History of Chinese animation
The history of Chinese animation began in the 20th century in the Republic of China when the people became fascinated with the idea of animation. A lengthy history interlocks between the art and the ever-changing economy. Chinese animation has long been under the shadow of Disney and Japanese animations, but it once played a important role in world animation. In the first century BC, the Han-era Chinese engineer Ding Huan invented a device "on which many strange birds and mysterious animals were attached" that were said to have "moved quite naturally", said to have been an attempted to depict the sequential motion of images moving back and forth, yet is unclear if this and the other devices that British historian Joseph Needham calls "a variety of zoetrope" involved any true illusion of animation or featured static or mechanized figures moving through space; the modern animation industry began in France in 1888. The industry spread to China where Chinese animation started in the 1920s, inspired by French, German and American animated productions.
One of the first examples of foreign animation did not land in Shanghai until 1918. This piece of animation from the US was known today as Out of the Inkwell. In 1922 Wan Laiming produced the first animation in a cartoon advertisement for the Shuzhendong Chinese Typewriter. Followed by the 1924 animation short Dog Treat. Shanghai tobacco company produced an animation called New Year; these are the earliest known cartoon shorts. In 1926 the four Wan brothers, Wan Laiming, Wan Guchan，Wan Chaochen and Wan Dihuan worked under the Great Wall Film Company in China, not to be confused with Great Wall Movie Enterprises Ltd. Wan Laiming and Wan Guchan were recognized as China's animation pioneers when they produced the first animation short Uproar in the Studio running 10 to 12 minutes long in black and white; the brothers believed that Chinese animation should be instructive and thought-provoking besides being entertaining to its audience. They wanted to emphasize the development of an animation style, uniquely Chinese.
It was a common trend at the time to combine live action film footages with 2D animation. By 1932 one of the Wan brothers, Wan Di-huan, would voluntarily leave the Great Wall Film company for his own photography studio; some of the first wave of influential American animations that reached Shanghai were Popeye, a show known as that may be an off translation to what is known today as Betty Boop. By 1935 the Wan brothers would launch the first animation with sound titled The Camel’s Dance. Four years in 1939, America's Disney's Snow White would be introduced in Shanghai and it would be a great influence. In 1941 China's first animated feature film of notable length, Princess Iron Fan, was released under difficult conditions during Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II using extensive rotoscoping. While there were overlapping progress made in the Asian regions with Japanese anime at the time, they were not geographically or artistically influential to China directly. During the Japanese invasion period, the brothers produced more than 20 animated propaganda shorts focusing on various patriotic topics from resistance against Japanese troops and imperialism.
On October 1, 1946 a northeast motion picture studio was established in the Nenjiang province, known today as the Heilongjiang province. It is the first known studio established by a communist party. In 1947 productions such as Emperor's Dream used puppets in an exaggerated way to expose corruption of the Kuomintang Chinese nationalist party; the idea of using political content in puppetry films was becoming acceptable, animators took note on their success. An example of such documentary-type cartoons can be found in Go After an Easy Prey. In 1948 the Northeast studio would change its name to Shanghai Picture Studio Group. On October 1, 1949, China would enter a new communist era led by Mao Zedong. In February 1950 the northeast group would combine with other divisions to become the predecessor of Shanghai Animation Film Studio; the Wan brothers, Central Academy of Fine Arts, the Art Institute of Suzhou and many other big-name artists would all be concentrated in this studio for the first time.
Among the talent is Japanese animator Tadahito Mochinaga, who would spend time in Shanghai creating Thank You, Kitty. Three years he would depart for Japan, becoming the only artist to have worked in both Chinese and Japanese industry in the era. By 1956 the Wan brothers have created the first colored animation of notable length titled Why is the Crow Black-Coated, which became the first Chinese animation recognized internationally. In April 1957 the central government would begin sponsoring the studio making it the nation's first and official animation factory. From the technology standpoint, China's animation was still on pace with the rest of the world. In 1958 the Wan brothers created a new animation film technique based on the folk art cut-paper animation, demonstrated in Pigsy Eats Watermelon. At the same time another technique called origami animation was developed by Yu Zheguang in 1960, in the film A Clever Duckling. In 1960 the first set of animation film exhibitions were held in 6 major cities including Shanghai and Beijing, followed by exhibitions in Hong Kong in 1962 and Macau in 1963.
In the early 1960s, the Shanghai Animation Film Studio created ink wash animation, the first of its kind in the world. The Wan brothers would receive the most recognition for their film Havoc in Heaven, since it was well known among ordinary citizens; the development spanned 4 years from 1961 to 1964. It ran for nearly 2 hours pushing t
History of Brazilian animation
The history of Brazilian animation is recent. In the first half of the 20th century, there were some small experiments produced in animation without much continuity, to the emergence of several animated films in the other half of the century; the 21st century saw the advent of many animated series for television. Since 1907, Brazilian theaters presented animated vignettes at the closing of the newsreels. However, Kaiser was the first Brazilian autonomous animation; the animated short film was exhibited in 1917 during World War I. The animation was created by Álvaro Marins and satirirized the German Emperor Wilhelm II with which Brazil declared war in that year; the first feature-length animated film made in the country is Amazon Symphony, produced by Anélio Lattini Filho in 1953. Filmed in black and white, it took 6 years to be completed because it was conducted by Anélio Lattini, without the help of any other animator. During the 1960s, animation began to have a regular presence in advertising.
Piconzé is another milestone in Brazilian animation, as the first color animation feature film produced in the country. It was released in theaters in 1972, made by the Japanese cartoonist Ypê Nakashima, who immigrated to Brazil in 1956 and worked with animation in advertising. In Japan, Ypê Nakashima worked in newspapers such as Mainichi Shimbun, Yomiuri Shimbun and Asahi Shimbun. In this decade the Monica's Gang comics, which have become quite popular among younger audiences in the region, were adapted to numerous animated films over the years resulting in a TV show a few years later; some other animated films were produced during the 1980s and 1990s, however in 1996 the most outstanding film was Cassiopeia, the first Brazilian animated film to be computer-animated, a year after the release of the Pixar film Toy Story. A great advance in Brazilian animations occurred in recent years. Several awarded films have emerged in the first decade as The Happy Cricket, Xuxinha e Guto contra os Monstros do Espaço, Uma Aventura no Tempo, Garoto Cósmico, several TV series such as Anabel, Fudêncio, Gui & Estopa and Fishtronaut.
The series Doggy Day School and My Big Big Friend were the first animated series to be co-produced with foreign countries, Canada as was the case for both. With a law created by the Brazilian organization ANCINE in 2011 several cable children's channels were forced to develop Brazilian original series cartoons. Among the best known cartoons in Brazil today include Sítio do Picapau Amarelo, Monica's Gang, Haunted Tales for Wicked Kids and Jorel's Brother; the films Rio 2096: A Story of Love and Fury and The Boy and the World, have won international awards outside Brazil. The Boy and the World was released in more than 50 countries. Brazilian comics List of Brazilian animated films Anima Mundi
Chinese animation or Donghua, in a narrow sense, refers to animation made in China. In the first century BC, the Chinese craftsman Ding Huan invented a device "on which many strange birds and mysterious animals were attached" that were said to have "moved quite naturally", but it is unclear if this and the other devices historian Joseph Needham calls "a variety of zoetrope" involved any true illusion of animation or featured static or mechanized figures moving through space. Modern animation in China began in 1918 when an animation piece from the United States titled Out of the Inkwell landed in Shanghai. Cartoon clips were first used in advertisements for domestic products. Though the animation industry did not begin until the arrival of the Wan brothers in 1926; the Wan brothers produced the first Chinese animated film with sound, The Camel's Dance, in 1935. The first animated film of notable length was Princess Iron Fan in 1941. Princess Iron Fan was the first animated feature film in Asia and it had great impact on wartime Japanese Momotaro animated feature films and on Osamu Tezuka.
China was on pace with the rest of the world up to the mid-1960s, with the Wan's brothers Havoc in Heaven earning numerous international awards. China's golden age of animation would come to an end following the onset of the Cultural Revolution in 1966. Many animators were forced to quit. If not for harsh economic conditions, the mistreatment of the Red Guards would threaten their work; the surviving animations would lean closer to propaganda. By the 1980s, Japan would emerge as the animation powerhouse of the Far East, leaving China's industry far behind in reputation and productivity. Though two major changes would occur in the 1990s, igniting some of the biggest changes since the exploration periods; the first is a political change. The implementation of a socialist market economy would push out traditional planned economy systems. No longer would a single entity limit the industry's output and income; the second is a technological change with the arrival of the Internet. New opportunities would emerge from flash animations and the contents became more open.
Today China is drastically reinventing itself in the animation industry with greater influences from Hong Kong and Taiwan. Chinese animations today can best be described in two categories; the first type are "Conventional Animations" produced by corporations of well-financed entities. These content falls along the lines of traditional 2D cartoons or modern 3D CG animated films distributed via cinemas, DVD or broadcast on TV; this format can be summarized as a reviving industry coming together with advanced computer technology and low cost labor. The second type are "Webtoons" produced by corporations or sometimes just individuals; these contents are flash animations ranging anywhere from amateurish to high quality, hosted publicly on various websites. While the global community has always gauged industry success by box office sales; this format cannot be denied when measured in hits among a population of 1.3 billion in just mainland China alone. Most it provides greater freedom of expression on top of potential advertising.
In the 1920s, the pioneering Wan brothers believed that animations should emphasize on a development style, uniquely Chinese. This rigid philosophy stayed with the industry for decades. Animations were an extension of other facets of Chinese arts and culture, drawing more contents from ancient folklores and manhua. An example of a traditional Chinese animation character would be Monkey King, a character transitioned from the classic literature Journey to the West to the 1964 animation Havoc in Heaven. Drawing on tradition was the ink-wash animation developed by animators Te Wei and Qian Jiajun in the 1960s. Based on Chinese ink-wash painting, several films were produced in this style, starting with Where is Mama. However, the technique was time-consuming and was abandoned by animation studios; the concept of Chinese animations have begun loosening up in recent years without locking into any particular one style. One of the first revolutionary change was in the 1995 manhua animation adaptation Cyber Weapon Z.
The style consist of characters that are indistinguishable from any typical anime, yet it is categorized as Chinese animation. It can be said that productions are not limited to any one technique. Newer waves of animations since the 1990s flash animations, are trying to break away from the tradition. In 2001 Time Magazine Asia Edition would rate the Taiwanese webtoon character A-kuei as one of the top 100 new figures in Asia; the appearance of A-kuei with the large head, would lean much closer to children's material like Doraemon. So changes like this signify a welcoming transition, since folklore-like characters have always had a hard time gaining international appeal. GoGo Top magazine, the first weekly Chinese animation magazine, conducted a survey and proved that only 1 out of 20 favorite characters among children was created domestically in China. In 1998, Wang Xiaodi directed Her Ghosts. From the demographics perspective, the Chinese consumer market has identified 11% of the audience are under the age of 13 with 59% between 14 and 17 and 30% over 18 years of age.
500 million people could be identified as cartoon consumers. China has one of the world's largest animation audiences. From the financial perspective, Quatech Market Research surveyed ages between 14 and 30 in Beijing and Guangzhou and found that over 1.3 billion RMB (about U
Animation is a method in which pictures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent celluloid sheets to be photographed and exhibited on film. Today, most animations are made with computer-generated imagery. Computer animation can be detailed 3D animation, while 2D computer animation can be used for stylistic reasons, low bandwidth or faster real-time renderings. Other common animation methods apply a stop motion technique to two and three-dimensional objects like paper cutouts, puppets or clay figures; the effect of animation is achieved by a rapid succession of sequential images that minimally differ from each other. The illusion—as in motion pictures in general—is thought to rely on the phi phenomenon and beta movement, but the exact causes are still uncertain. Analog mechanical animation media that rely on the rapid display of sequential images include the phénakisticope, flip book and film. Television and video are popular electronic animation media that were analog and now operate digitally.
For display on the computer, techniques like animated GIF and Flash animation were developed. Animation is more pervasive. Apart from short films, feature films, animated gifs and other media dedicated to the display of moving images, animation is heavily used for video games, motion graphics and special effects. Animation is prevalent in information technology interfaces; the physical movement of image parts through simple mechanics – in for instance the moving images in magic lantern shows – can be considered animation. The mechanical manipulation of puppets and objects to emulate living beings has a long history in automata. Automata were popularised by Disney as animatronics. Animators are artists; the word "animation" stems from the Latin "animationem", noun of action from past participle stem of "animare", meaning "the action of imparting life". The primary meaning of the English word is "liveliness" and has been in use much longer than the meaning of "moving image medium"; the history of animation started long before the development of cinematography.
Humans have attempted to depict motion as far back as the paleolithic period. Shadow play and the magic lantern offered popular shows with moving images as the result of manipulation by hand and/or some minor mechanics. A 5,200-year old pottery bowl discovered in Shahr-e Sukhteh, has five sequential images painted around it that seem to show phases of a goat leaping up to nip at a tree. In 1833, the phenakistiscope introduced the stroboscopic principle of modern animation, which would provide the basis for the zoetrope, the flip book, the praxinoscope and cinematography. Charles-Émile Reynaud further developed his projection praxinoscope into the Théâtre Optique with transparent hand-painted colorful pictures in a long perforated strip wound between two spools, patented in December 1888. From 28 October 1892 to March 1900 Reynaud gave over 12,800 shows to a total of over 500.000 visitors at the Musée Grévin in Paris. His Pantomimes Lumineuses series of animated films each contained 300 to 700 frames that were manipulated back and forth to last 10 to 15 minutes per film.
Piano music and some dialogue were performed live, while some sound effects were synchronized with an electromagnet. When film became a common medium some manufacturers of optical toys adapted small magic lanterns into toy film projectors for short loops of film. By 1902, they were producing many chromolithography film loops by tracing live-action film footage; some early filmmakers, including J. Stuart Blackton, Arthur Melbourne-Cooper, Segundo de Chomón and Edwin S. Porter experimented with stop-motion animation since around 1899. Blackton's The Haunted Hotel was the first huge success that baffled audiences with objects moving by themselves and inspired other filmmakers to try the technique for themselves. J. Stuart Blackton experimented with animation drawn on blackboards and some cutout animation in Humorous Phases of Funny Faces. In 1908, Émile Cohl's Fantasmagorie was released with a white-on-black chalkline look created with negative prints from black ink drawings on white paper; the film consists of a stick figure moving about and encountering all kinds of morphing objects, including a wine bottle that transforms into a flower.
Inspired by Émile Cohl's stop-motion film Les allumettes animées, Ladislas Starevich started making his influential puppet animations in 1910. Winsor McCay's Little Nemo showcased detailed drawings, his Gertie the Dinosaur was an early example of character development in drawn animation. During the 1910s, the production of animated short films referred to as "cartoons", became an industry of its own and cartoon shorts were produced for showing in movie theaters; the most successful producer at the time was John Randolph Bray, along with animator Earl Hurd, patented the cel animation process that dominated the animation industry for the rest of the decade. El Apóstol was a 1917 Argentine animated film utilizing cutout animation, the world's first animated feature film. A fire that destroyed producer Federico Valle's film studio incinerated the only known copy of El Apóstol, it is now considered a lost film. In 1919, the silent animated short Feline Follies was released, marking the debut of Felix the Cat, being the first animated character in the silent film era to win a high level of popularity.
The earliest extant feature-length animated film is The Adve
A light table is a viewing device, used to review photographic film or artwork placed on top of it. A horizontal form of a self-standing lightbox, it provides illumination of the subject from below through a translucent cover and fluorescent lights that emit little heat; some light tables may be like big light boxes horizontally standing on some type of support allowing to lay sheets of paper or films on their work surface to view or trace them while being comfortably seated on an office chair, but others are big complicated affairs with stereoscopes integrated as an autosupported unit. That kind is used by Tomcat TARPS squadrons for interpreting aerial photographs, they are used in the trades of graphics to trace designs in the world of cartoon or comics. Another use is for example to review film negatives, photoliths or any kind artwork that can be placed on top of a table for working with it. In general: professional tracing, cartoons and drawing creation, architecture, interior design, fashion, in hospitals for viewing radiographs Tactical Airborne Reconnaissance Pod System squadrons were staffed with Navy photographer's mates that maintained the cameras and worked with the carrier to process the imagery.
TARPS squadrons included an extra Intelligence officer and Intelligence Specialists to help plan TARPS missions and exploit the imagery afterwards. The TARPS shop maintained the cameras and removed or loaded the pod when and if needed. Wet film processing was conducted in a processing room connected to the ship's Intelligence Center where the Intelligence Specialists has a dedicated space with a light table for analyzing the hundreds of feet of film and exploiting the data. Mimeoscope Light box Exposure unit A2 Ultra Thin Artcraft Tracing LED Light Pad Active Area 12.60" X 20.47" Making a lightbox light box monitor table-of-light-with-a-old-monitor
History of animation
The history of animation started long before the development of cinematography. Humans have attempted to depict motion as far back as the paleolithic period. Shadow play and the magic lantern offered popular shows with projected images on a screen, moving as the result of manipulation by hand and/or some minor mechanics. In 1833 the phenakistiscope introduced the stroboscopic principle of modern animation, would provide the basis for cinematography. There are several examples of early sequential images that may seem similar to series of animation drawings. Most of these examples would only allow an low frame rate when they are animated, resulting in short and crude animations that are not lifelike. However, it's unlikely that these images were intended to be somehow viewed as an animation, it is possible to imagine technology that could have been used in the periods of their creation, but no conclusive evidence in artifacts or descriptions have been found. It is sometimes argued that these early sequential images are too interpreted as "pre-cinema" by minds accustomed to film, comic books and other modern sequential images, while it is uncertain that the creators of these images envisioned anything like it.
Fluent animation needs a proper breakdown of a motion into the separate images of short instances, which could hardly be imagined before modern times. Measuring instances shorter than a second first became possible with instruments developed in the 1850s. Early examples of attempts to capture the phenomenon of motion into a still drawing can be found in paleolithic cave paintings, where animals are depicted with multiple legs in superimposed positions, it has been claimed that these superimposed figures were intended for a form of animation with the flickering light of the flames of a fire or a passing torch illuminating different parts of the painted rock wall, revealing different parts of the motion. Archaeological finds of small paleolithic discs with a hole in the middle and drawings on both sides have been claimed to be a kind of prehistoric thaumatropes that show motion when spun on a string. A 5,200-year old pottery bowl discovered in Shahr-e Sukhteh, Iran has five sequential images painted around it that seem to show phases of a goat leaping up to nip at a tree.
An Egyptian mural 4000 years old, found in the tomb of Khnumhotep at the Beni Hassan cemetery, features a long series of images that depict the sequence of events in a wrestling match. The Roman poet and philosopher Lucretius wrote in his poem De rerum natura a few lines that come close to the basic principles of animation: "...when the first image perishes and a second is produced in another position, the former seems to have altered its pose. Of course this must be supposed to take place swiftly: so great is their velocity, so great the store of particles in any single moment of sensation, to enable the supply to come up." It must be noted that this was in the context of dream images, rather than images produced by an actual or imagined technology. The medieval codex Sigenot has sequential illuminations with short intervals between different phases of action; each page has a picture inside a frame above the text, with great consistency in size and position throughout the book. A page of drawings by Leonardo da Vinci show anatomical studies with four different angles of the muscles of shoulder and neck of a man.
The four drawings can be read as a rotating movement. Ancient Chinese records contain several mentions of devices, including one made by the inventor Ding Huan, that were said to "give an impression of movement" to a series of human or animal figures on them, but these accounts are unclear and may only refer to the actual movement of the figures through space. Since before 1000 CE the Chinese had a rotating lantern which had silhouettes projected on its thin paper sides that appeared to chase each other; this was called the "trotting horse lamp" as it would depict horses and horse-riders. The cut-out silhouettes were attached inside the lantern to a shaft with a paper vane impeller on top, rotated by heated air rising from a lamp; some versions added extra motion with jointed heads, feet or hands of figures triggered by a transversely connected iron wire. Volvelles have moving parts, but these and other paper materials that can be manipulated into motion are not regarded as animation. Shadow play has much in common with animation: people watching moving figures on a screen as a popular form of entertainment a story with dialogue and music.
The figures could be detailed and articulated. The earliest projection of images was most done in primitive shadowgraphy dating back to prehistory, it evolved into more refined forms of shadow puppetry with flat jointed cut-out figures which are held between a source of light and a translucent screen. The shapes of the puppets sometimes include translucent color or other types of detailing; the history of shadow puppetry is uncertain, but seems to have originated in Asia in the 1st millennium BCE. Clearer records seem to go back to around 900 CE, it spread to the Ottoman empire and seems not to have reached Europe before the 17th century. It became popular in France at the end of the 18th century. François Dominique Séraphin started his elaborate shadow shows in 1771 and performed them until his death in 1800, his heirs continued until their theatre closed in 1870. Séraphin developed the use of clockwork mechanisms to automate the show. Around the time cinematography was developed, several theaters in Montmartre showed elaborate "Ombres Chinoises" shows t
Motion blur is the apparent streaking of moving objects in a photograph or a sequence of frames, such as a film or animation. It results when the image being recorded changes during the recording of a single exposure, due to rapid movement or long exposure; when a camera creates an image, that image does not represent a single instant of time. Because of technological constraints or artistic requirements, the image may represent the scene over a period of time. Most this exposure time is brief enough that the image captured by the camera appears to capture an instantaneous moment, but this is not always so, a fast moving object or a longer exposure time may result in blurring artifacts which make this apparent; as objects in a scene move, an image of that scene must represent an integration of all positions of those objects, as well as the camera's viewpoint, over the period of exposure determined by the shutter speed. In such an image, any object moving with respect to the camera will look blurred or smeared along the direction of relative motion.
This smearing may occur on an object, moving or on a static background if the camera is moving. In a film or television image, this looks natural because the human eye behaves in much the same way; because the effect is caused by the relative motion between the camera, the objects and scene, motion blur may be avoided by panning the camera to track those moving objects. In this case with long exposure times, the objects will appear sharper, the background more blurred. In computer animation this effect must be simulated as a virtual camera does capture a discrete moment in time; this simulated motion blur is applied when either the camera or objects in the scene move rapidly. Without this simulated effect each frame shows a perfect instant in time, with zero motion blur; this is why a video game with a frame rate of 25-30 frames per second will seem staggered, while natural motion filmed at the same frame rate appears rather more continuous. Many modern video games feature motion blur vehicle simulation games.
Some of the better-known games that utilise this are the recent Need for Speed titles, Unreal Tournament III, The Legend of Zelda: Majora's Mask, among many others. There are two main methods used in video games to achieve motion blur: cheaper full-screen effects, which only take camera movement into mind, more "selective" or "per-object" motion blur, which uses a shader to create a velocity buffer to mark motion intensity for a motion blurring effect to be applied to or uses a shader to perform geometry extrusion. Classic "motion blur" effects prior to modern per-pixel shading pipelines simply drew successive frames on top of each other with slight transparency, speaking a form of video feedback. In pre-rendered computer animation, such as CGI movies, realistic motion blur can be drawn because the renderer has more time to draw each frame. Temporal anti-aliasing produces frames as a composite of many instants. Frames are not points in time, they are periods of time. If an object makes a trip at a linear speed along a path from 0% to 100% in four time periods, if those time periods are considered frames the object would exhibit motion blur streaks in each frame that are 25% of the path length.
If the shutter speed is shortened to less than the duration of a frame, it may be so shortened as to approach zero time in duration the computer animator must choose which portion of the quarter paths they wish to feature as "open shutter" times. They may choose to render the beginnings of each frame, in which case they will never see the arrival of the object at the end of the path, or they may choose to render the ends of each frame, in which case they will miss the starting point of the trip. Most computer animations systems make the classic "fence-post error" in the way they handle time, confusing the periods of time of an animation with the instantaneous moments that delimit them, thus most computer animation systems will incorrectly place an object on a four frame trip along a path at 0%, 0.33%, 0.66%, 1.0% and when called upon to render motion blur will have to cut one or more frames short, or look beyond the boundaries of the animation, compromises that real cameras don't do and synthetic cameras needn't do.
Motion lines in cel animation are drawn in the same direction as motion blur and perform much the same duty. Go motion is a variant of stop motion animation that moves the models during the exposure to create a less staggered effect. In 2D computer graphics, motion blur is an artistic filter that converts the digital image/bitmap/raster image in order to simulate the effect. Many graphical software products offer simple motion blur filters. However, for advanced motion blur filtering including curves or non-uniform speed adjustment, specialized software products are necessary; when an animal's eye is in motion, the image will suffer from motion blur, resulting in an inability to resolve details. To cope with this, humans alternate between saccades and fixation. Saccadic masking makes motion blur during a saccade invisible. Smooth pursuit allows the eye to track a target in rapid motion, eliminating motion blur of that target instead of the scene. In televised sports, where conventional cameras expose pictures 25 or 30 times per second, motion blur can be inconvenient because it obscures the exact position of a projectile or athlete in slow motion.
For this reason special cameras are used which eliminate motion