Jhapa is one of 14 districts of Kirat of eastern Nepal. The latest official data, the 2011 Nepal Census, puts the total population of the district at 812,650. Jhapa lies in the fertile Terai plains. Jhapa borders with Ilam in the north, Morang in the west, the Indian state of Bihar in the south and the Indian state of West Bengal to the southeast and east. Geographically, it covers an area of 1,606 km2. Among 77 districts, Jhapa with literacy rate of 99.33%, is the district with the highest number of literate people. Wilson Bikram Rai, Actor and Producer Himal Sagar singer Suraj Chapagain Comedian, script writer, director Ananta Tamang footballer Bishal Rai footballer Karna Limbu football player Sitaram Kattel Jiya K. C. Prakash Angdembe Film Director, writer Rubina Chhetri, cricketer K. P. Oli, politician Chandra Prakash Mainali, politician Pramod Kharel, Singer "Districts of Nepal". Statoids
Udayapur District (Nepali: उदयपुर जिल्लाListen, is one of 14 districts of Province No. 1 of eastern Nepal. The district, with Triyuga as its district headquarters, covers an area of 2,063 km² and in 2001 had a population of 287,689, in 2011 of 317,532; the district border of Udayapur is drawn by Natural border with hills. Koshi river in the east of the district separates it from Sunsari District, Sun Kosi river in the north draw a borderline which separates it from Bhojpur and Khotang. Sindhuli District lies in the west across the Tawa khola and foothills of shiwalik in the south separates it from outer terai of Siraha and Saptari. Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve lies in the east occupying the area of Udayapur and Saptari District. According to the former administrative divisions of Nepal, Udayapur falls in Eastern Development Region in Sagarmatha Zone. Before the unification of modern Nepal by Shah kings. Udayapur District was under Sen dynasty; the Kingdom name was Chaudandi and capital of the Kingdom was Udayapurgadhi.
The last king of the Chaudandi was Karna Sen who fled to Bijayapur when Gorkha army envaded and captured the Sen Kingdom Chaudandi. Before 1972, Panchawati was Headquarter of Udayapur District, it moved to Gaighat in 1972. Udayapur district is surrounded by Mahabharat hills from north and Shiwalik from south, whereas both hills meet together by west which forms the region a valley Udayapur valley. Udayapur valley is about 30 km long and between 2 km to 4 km wide, it is drained by the Triyuga river flowing east to join the Koshi river. Forest cover takes up 67% of the total land area of the district. 28% of the land is cultivated. Small and large river and ponds remain the main source of water in the district. Ponds like Rauta Pokhari, Suke Pokhari, Tapli Pokhari, Jogidaha Chure Forest Pond and Jhilke Pokhari are key water resources in the district; the district does not possess larger lakes. Triyuga is the largest river in this district. Other two major rivers are Tawa Khola from Western side and Vaidyanath River from mid-side unite with Tawa River.
Other rivers in the district are Kakaru Khola, Yari Khola, Baruwa Khola, Bahadura Khola and Rasuwa Khola. Sunkosi, Kamala rivers lie on the district border; this inner Terai district covers elevations between 360 metres to 2310 metres above sea level. Different topography and altitude have established three distinct physiographic zones in the district as mentioned below. Mahabharat hill range in this district stretches from Sun Kosi River on northern side and links to Inner Terai and in some stretches, to Churiya hills. About 60% of the district is covered by middle hills with steep slope and rugged mountain topography. From nearly 1100 m to 2310 m, this land consists of high hills like Lekhani, Rautapokhari; the Churiya hills stretch across elevations between 550 m to 1100 m. reaching from the upper Mahabharata to Terai land in the south leaving some plain inner Tarai land in between. It occupies about 9% of land of the district and consists of small valleys of inner Terai including Nepaltar and Mainatar as well as plains like Bahuntar and Hardeni.
These valleys are situated on Panchawati, Rauta and Tawashri VDC respectively. This region occupies around 31% of the district at elevations between 360m to 550 m above sea level; this region is situated on the border of Triyuga and Tawa River. Where inner Tarai exists the Churiya range lies to the south of this region; this region is affected by the problem of river cutting or floods. Major places of district like Gaighat and Beltar lie in this region. According to the census of 2011 the total population of Udaypur district is 317,532. Major ethnicities in the district are Chhetri, Magar, Tharu and others; the literacy rate is 53.31 percent. Udayapur District is administered by Udayapur District Coordination Committee; the Udayapur DCC is elected by Udayapur District Assembly. The head of Udayapur DCC is Mr. Khadag Bahadur Pariyar and Mrs. Ganga Rai is deputy head of Udayapur DCC. Udayapur District Administration Office under Ministry of Home Affairs co-operate with Udayapur DCC to maintain peace and security in the district.
The officer of District Administration office called CDO and current CDO of Udayapur DAO is Bishnu Kumar Karkee. Udayapur District Court is a Judicial court to see the cases of people on district level. Udayapur District is divided into total 8 local level bodies, 4 local level body categorized into Rural municipality and 4 into Municipality: Formerly, Udayapur had three municipality and many VDCs. VDCs were the local administrative units for villages. Fulfilling the requirement of the new constitution of Nepal 2015, on 10 March 2017 all VDCs were nullified and formed new units after grouping VDCs. Udayapur District is divided into 2 Parliamentary constituencies and 4 Provincial constituencies: Gaighat, the headquarter of Udaydpur District is connected with NH-09, which connects Udayapur with NH-01 at Kadmaha. Kadmaha is 28 KM at distance from Gaighat; the NH-09 connects Gaighat to Khotang, 127 KM at distance from Gaighat but the road is not paved. Feeder Road F057 connects Gaighat to Chatara via Beltar-Basaha at 70 KM at distance in east, across the Koshi river.
The F057 feeder road connects Sindhuli via Katari. Tribeni: It is a place in Katari municipality where the three rivers Kamla and Dudhauli adjoins, it is visited by many devotees on the occasion of Makar Sankrati every year. On this occasion, a large fair is organized. Rauta: Rauta is a holy pl
The Koshi Barrage is a sluice across the Koshi river that carries vehicular and pedestrian traffic between Saptari district and Sunsari district of Nepal. It is near the international border with India, it has 56 gates. It was constructed after the Koshi Agreement was signed between the Government of Nepal and India on April 25, 1954; the barrage was built by Joseph and Company Limited, India. The Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve is 3–4 miles north of the barrage. Due to this barrage, every year several areas of Terai are affected due to the flood and blockage of this barrage; this affects the Koshi region of Bihar. The Kosi River is known as the "Sorrow of Bihar" as the annual floods affect about 21,000 km2 of fertile agricultural lands thereby disturbing the rural economy; the Koshi has an average water flow of 2,166 m3/s. In August 2008, the eastern embankments of the Koshi Barrage collapsed, several miles north of the Nepal-India border; the resulting flood wiped out miles of fertile farmland in Nepal, covering it with a thick layer of river sand, affected 53,800 Nepalese.
It left 3 million people homeless in India. Kosi embankment Sushil Koirala. "What is Flooding the Koshi Barrage?", eKantipur.com. Diversity of Wetland Birds around the Koshi Barrage Area by D. T. Chhetry in Our Nature 4:91-95 Reed, David; the Rough Guide to Nepal. Rough Guides. P. 395. ISBN 1-85828-899-1
A municipality is a single administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished from the county, which may encompass rural territory or numerous small communities such as towns and hamlets; the term municipality may mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district; the term is derived from French Latin municipalis. The English word municipality derives from the Latin social contract municipium, referring to the Latin communities that supplied Rome with troops in exchange for their own incorporation into the Roman state while permitting the communities to retain their own local governments. A municipality can be any political jurisdiction from a sovereign state, such as the Principality of Monaco, to a small village, such as West Hampton Dunes, New York.
The territory over which a municipality has jurisdiction may encompass only one populated place such as a city, town, or village several of such places only parts of such places, sometimes boroughs of a city such as the 34 municipalities of Santiago, Chile. Powers of municipalities range from virtual autonomy to complete subordination to the state. Municipalities may have the right to tax individuals and corporations with income tax, property tax, corporate income tax, but may receive substantial funding from the state. In various countries, municipalities are referred to as "communes", notably in Romance languages such as French commune, Italian comune, Romanian comună, Spanish comuna, in Germanic languages such as German Kommune, Swedish kommun, Faroese kommuna, Norwegian, Danish kommune. However, in Moldova and Romania exist both municipalities and communes, a commune may be part of a municipality. Similar terms include Spanish ayuntamiento called municipalidad, Polish gmina, Dutch/Flemish Gemeente and Luxembourgish Gemeng.
In Australia, the term local government area is used in place of the generic municipality. Here, the "LGA Structure covers only incorporated areas of Australia. Incorporated areas are designated parts of states and territories over which incorporated local governing bodies have responsibility." In Canada, municipalities are local governments established through provincial and territorial legislation within general municipal statutes. Types of municipalities within Canada include cities, district municipalities, municipal districts, parishes, rural municipalities, townships and villes among others; the Province of Ontario has different tiers of municipalities, including lower and single tiers. Types of upper tier municipalities in Ontario include regional municipalities. Nova Scotia has regional municipalities, which include cities, districts, or towns as municipal units. In India, a Municipality or Nagar Palika is an urban local body that administers a city of population 100,000 or more. However, there are exceptions to that, as Municipality were constituted in urban centers with population over 20,000, so all the urban bodies which were classified as Municipality were reclassified as Municipality if their population was under 100,000.
Under the Panchayati Raj system, it interacts directly with the state government, though it is administratively part of the district it is located in. Smaller district cities and bigger towns have a Municipality. Municipality are a form of local self-government entrusted with some duties and responsibilities, as enshrined in the Constitutional Act,1992. In the United Kingdom, the term was used until the 1972 Local Government Act came into effect in 1974 in England and Wales, until 1975 in Scotland and 1976 in Northern Ireland, "both for a city or town, organized for self-government under a municipal corporation, for the governing body itself; such a corporation in Great Britain consists of a head as a mayor or provost, of superior members, as aldermen and councillors". Since local government reorganisation, the unit in England, Northern Ireland and Wales is known as a district, in Scotland as a council area. A district can retain its district title. In Jersey, a municipality refers to the honorary officials elected to run each of the 12 parishes into which it is subdivided.
This is the highest level of regional government in this jurisdiction. In Trinidad and Tobago, "municipality" is understood as a city, town, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. A town may be awarded borough status and on may be upgraded to city status. Chaguanas, San Fernando, Port of Spain and Point Fortin are the 5 current municipalities in Trinidad and Tobago. In the United States, "municipality" is understood as a city, village, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. In a state law contex
The Nepali Congress is a social-democratic political party in Nepal. It is the largest opposition party in the House of the National Assembly; the party was formed in 1950 by the merger of Nepali National Congress and Nepal Democratic Congress. Nepali Congress prime ministers led four governments between the fall of the Rana dynasty and the start of the Panchayat era, including the first democratically elected government of Nepal in 1959. In the 2017 elections, NC emerged as the second largest party in the House of Representatives, winning 63 out of 275 seats. In 1947, Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala, published an appeal for a unified struggle of Nepali people against the Rana regime; the same year, some Nepalese got together in Benaras and formed an organization by the name All Indian Nepali National Congress where an ad-hoc committee was established. The initial officers were Devi Prasad Devkota, Balchandra Sharma, vice-president, Krishna Prasad Bhattarai, general secretary, Gopal Prasad Bhattarai, publicity minister.
Its Working Committee included Narayan Prasad Bhattarai and Narendra Regmi. Its coordinator was Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala. Around the same time, Nepalese located in Calcutta formed another organization by the name All Indian Nepali Gorkha Congress whose Chairman was Dharma Narayan Pradhan. Koirala traveled extensively to places such as Benaras, Darjeeling, Assam and Dehradhun and established contact with the Nepalese there, he met with Ganesh Man Singh during the same period. Nepalese representatives from different areas of Nepal and India organized one session in Calcutta. Koirala, Dilli Raman Regmi Dharma Narayan Pradhan and Dhan Man Singh Pariyar were present. In the same session, dropping Akhil Bharatiya from its name, the organization was named Nepali National Congress. Tanka Prasad Acharya, facing a life-sentence in Kathmandu, was made its chairman; the flag was square-shaped with white and red colors in succession, with the moon and the sun in its center. The major four proposals passed by the session were: Assist the Indians in their Independence movement.
Support Vietnam struggling for freedom against French colonization. Ask for the immediate release of imprisoned members of the Praja Parishad. Initiate a non-violence movement in Nepal for the establishment of an accountable ruling system; the organization's modus operandi was chosen. The organization attached itself to the civil conscience process in Nepal by establishing Tanka Prasad Acharya as its chairman; the Nepali Congress Party was formed by the merger of Nepali National Congress and Nepal Democratic Congress. The Nepali National Congress was founded by Matrika Prasad Koirala in Calcutta, India on January 25, 1946; the Nepal Democratic Congress was founded by Subarna Shumsher Rana in Calcutta on August 4, 1948. The two parties merged on April 10, 1950 to form the Nepali Congress and Koirala became its first president; the party called for an armed revolution against the Rana regime. During the Bairgania Conference in Bairgania, Bihar, on September 27, 1950 the Nepali Congress announced an armed revolution against the Rana regime.
The president of the party announced the liquidation of operations in India and that the party would operate only inside Nepal. After King Tribhuvan took refuge inside the Indian Embassy on November 6, 1950; the Congress Liberation Army decided to take this opportunity to launch attacks against the regime before the King "left Nepalese soil". Matrika and Bisheshwor Prasad Koirala and Subarna Shamsher Rana flew to Bihar, they called the commanders posted at different locations inside Nepal to prepare for armed strikes near the Nepal-India border. On November 11, 1950, at midnight Birgunj was attacked, by November 12 it fell to the Nepali Congress and the first "People's Government" was declared; the liberation army was able to control most of the eastern hills of Nepal and the town of Tansen in Palpa. After pressure by the Indian government and the mass movement by the Nepali Congress and other political parties, the Rana government submitted to their demands and King Tribhuvan returned to the throne, replacing King Gyanendra, crowned king after King Tribhuvan left for India.
After the fall of the Rana government, the Nepali Congress led three of the five governments formed before the elections. Matrika Prasad Koirala, the first commoner to become Prime Minister, led the government from 1951-1952 and 1953-1955 and Subarna Shamsher Rana led the government from 1958-1959; the much delayed elections were held in February 1959 and Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala became the first democratically elected Prime Minister of Nepal after the Nepali Congress won 74 of 109 Parliament seats. Following a royal coup by King Mahendra in 1960, many leaders of the party, including Koirala and General Secretary Hora Prasad Joshi, were imprisoned or exiled. Although political parties were prohibited from 1960 to 1989 and remained outlawed during the panchayat system under the aegis of the Associations and Organizations Act of 1963, the Nepali Congress persisted; the party placed great emphasis on eliminating the feudal economy and building a basis for socioeconomic development. It proposed nationalizing basic industries and instituting progressive taxes on land, urban housing, salaries and foreign investments.
While in exile, the Nepali Congress served as the nucleus around which other opposition groups clustered and instigated popular uprisings in the Hill and Terai regions. During this time, the Nepali Congress refused the overtures of a radical faction of the Communist Party of Nepal for a tactic
Birtamode is a municipality in Jhapa District of Nepal. It is the commercial and transport hub of Jhapa District. Sarnamati Bazar, Shivasatakshi Bazar, Kamatoli Bazar, Chakchaki Bazar and Surunga Bazar are some of the nearest local towns/settlements connected to Birtamod. Birtamod is the largest city of Jhapa; the town was under Anarmani Village Development Committee was transformed into a municipality in May 2014 merging with Charpane VDC and merged Garamani VDC in 2017. Birtamod was a part of a great forest in those days. Due to the presence of mosquito and the threat of malaria few people lived here; the forests were cleared off for cultivating the fertile lands. People of the hills started to migrate here; these peoples were accompanied by the Nepalese who returned home from Indian territories of Assam and West Bengal. The ethnic communities, Dhimal, etc are the indigenous people of Birtamod and Jhapa as a whole. Birtamod started to rise. Being at the physical center of the district, it started to rise as a center for commercial activities.
Birtamod took greater rise at the time of Maoist insurgency. Trade and banking of the whole Jhapa district got concentrated in Birtamod. Birtamod is connected to all parts of the country by a central highway, the Mahendra Highway which runs throughout the length of the country from east to west. Chandragadhi Airport serves 5 to 6 daily flights to and from Kathmandu. Buddha Air, Yeti Airlines and Saurya Airlines are some of the airlines that have daily flights to and from Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal. There are various means of transportation in Birtamode but the major means of transportation is via local bus. Damak Mechinagar Surunga Bhadrapur Shani-Arjun Birtamod has a huge population, the major ethnicities living there are Rajbanshi, Rai, Newar, Marwari, Chhettri and various others. Majority of the people in Birtamode are Kirant's and Hindu's are the largest in majority but have significant numbers of Muslims and Christians; as of 2001, the official total population of Birtamod stood at 27,762.
Male population was 14,219, female population was 13,543 and the number of households were 5,899. However, current population is much more than from 2001; the latest figure is estimated at about 60000 it might be more than estimated because now Birtamod is merged with nearest VDC Charpane and Garamani. So it is now Birtamod Municipality; the climate of Birtamod is hot and humid during summer, mild and dry during winter. During the summer, temperatures can reach 40 degree Celsius, the low in winter is about 2 degrees Celsius. Rainfall is abundant during the monsoon season. There is little or no rainfall during winter, which makes it ideal for harvesting crops such as rice and mustard; because of the fertile soil, the land around Birtamod is well suited for agriculture. Rice, wheat and tea are some of the crops that are grown seasonally. Rice and Wheat is cultivated during the monsoon season when there is abundant rainfall, harvested during the dry winter months. Several large Tea Estates and processing factories are located just east of Birtamod.
Giri Bandhu Tea Estate, New Giri Bandhu and Sons Tea Estate, Buttabari Tea Processing are the major ones. Apart from agriculture the industrial trends are growing. Various cement factories are present to fulfill local requirement of cements at small scale production capacity; the revolution of information technology in Nepal has effects in Birtamod. The establishment of an IT industry in Birtamod take more effective in Human Resource in Birtamod for outsourcing business. Bitamod has Nepal's biggest shopping mall after Kathmandu—Hanuman Central. Nepal Telecom provides Internet access. There are 3 cellular providers: Ncell, NTC and UTL. 4G/3G connectivity is provided by NCELL and 3G by NTC. WorldLink and Itel Communications has connected Fiber To The Home internet service all over Birtamod with IPTV service. Several local cable distributors provide Cable TV access to most of the town and the surrounding local establishments. Presently the center of Birtamod is under Close Circuit TV camera surveillance.
The culture of Birtamod is a mix of cultures of various ethnicities, but these two festival seasons are the most important. Lhosar: This Festival celebrate three times once a year; the various combination of Buddhism community such as major community of Tamang celebrate Sonam Losar in Marga, Sherpa Community celebrate Gyalpo in Falgun as well as Gurung Community celebrate Tamu Losar in Poush. Dashain: Dashain is celebrated by the Hindu's and is an exciting time for families to get together and meet relatives and each other; this festival lasts for 15 days. Celebrations and shopping are common during this time and so are religious ceremonies. Tihar and Dipawali: Tihar lasts 5 days, among the days is a day called Laksmi Puja which coincides with Dipawali. Dipawali is a Hindu festival of colors. People light up their house with little lamps called diya fueled with mustard oil and burst firecrackers all night long during the 5 days of Tihar; the most interesting part is everybody. March 22, 2006: Nine policemen and three Maoist rebels were killed during a clash at Birtamod police station and traffic office.
A group of Maoists, loaded in three trucks attacked the office at around 7:00 am. In the attack, 20 policemen and 2 civilians were injured; the i
Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve
The Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve is a protected area in the Terai of eastern Nepal covering 175 km2 of wetlands in the Sunsari and Udayapur Districts. It comprises extensive mudflats, reed beds, freshwater marshes in the floodplain of the Sapta Kosi River, ranges in altitude from 75 to 81 m, it was established in 1976 and designated as a Ramsar site in December 1987. It can be accessed from the Mahendra Highway. During 1997 to 1998, an interview survey was conducted in the Paschim Kasuha VDC adjacent to the east of the reserve to investigate the extent of park–people conflict; the findings showed that wild water buffalo and wild boar were major crop raiders between September and February. Large numbers of cattle were found grazing inside the reserve. Local people are responsible for illegal utilization of forest products and river fishing inside the reserve. In 2005, the reserve together with the Koshi Barrage was identified as one of 27 Important Bird Areas of Nepal; the vegetation of the reserve is characterised by mixed deciduous riverine forest and marshy vegetation.
The coverage of grasslands is 68%, compared to only about 6% of forest, predominated by Indian rosewood. Patches of catechu forest are more prevalent towards the northwestern part; the grasslands near the running water bodies are maintained by the annual flooding and grazing by wildlife. The Sapta Koshi River, a tributary of the Ganges, causes rapid and intense flooding during the rainy season. In the extensive wetlands, 514 plant species are found including kapok, reed, Imperata cylindrica, eel grass, species of Eichhornia, Hydrilla and lotus. A wide range of animals inhabit the protected area. In its water courses and ponds, 200 species of fish have been recorded. Two toad species, nine frog species, six lizard species, five snake species and eleven turtle species are recorded. Gharial and mugger crocodile occur as well; the 31 species of mammals recorded include the Asian elephant, spotted deer, hog deer, wild boar, smooth-coated otter and golden jackal. The Ganges river dolphin has been sighted in the Koshi River.
Gaur and blue bull have declined in numbers. Nepal’s last remaining population of about 150 wild water buffalo inhabit the area; this population has now grown to a total of 432 individuals with an annual growth rate of 7.27 percent, according to the latest census carried out in 2016. With this upsurge in the population, authorities are planning a possible transfer of some wild water buffaloes to the flood plains of Chitwan National Park where they have been extirpated around 1950's. If the proposed translocation happens, this will present a natural Predator-Prey scenario since wild water buffaloes in Koshi Tappu has been lacking their natural predators in the form of tiger and dhole for quite a long time. Notable among the 485 bird species are watercock, Indian nightjar, dusky eagleowl, black-headed cuckooshrike, whitetailed stonechat, striated grassbird, large adjutant stork, Pallas’s fish eagle, common golden-eye, gullbilled tern. Swamp francolin and rufous-vented grass babbler occur as well.
In spring 2011, 17 Bengal floricans were recorded from nine different sites along a 39 km north-south stretch of the Koshi River. Seven were males and 10 were females. Only five individuals were recorded outside the reserve, two pairs north of Koshi Tappu, one female seen twice near the Koshi Barrage area. BirdLife International. "Important Bird Areas factsheet: Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and Koshi Barrage". Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation: Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve The Ramsar Sites Database