Mollies house and they take him on adventures, in this final book and Peter are home for the half-term holiday and Chinky and the Wishing-Chair are ready to fly away with them to magical lands. They visit the Land of Wishes, the Land of Scally-Wags, the wishing-chair is briefly seen at the end of The Black Dossier by Alan Moore
Mary Mouse is a fictional character imagined by Enid Blyton, a prolific British childrens author, in the mid 20th century. Mary Mouse is a mouse exiled from her mousehole who becomes a maid at the dolls house, the original publications were in an unusual format. Loved mainly by girls, this characters memory has lived on, the original books are highly collectable, perhaps because few remain in reasonable condition. The books were popular in Blytons days and eventually sold in a million copies
The Secret Seven
The Secret Seven or Secret Seven Society is a fictional group of child detectives created by Enid Blyton. They appear in one of several adolescent detective series Blyton wrote, the Secret Seven consists of Peter, Jack, George and Colin. Unlike most other Blyton series, this one place during the school term time because the characters go to day schools. It is not clear whether Enid Blyton was influenced by Hamiltons work, Blytons elder daughter, Gillian Baverstock, describes a conversation between the author and her publisher that led to the inception of Blytons Secret Seven. The publishers own children, the eldest of whom was named Peter, had formed a society with their friends. They met in an old shed, used secret passwords and had badges inscribed with SS, after corresponding with the real-life Peter, in 1948 Blyton published her first Secret Seven story, which describes how her fictional society came to be formed. This was a story titled The Secret of the Old Mill. It followed a short story, At Seaside Cottage, which introduced the leading characters Peter.
There followed a further five stories and fifteen full-length books. The Secret Seven appeared in seven short stories by Blyton, including a mini-novella explaining how the society was formed, – first published in the strip book of the same name Hurry, Secret Seven, Hurry. – first published in Enid Blytons Magazine Annual No, the seven decide to look into the mystery and make inquiries. They find the prisoner that is being held in the house is a kidnapped horse and they were keeping it in the cellar to dye it a colour. In this adventure, a priceless pearl gets stolen and whats more the Seven witnessed the thief making his escape and this sets the Seven to indulge in the mystery, and Colin and Peter finally manage to get to the culprit with the help of the other five. The secret seven have a new meeting place – a tree house, but somebody else is using it too. The gang is furious, until they learn that the intruder is in big need of help, can the secret seven come to the rescue. They did, and managed to stop a gang of robbers from executing a well-planned theft, something mysterious is going on at Tiggers Barn, and the Secret Seven are intrigued.
Peter thinks its all a gossip, but Jack isnt sure when he hears a strange conversation, when members of the Secret Seven practise their shadowing skills, George is caught and banned from the Society by his father. Meanwhile, dogs are disappearing, and this seems to be linked with a coalhole in a derelict alley
Third Year at Malory Towers
Third Year at Malory Towers is a childrens novel by Enid Blyton set in an English girls boarding school. It is the book in the Malory Towers school story series. The novel was first published in 1948, Darrell is on the way to Malory Towers once again. She finds out that Sally Hope, her best friend is in quarantine for mumps, on the way they pick up a new girl called Zerelda Brass, who is from the USA. Once they arrive, they see the Bad One, making a Fond Farewell with her mother, suddenly Gwen sees Zerelda and immediately loses her heart to her. The ever-so malicious Alicia notices it and points it out to Darrell and it is revealed that not only is Zerelda in North Tower but in the fourth Form. A few days later, the new girl arrives, Bill Robinson. Bill is short for Wilhelmina, who in turn has truckloads of horses and 7 brothers and she arrives with the brothers and her horse. The brothers and their horses leave leaving Bill to take her horse, Thunder, a few weeks later, Zerelda is so remarkably stupid that she is put down in the third form.
The next surprise is that Darrell is a reserve for one of the Malory Towers Lacrosse teams, next up on the event roster is Zerelda gets a tremendous scolding from Ms Hibert. Ms. Peters saves the day and she and Bill become very close friends, the end of term comes and the girls cant wait to see their parents again. Will there be more mischief at Malory Towers
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
The Five Find-Outers and Dog, known as The Five Find-Outers, is a series of childrens mystery books written by Enid Blyton and first published between 1943 and 1961. He is given the nickname Fatty by the children because of his initials, Frederick Algernon Trotteville, F. A. T. Being an only child, he receives generous amounts of money from his parents. His wealth causes some friction with the children, but Fatty is always willing to share his money with the group, often buying rounds of cakes, drinks. Although boastful by nature, he learns to be more modest as his bragging causes the children to become irritated. Fatty is an orator and poet, and able to create poetry ad-lib. He is apparently top of his form at his boarding school, Fatty develops an interest in ventriloquism as the series progresses. Bets in particular adores Fatty and is loyal to him. Laurence Larry Daykin – the eldest of the five and the leader of the Five Find-Outers. Larry is sometimes irritated by Fattys boasting and he is the first character to be introduced in the series, but is developed considerably less than the other main characters as the series continues.
Margaret Daisy Daykin – Larrys younger sister, creating the Five Find-Outers was Daisys idea. She is particularly good at thinking of plans and ideas and she is younger than Larry by a year and the same age as Pip and Fatty. Philip Pip Hilton – The same age as Daisy and a few years older than Bets, in The Mystery of the Hidden House the Hiltons forbid Pip and Bets from getting involved in mysteries, but the children still get involved with rather cheeky excuses. Elizabeth Bets Hilton – Pips younger sister, and the youngest of the Five Find-Outers and she adores and hero-worships Fatty and he is very fond of her – she is the only one of the group who actively encourages his boasting. Bets is only part of the gang because of Fatty, as the others dont particularly want her around, they underestimate her, as Bets proves herself to be a worthy member. She is often the first to spot vital clues, which lead to the solution of the mystery. She thought of the name Five Find-Outers and Dog, Buster – Fattys jet-black Scottish Terrier.
He thinks the world of Fatty and his favourite pastime is to nip at Mr Goons ankles and his favourite food is biscuits, spread with potted meat. Originally Larry and Daisy only let Fatty join the detective club because of Buster
The Adventure Series
The Adventure Series by Enid Blyton, a prolific English childrens author, is a series of eight childrens novels. These books feature the same characters, Jack, Dinah. Jacks pet parrot, Kiki, is a feature in each novel. The stories show the four children off on their own and solving mysteries without much adult assistance, although the publication dates span a decade, Blyton reportedly wrote each of the novels in less than a week. The colourful dust jackets and line illustrations were by Stuart Tresilian, Philip Mannering, A boy with a growth of hair which stands up above the forehead, earning him the nickname Tufty from Jack. Like his late father, Philip has a gift of befriending any type of land-based animal he comes across and he is quite a tease with his sister Dinah about her squeamishness and often gets into fights with her about it. Hes Jacks best friend and is kind to Lucy-Ann when Dinah is a little mean. Jack Trent, A boy about Philips age, who has red hair, green eyes and lots of freckles all over his face and he and his sister Lucy-Ann are orphans and used to live with an unfriendly uncle until they are adopted by Mrs Mannering.
Jack has a passion for birds, and spends most of his time observing them. His greatest dream is becoming an ornithologist and he loves Mrs Mannering very much and cares greatly about his sister Lucy-Ann. Dinah Mannering, Philips younger sister of about twelve in the beginning of the series. Like her brother, she has a tuft of hair standing up atop her head, temperamental as she is, she often finds herself the target of her brothers teasing, but otherwise she is quite level-headed, tough and grown-up for her age. Lucy-Ann Trent, Jacks little sister is the youngest of the foursome, like her brother, she has red hair, green eyes and freckles, and in several instances she is described as very pretty. Lucy-Ann is very affectionate towards the people she loves, particularly her brother Jack and she loves her adopted parents Bill and Mrs Mannering very much, is Dinahs best friend and quite fond of Philip. Kiki, Jacks female pet parrot which is described as scarlet and her most noticeable trait is her enormous repertoire of command phrases and peculiar noises, which she seems to pick up very easily.
Her commands originally came from Jack and Lucy-Anns unfriendly uncle and his caretaker, with whom they had to live until Jack. In the stories Kiki serves usually either as comic relief or as a saviour from tight situations, Bill Cunningham, An important member of an unspecified, quite possibly fictional secret service force. His most prominent bodily feature is his half-bald head and he meets the children upon their very first adventure and makes regular appearances in the series from that point on
The Faraway Tree
The Faraway Tree is a series of popular novels for children by British author Enid Blyton. The titles in the series are The Enchanted Wood, The Magic Faraway Tree, The Folk of the Faraway Tree, the stories take place in an enchanted forest in which a gigantic magical tree grows – the eponymous Faraway Tree. The tree is so tall that its topmost branches reach into the clouds, the forest and the tree are discovered by three children named Joe and Frannie, who move into a house nearby. It is that they embark on adventures to the top of the tree, the first title of the main trilogy, The Enchanted Wood, was published in 1939, although the Faraway Tree and Moon-Face had already made a brief appearance in 1936 in The Yellow Fairy Book. A picture-strip book, Up the Faraway Tree, was published in 1951, over the years, the Faraway Tree stories have been illustrated by various artists including Dorothy Wheeler, Rene Cloke and Anne Grahame Johnstone, and Georgina Hargreaves. In the first novel in the series, Jo, One day, they go for a walk in the wood and discover an enormous tree whose branches seem to reach into the clouds.
They befriend some of these creatures, in particular Moon-face and Silky, at the very top of the tree they discover a ladder which leads them to a magical land. This land is different on each visit, because each place moves on from the top of the tree to make way for a new land. The children are free to come and go, but they must leave before the moves on. In various chapters, one of the children stuck in the land. The first land the three children visit is the Roundabout Land, where they give some cake to two rabbits, and the rabbits dig a hole for themselves and the three children. The last land they visit in this book is the Land of Birthdays, where the brownies, the cousin of Jo, Bessie and Fanny comes to stay, and he joins the secret adventures in the lands of the Faraway Tree. Dick is not interested at first but on he becomes interested, Connie, a mischievous girl, comes to enjoy a few days with the children while her mother, Lizzie, is sick. At first Connie refuses to believe in the Faraway Tree or the folk who live in it, even when the Angry Pixie throws ink at her.
Jo, Bessie and Fanny take her to the lands at the top of the tree, the Saucepan Mans mother decides to live in the tree, leaving her job as a baker in Dame Slaps land. She sets up a cake shop in the tree. Jo, Bessie and Fanny are joined by Robin and Joy, along come more exciting adventures in the various types of lands at the top of the Tree. All the children are captured by the devious and sinister Enchanter Red-Cloak, they have exciting times in the Land of Wishes, the main characters are Jo, Bessie and Fanny, three siblings
Enid Mary Blyton was an English childrens writer whose books have been among the worlds best-sellers since the 1930s, selling more than 600 million copies. Blytons books are enormously popular, and have been translated into almost 90 languages, her first book, Child Whispers. Her writing was unplanned and sprang largely from her unconscious mind, the sheer volume of her work and the speed with which it was produced led to rumours that Blyton employed an army of ghost writers, a charge she vigorously denied. Some libraries and schools banned her works, which the BBC had refused to broadcast from the 1930s until the 1950s because they were perceived to lack literary merit. Blyton felt she had a responsibility to provide her readers with a moral framework. In particular, through the clubs she set up or supported, she encouraged and organised them to raise funds for animal and paediatric charities. The story of Blytons life was dramatised in a BBC film entitled Enid, featuring Helena Bonham Carter in the title role, there have been several adaptations of her books for stage and television.
Enid Blyton was born on 11 August 1897 in East Dulwich, South London, Enids younger brothers and Carey, were born after the family had moved to a semi-detached villa in Beckenham, a village in Kent. A few months after her birth Enid almost died from whooping cough, but was nursed back to health by her father, whom she adored. Thomas Blyton ignited Enids interest in nature, in her autobiography she wrote that he loved flowers and birds and wild animals, Enid was devastated when he left the family shortly after her thirteenth birthday to live with another woman. Enid and her mother did not have a relationship. From 1907 to 1915 Blyton attended St Christophers School in Beckenham and she was not so keen on all the academic subjects but excelled in writing, and in 1911 she entered Arthur Mees childrens poetry competition. Mee offered to print her verses, encouraging her to produce more, Blytons mother considered her efforts at writing to be a waste of time and money, but she was encouraged to persevere by Mabel Attenborough, the aunt of a school friend.
Blytons father taught her to play the piano, which she mastered well enough for him to believe that she might follow in his sisters footsteps, Blyton considered enrolling at the Guildhall School of Music, but decided she was better suited to becoming a writer. Seckford Hall, with its allegedly haunted room and secret passageway provided inspiration for her writing, at Woodbridge Congregational Church Blyton met Ida Hunt, who taught at Ipswich High School, and suggested that she train as a teacher. By this time she had almost ceased contact with her family, in March 1916 her first poems were published in Nashs Magazine. In 1920 she moved to Southernhay in Hook Road Surbiton as nursery governess to the four sons of architect Horace Thompson and his wife Gertrude, with whom Blyton spent four happy years. Owing to a shortage of schools in the area her charges were soon joined by the children of neighbours, in 1920 Blyton relocated to Chessington, and began writing in her spare time