The Altiplano, Andean Plateau or Bolivian Plateau, in west-central South America, is the area where the Andes are the widest. It is the most extensive area of high plateau on Earth outside Tibet; the bulk of the Altiplano lies in Bolivia, but its northern parts lie in Peru, its southern parts lie in Chile and Argentina. The plateau hosts several cities of these four nations, including El Alto, La Paz and Puno; the northeastern Altiplano is more humid than the southwestern area. The latter area has salt flats, due to its aridity. At the Bolivia -- Peru border lies the largest lake in South America. South of that in Bolivia was Lake Poopó, declared dried up and defunct as of December 2015, it is unclear. The Altiplano was the site of several pre-Columbian cultures, including the Chiripa and the Inca Empire. Spain conquered the region in the 16th century. Major economic activities in the Altiplano include mining and vicuña herding, services in the cities. There is some international tourism; the Altiplano is an area of inland drainage lying in the central Andes, occupying parts of northern Chile and Argentina, western Bolivia and southern Peru.
Its height averages about 3,750 meters less than that of the Tibetan Plateau. Unlike conditions in Tibet, the Altiplano is dominated by massive active volcanoes of the Central Volcanic Zone to the west, such as Ampato, Parinacota, Paruma and Licancabur, the Cordillera Real in the north east with Illampu, Huayna Potosí, Janq'u Uma and Illimani; the Atacama Desert, one of the driest areas on the planet, lies to the southwest of the Altiplano. The Altiplano is noted for hypoxic air caused by high elevation. At various times during the Pleistocene epoch, both the southern and northern Altiplano were covered by vast pluvial lakes. Remnants are Lake Titicaca, straddling the Peru–Bolivia border, Poopó, a salt lake that extends south of Oruro, Bolivia. Salar de Uyuni, locally known as Salar de Tunupa, Salar de Coipasa are two large dry salt flats formed after the Altiplano paleolakes dried out; the term Altiplano is sometimes used to identify the altitude zone and the type of climate that prevails within it: it is colder than that of the tierra fría but not as cold as that of the tierra helada.
Scientists classify the latter as commencing at an elevation of 4,500 meters. Alternate names used in place of altiplano in this context páramos. In extentum, the climate is cool and humid to semi-arid and arid, with mean annual temperatures that vary from 3 °C near the western mountain range to 12 °C near Lake Titicaca; the diurnal cycle of temperature is wide, with maximum temperatures in the order of 12 to 24 °C and the minimum in the order of -20 to 10 °C. The coldest temperatures occur in the southwestern portion of the Altiplano during the months of June and July, which correspond to the austral winter; the seasonal cycle of rainfall is marked, with the rainy season concentrated between December and March. The rest of the year tends to be dry, cool and sunny. Snowfall may happen between April and September to the north, but it is not common. Several mechanisms have been put forth for the formation of the Altiplano plateau; such weaknesses would cause the partition of tectonic deformation and uplift into the eastern and western cordillera, leaving the necessary space for the formation of the altiplano basin.
Magmatic processes rooted in the asthenosphere might have contributed to uplift of the plateau Climate has controlled the spatial distribution of erosion and sediment deposition, controlling the lubrication along the subducting Nazca Plate and hence influencing the transmission of tectonic forces into South America. Climate determined the formation of internal drainage and sediment trapping within the Andes blocking tectonic deformation in the central area between the two cordilleras, expelling deformation towards the flanks of the orogen Convective removal of the dense lower lithosphere beneath the Altiplano caused that region to isostatically'float' higher Qulla Uros Quechua Aymara Lake Tauca Gran Chaco Guatemalan Highlands Mexican Plateau Puna de Atacama Yungas Photo Gallery: Argentinian Puna Water resources of Chilean Altiplano Steinmetz, George. "Altiplano - Where Bolivia meets the sky". National Geographic Magazine
The Neo-Inca State known as the Neo-Inca state of Vilcabamba, was the Inca state established by Inca emperor Huayna Capac's son Manco Inca Yupanqui in Vilcabamba in 1537. It is considered the remnants of the Inca Empire after the Spanish conquest, it lasted until 1572, when the last Inca stronghold was conquered, the last ruler, Túpac Amaru, Manco's son, was captured and executed. This ended the resistance to the Spanish conquest under the political authority of the Inca state; the Vilcabamba region had been part of the Inca Empire since the reign of Pachacuti. During the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire, Túpac Huallpa was a puppet ruler crowned by the conquistador Francisco Pizarro. After his death, Manco Inca Yupanqui joined Francisco Diego de Almagro in Cajamarca; when Pizarro's force arrived in Cusco, he had the caciques acknowledge Manco as their Inca. Manco Inca joined Almagro and Hernando de Soto in pursuit of Quizquiz; when Pizarro left Cuzco with Almagro and Manco Inca, for Jauja in pursuit of Quizquiz, Francisco left his younger brothers Gonzalo Pizarro and Juan Pizarro as regidores, a ninety-man garrison in the city.
The Pizarro brothers so mistreated Manco Inca that he tried to escape in 1535. He failed, was imprisoned. Hernando Pizarro released him to recover a golden statue of his father Huayana Capac. Only accompanied by two Spaniards, he escaped a second time. Manco gathered an army of 100,000 Inca warriors and laid siege to Cusco in early 1536, taking advantage of Diego de Almagro's absence. After ten months, Manco retreated to the nearby fortress of Ollantaytambo in 1537. Here Manco repelled attacks by the Spaniards in the Battle of Ollantaytambo. Manco coordinated his siege of Cusco with one on Lima, led by one of Quiso Yupanqui; the Incans were able to defeat four relief expeditions sent by Francisco Pizarro from Lima. This resulted in the death of nearly 500 Spanish soldiers; some Spaniards were sent to Ollantaytambo. However, with the Spaniards' position consolidated by Almagro's reinforcements, Manco Inca decided that Ollantaytambo was too close to Cusco to be tenable so he withdrew further west. Abandoning Ollantaytambo, Manco Inca retreated to Vitcos and to the remote jungles of Vilcabamba.
At Vilcabamba the state known as the Neo-Inca State was established by Manco, Vilcabamba became the capital of the state until the death of Tupaq Amaru in 1572. From there, he continued his attacks against the Wankas, having some success after fierce battles, to the highlands of present-day Bolivia, where after many battles his army was defeated. After many guerrilla battles in the mountainous regions of Vilcabamba, Manco was murdered in 1544 by supporters of Diego de Almagro who had assassinated Francisco Pizarro and who were in hiding under Manco's protection, they in turn were all killed by Manco's soldiers. Manco was succeeded by his son Sayri Tupaq, he was five years old at the time. He became Inca in reigning for ten years with the aid of regents; this was a time of peace with the Spanish. Viceroy Pedro de la Gasca offered to provide Sayri Túpac with lands and houses in Cuzco if he would emerge from the isolated Vilcabamba. Sayri Túpac accepted, but during the preparations his relative Paullu Inca died.
This was taken as a bad omen, Sayri Tupac remained in Vilcabamba. He died in 1561, his half-brother Titu Cusi Yupanqui took control of Vilcabamba and the Inca resistance to the Spanish. During his rule at Vilcabamba, the provisional governor-general Lope Garcia de Castro wanted to negotiate with him; the negotiations were about Cusi accepting a Crown pension. After negotiations escalated, around 1568, Titi Cusi was baptized into the Roman Catholic Church, as Diego de Castro. Túpac Amaru became the Inca ruler after Titu Cusi's sudden death in 1571. At this time the Spanish were still unaware of the death of the previous Sapa Inca and had sent two ambassadors to continue ongoing negotiations being held with Titu Cusi, they were both killed on the border by an Inca captain. Using the justification that the Incas had "broken the inviolate law observed by all nations of the world regarding ambassadors" the new Viceroy, Francisco de Toledo, Count of Oropesa, decided to attack and conquer Vilcabamba.
He declared war against the Neo-Inca State on April 14, 1572. Within two weeks after the declaration of war a small party of Spanish soldiers had captured a key bridge on the border of the Neo-Inca State, from which Toledo assembled his army. On June 1, the first engagement of the war commenced in the Vilcabamba valley; the Inca people attacked first with much spirit despite being only armed. Again and again, they attempted to lift the siege held by the Spanish and their native allies but each time they were forced to retreat. On June 23 the fort of Huayna Pucará surrendered to Spanish artillery fire; the Inca army now in retreat opted to head for the jungle to regroup. On June 24 the Spanish entered Vilcabamba to find it deserted and the Sapa Inca gone; the city had been destroyed, the Neo-Inca State ceased to exist. Túpac Amaru was captured and executed by the Spanish, it took the Incas two decades to bridge the technological gap with the Spanish. As early as 1537, when king Manco Inca defeated them at Pilcosuni, they came into possession of modern Spanish weapons, including arquebuses and crossbows.
In 1538 Manco Inca was recorded to be skilled enough to ride a horse into battle. In the early 1540s
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum. In many contexts, potato refers to the edible tuber, but it can refer to the plant itself. Common or slang terms include tater and spud. Potatoes were introduced to Europe in the second half of the 16th century by the Spanish. Today they are a staple food in many parts of the world and an integral part of much of the world's food supply; as of 2014, potatoes were the world's fourth-largest food crop after maize and rice. Wild potato species can be found from the United States to southern Chile; the potato was believed to have been domesticated independently in multiple locations, but genetic testing of the wide variety of cultivars and wild species traced a single origin for potatoes. In the area of present-day southern Peru and extreme northwestern Bolivia, from a species in the Solanum brevicaule complex, potatoes were domesticated 7,000–10,000 years ago. In the Andes region of South America, where the species is indigenous, some close relatives of the potato are cultivated.
Following millennia of selective breeding, there are now over 1,000 different types of potatoes. Over 99% of presently cultivated potatoes worldwide descended from varieties that originated in the lowlands of south-central Chile, which have displaced popular varieties from the Andes; the importance of the potato as a food source and culinary ingredient varies by region and is still changing. It remains an essential crop in Europe eastern and central Europe, where per capita production is still the highest in the world, while the most rapid expansion in production over the past few decades has occurred in southern and eastern Asia, with China and India leading the world in overall production as of 2014. Being a nightshade similar to tomatoes, the vegetative and fruiting parts of the potato contain the toxin solanine and are not fit for human consumption. Normal potato tubers that have been grown and stored properly produce glycoalkaloids in amounts small enough to be negligible to human health, but if green sections of the plant are exposed to light, the tuber can accumulate a high enough concentration of glycoalkaloids to affect human health.
The English word potato comes from Spanish patata. The Spanish Royal Academy says the Spanish word is a hybrid of the Taíno batata and the Quechua papa; the name referred to the sweet potato although the two plants are not related. The 16th-century English herbalist John Gerard referred to sweet potatoes as "common potatoes", used the terms "bastard potatoes" and "Virginia potatoes" for the species we now call "potato". In many of the chronicles detailing agriculture and plants, no distinction is made between the two. Potatoes are referred to as "Irish potatoes" or "white potatoes" in the United States, to distinguish them from sweet potatoes; the name spud for a small potato comes from the digging of soil prior to the planting of potatoes. The word has an unknown origin and was used as a term for a short knife or dagger related to the Latin "spad-" a word root meaning "sword", it subsequently transferred over to a variety of digging tools. Around 1845, the name transferred to the tuber itself, the first record of this usage being in New Zealand English.
The origin of the word "spud" has erroneously been attributed to an 18th-century activist group dedicated to keeping the potato out of Britain, calling itself The Society for the Prevention of Unwholesome Diet. It was Mario Pei's 1949 The Story of Language. Pei writes, "the potato, for its part, was in disrepute some centuries ago; some Englishmen who did not fancy potatoes formed a Society for the Prevention of Unwholesome Diet. The initials of the main words in this title gave rise to spud." Like most other pre-20th century acronymic origins, this is false, there is no evidence that a Society for the Prevention of Unwholesome Diet existed. Potato plants are herbaceous perennials that grow about 60 cm high, depending on variety, with the leaves dying back after flowering and tuber formation, they bear white, red, blue, or purple flowers with yellow stamens. In general, the tubers of varieties with white flowers have white skins, while those of varieties with colored flowers tend to have pinkish skins.
Potatoes are cross-pollinated by insects such as bumblebees, which carry pollen from other potato plants, though a substantial amount of self-fertilizing occurs as well. Tubers form in response to decreasing day length, although this tendency has been minimized in commercial varieties. After flowering, potato plants produce small green fruits that resemble green cherry tomatoes, each containing about 300 seeds. Like all parts of the plant except the tubers, the fruit contain the toxic alkaloid solanine and are therefore unsuitable for consumption. All new potato varieties are grown from seeds called "true potato seed", "TPS" or "botanical seed" to distinguish it from seed tubers. New varieties grown from seed can be propagated vegetatively by planting tubers, pieces of tubers cut to include at least one or two eyes, or cuttings, a practice used in greenhouses for the production of healthy seed tubers. Plants propagated from tubers are clones of the parent, whereas those propagated from seed produce a range of different varieties.
There are about 5,000 potato varieties worldwide. Three thousand of them are found in the Andes alone in Peru, Ecuador and Colombia, they belong to eight or nine species, dependin
The llama is a domesticated South American camelid used as a meat and pack animal by Andean cultures since the Pre-Columbian era. A full-grown llama can reach a height of 1.7 to 1.8 m at the top of the head, can weigh between 130 and 200 kg. At birth, a baby llama can weigh between 14 kg. Llamas live for 15 to 25 years, with some individuals surviving 30 years or more, they are social animals and live with other llamas as a herd. The wool produced by a llama is soft and lanolin-free. Llamas can learn simple tasks after a few repetitions; when using a pack, they can carry about 25 to 30% of their body weight for 8 to 13 km. The name llama was adopted by European settlers from native Peruvians. Llamas appear to have originated from the central plains of North America about 40 million years ago, they migrated to South America about three million years ago during the Great American Interchange. By the end of the last ice age, camelids were extinct in North America; as of 2007, there were over seven million llamas and alpacas in South America, due to importation from South America in the late 20th century, there are now over 158,000 llamas and 100,000 alpacas in the United States and Canada.
Lamoids, or llamas, consist of the vicuña, Suri alpaca, Huacaya alpaca, the domestic llama. Guanacos and vicuñas live in the wild, while alpacas exist only as domesticated animals. Although early writers compared llamas to sheep, their similarity to the camel was soon recognized, they were included in the genus Camelus along with alpaca in the Systema Naturae of Carl Linnaeus. They were, separated by Georges Cuvier in 1800 under the name of lama along with the guanaco. DNA analysis has confirmed that the guanaco is the wild ancestor of the llama, while the vicuña is the wild ancestor of the alpaca, thus the latter were placed in the genusVicugna; the genera Lama and Vicugna are, with the two species of true camels, the sole existing representatives of a distinct section of the Artiodactyla or even-toed ungulates, called Tylopoda, or "bump-footed", from the peculiar bumps on the soles of their feet. The Tylopoda consist of a single family, the Camelidae, shares the order Artiodactyla with the Suina, the Tragulina, the Pecora, the Whippomorpha.
The Tylopoda have more or less affinity to each of the sister taxa, standing in some respects in a middle position between them, sharing some characteristics from each, but in others showing special modifications not found in any of the other taxa. The 19th-century discoveries of a vast and unexpected extinct Paleogene fauna of North America, as interpreted by paleontologists Joseph Leidy, Edward Drinker Cope, Othniel Charles Marsh, aided understanding of the early history of this family. Llamas were not always confined to South America; some of the fossil llamas were much larger than current forms. Some species remained in North America during the last ice ages. North American llamas are categorized as Hemiauchenia. Llama-like animals would have been a common sight 25,000 years ago, in modern-day California, New Mexico, Utah and Florida; the camelid lineage has a good fossil record. Camel-like animals have been traced from the differentiated, modern species back through early Miocene forms, their characteristics became more general, they lost those that distinguished them as camelids.
No fossils of these earlier forms have been found in the Old World, indicating that North America was the original home of camelids, that Old World camels crossed over via the Bering Land Bridge. The formation of the Isthmus of Panama three million years ago allowed camelids to spread to South America as part of the Great American Interchange, where they evolved further. Meanwhile, North American camelids died out at the end of the Pleistocene; the following characteristics apply to llamas. Dentition of adults:-incisors 1/3 canines 1/1, premolars 2/2, molars 3/2. In the upper jaw, a compressed, pointed laniariform incisor near the hinder edge of the premaxilla is followed in the male at least by a moderate-sized, curved true canine in the anterior part of the maxilla; the isolated canine-like premolar that follows in the camels is not present. The teeth of the molar series, which are in contact with each other, consist of two small premolars and three broad molars, constructed like those of Camelus.
In the lower jaw, the three incisors are long and procumbent. Next to these is a curved, suberect canine, followed after an interval by an isolated minute and deciduous simple conical premolar; the skull resembles that of Camelus, the larger brain-cavity and orbits and less-developed cranial ridges being due to its smaller size. The nasal bones are shorter and broader, are joined by the premaxilla. Vertebrae: cervical 7, dorsal 12, lumbar 7, sacral 4
Skates are cartilaginous fish belonging to the family Rajidae in the superorder Batoidea of rays. More than 150 species have been described, in 17 genera. Softnose skates and pygmy skates were treated as subfamilies of Rajidae, but are now considered as distinct families. Alternatively, the name "skate" is used to refer to the entire order of Rajiformes. Members of Rajidae are distinguished by their stiff snout and a rostrum, not reduced. There are 17 genera in Rajidae: Amblyraja Beringraja Breviraja Dactylobatus Dentiraja Dipturus Hongeo Leucoraja Malacoraja Neoraja Okamejei Orbiraja Raja Rajella Rostroraja Spiniraja Zearaja Skates are cartilaginous fishes like other Chondrichthyes, skates, like rays and other Rajiformes, have a flat body shape with flat pectoral fins that extend the length of their body. A large portion of the skate's dorsal body is covered by rough skin made of placoid scales. Placoid scales have a pointed tip, oriented caudally and are homologous to teeth, their mouths are located on the underside of the body, with a jaw suspension common to Batoids known as euhyostyly.
Skate's gill slits are located ventrally as well, but dorsal spiracles allow the skate to be buried in floor sediment and still complete respiratory exchange. Located on the dorsal side of the skate are their two eyes which allow for predator awareness. In addition to their pectoral fins, skates have a first and second dorsal fin, caudal fin and paired pelvic fins. Distinct from their rhomboidal shape is a long fleshy slender tail. While skate anatomy is similar to other Batoidea, features such as their electric organ and mermaids purse create clear distinctions. Skates produce; these egg cases have distinct characteristics. This makes a great tool for identifying different species of skates. One of these identifiable structures, is the keel; the keel is a flexible ridge. Another characteristic is the number of embryos in the egg case; some species contain only one embryo. The size of the fibrous shell around the case is another characteristic; some species have thick layers on the exterior, however other species don't have the presence of this layer.
The electric organ is a characteristic exclusive to aquatic species. Among the Chondrichthyes, the only species to possess electric organs are the electric ray and the skate. Unlike many other electrogenic fishes, the skate is unique in that it has two paired electric organs, which run longitudinal through the tail in the lateral musculature of the notochord; the impulses put out by the electric organs of the skate are considered to be weak, long-lasting signals. Although the anatomy of the skate EO is now studied and well understood, there is not enough strong evidence to suggest what the actual function of the EO is; some research suggests the electric impulses are too weak to be a mechanism used for defense or hunting. It is too irregular to be useful for electrolocation purposes; the most reasonable explanation in the literature suggests that the electric organ discharges may be used as a form of communication used for reproduction purposes. The majority of skates feed on bottom dwelling animals, such as shrimp, oyster and other invertebrates.
To feed on these animals they have grinding plates in their mouths. Filter feeding rays that eat plankton have gill rakers. Skates are an influential part of the food webs of demersal marine communities, they utilize similar resources to those of other upper trophic-level marine predators, such as seabirds, marine mammals, sharks. The flattened body shape, ventral eyes and well developed spiracles of the skate allows them to live benthically, buried in the sediment or using a longitudinal undulation of the pectoral fins known as Rajiform locomotion to glide along the water floor. Current research suggests that some species of skates, in addition to their Rajiform locomotion, use their pelvic fins to perform ambulatory locomotion; this form of locomotion performed by the skate is being explored as a possible origin for our own development of walking by looking for similar neural pathways used for movement between skates and animals walking on land. Skates are found from the intertidal down to depths greater than 3,000 meters.
They are most found along outer continental shelves and upper slopes. They are more diverse at higher latitudes and in deep-water. In fact, skates are the only cartilaginous fish taxon to exhibit more diversity of species at higher latitudes. A cool, temperate to polar water in the deep sea can be a favorable environment for skates; as the water becomes more shallow and warmer, skates are seen to be replaced by stingrays. Skates are absent from freshwater environments. However, there is a single estuarine species, found in Tasmania, Australia; the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection has caught and studied skates within the Long Island Sound estuary. Some skate fauna have been found inhabiting areas of high rocky relief. Skates mate at the same nursery ground each year. In order to fertilize the egg, males use a structure attached to the pelvic fins; the claspers allow them to direct the flow of semen into the female's cloaca. Skates are oviparous, meaning they lay eggs with little development in the mother.
This is one major difference from rays. When a female skate is fertilized, a protected case forms around the embryo called an egg case, or more
The vicuña or vicuna is one of the two wild South American camelids which live in the high alpine areas of the Andes, the other being the guanaco. It is a relative of the llama, is now believed to be the wild ancestor of domesticated alpacas, which are raised for their coats. Vicuñas produce small amounts of fine wool, expensive because the animal can only be shorn every three years, has to be caught from the wild; when knitted together, the product of the vicuña's wool is soft and warm. The Inca valued vicuñas for their wool, it was against the law for anyone but royalty to wear vicuña garments. Both under the rule of the Inca and today, vicuñas have been protected by law, but they were hunted in the intervening period. At the time they were declared endangered in 1974, only about 6,000 animals were left. Today, the vicuña population has recovered to about 350,000, although conservation organizations have reduced its level of threat classification, they still call for active conservation programs to protect populations from poaching, habitat loss, other threats.
Until the vicuña was thought to not have been domesticated, the llama and the alpaca were both regarded as descendants of the related guanaco. But recent DNA research has shown. Today, the vicuña is wild, but the local people still perform special rituals with these creatures, including a fertility rite; the vicuña is considered more delicate and graceful than the guanaco, smaller. A key distinguishing element of morphology is the better-developed incisor roots for the guanaco; the vicuña's long, woolly coat is tawny brown on the back, whereas the hair on the throat and chest is white and quite long. The head is shorter than the guanaco's and the ears are longer; the length of head and body ranges from 1.45 to 1.60 m. To prevent poaching, a round-up is held every year, all vicuñas with fur longer than 2.5 cm are shorn. Vicugna vicugna vicugna Vicugna vicugna mensalis Vicuñas are native to the central Andes in South America, where found in Peru, northwestern Argentina and northern Chile. A smaller, introduced population lives in central Ecuador.
Vicuñas live at altitudes of 3,200 to 4,800 m. They feed in daytime on the grassy plains of the Andes Mountains, but spend the nights on the slopes. In these areas, only nutrient-poor, bunch grasses and Festuca grow; the sun's rays are able to penetrate the thin atmosphere, producing warm temperatures during the day. The vicuña's thick but soft coat is a special adaptation which traps layers of warm air close to its body, so it can tolerate freezing temperatures; the behavior of vicuñas is similar to that of the guanacos. They are shy animals, are aroused by intruders, among other things, to their extraordinary hearing. Like the guanacos, they lick calcareous stones and rocks, which are rich in salt, drink salt water, their diets consist of low grasses which grow in clumps on the ground. Vicuñas live in family-based groups made up of a male, five to 15 females, their young; each group has its own territory of about 18 km2, which can fluctuate depending on the availability of food. Mating occurs in March–April, after a gestation period of about 11 months, the female gives birth to a single fawn, nursed for about 10 months.
The fawn becomes independent at about 12 to 18 months old. Young males form the young females search for a sorority to join; this deters intraspecific inbreeding. From the period of Spanish conquest to 1964, hunting of the vicuña was unrestricted, which reduced its numbers to only 6,000 in the 1960s; as a result, the species was declared endangered in 1974, its status prohibited the trade of vicuña wool. In Peru, during 1964–1966, the Servicio Forestal y de Caza in cooperation with the US Peace Corps, Nature Conservancy, World Wildlife Fund, the National Agrarian University of La Molina established a nature conservatory for the vicuña called the Pampa Galeras – Barbara D'Achille in Lucanas Province, Ayacucho. During that time, a game warden academy was held in Nazca, where eight men from Peru and six from Bolivia were trained to protect the vicuña from poaching; the estimated population in Peru increased from 6,000 to 75,000 with protection by game wardens. The community of Lucanas conducts a chaccu on the reserve each year to harvest the wool, organized by the National Council for South American Camelids.
The wool is sold on the world market for over $300 per kg. In Bolivia, the Ulla Ulla National Reserve was founded in 1977 as a sanctuary for the species, their numbers grew to 125,000 in Peru, Chile and Bolivia. Since this was a ready "cash crop" for community members, the countries relaxed regulations on vicuña wool in 1993, enabling its trade once again. While the population levels have recovered to a healthy level, poaching remains a constant threat, as do habitat loss and other threats; the IUCN still supports active conservation programs to protect vicuñas, though they lowered their status to least concern. The US Fish and Wildlife Service has reclassified most populations as threatened, but still lists Ecuador's population as endangered; the wool is popular due to its warmth. Its prope
The Inca Empire known as the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America. Its political and administrative structure is considered by most scholars to have been the most developed in the Americas before Columbus' arrival; the administrative and military center of the empire was located in the city of Cusco. The Inca civilization arose from the Peruvian highlands sometime in the early 13th century, its last stronghold was conquered by the Spanish in 1572. From 1438 to 1533, the Incas incorporated a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean Mountains, using conquest and peaceful assimilation, among other methods. At its largest, the empire joined Peru, southwest Ecuador and south central Bolivia, northwest Argentina, northern Chile and a small part of southwest Colombia into a state comparable to the historical empires of Eurasia, its official language was Quechua. Many local forms of worship persisted in the empire, most of them concerning local sacred Huacas, but the Inca leadership encouraged the sun worship of Inti – their sun god – and imposed its sovereignty above other cults such as that of Pachamama.
The Incas considered their king, the Sapa Inca, to be the "son of the sun."The Inca Empire was unique in that it lacked many features associated with civilization in the Old World. In the words of one scholar, The Incas lacked the use of wheeled vehicles, they lacked animals to ride and draft animals that could pull wagons and plows... lacked the knowledge of iron and steel... Above all, they lacked a system of writing... Despite these supposed handicaps, the Incas were still able to construct one of the greatest imperial states in human history. Notable features of the Inca Empire include its monumental architecture stonework, extensive road network reaching all corners of the empire, finely-woven textiles, use of knotted strings for record keeping and communication, agricultural innovations in a difficult environment, the organization and management fostered or imposed on its people and their labor; the Incan economy has been described in contradictory ways by scholars:... feudal, socialist The Inca empire functioned without money and without markets.
Instead, exchange of goods and services was based on reciprocity between individuals and among individuals and Inca rulers. "Taxes" consisted of a labour obligation of a person to the Empire. The Inca rulers reciprocated by granting access to land and goods and providing food and drink in celebratory feasts for their subjects; the Inca referred to their empire as Tawantinsuyu, "the four suyu". In Quechua, tawa is four and -ntin is a suffix naming a group, so that a tawantin is a quartet, a group of four things taken together, in this case representing the four suyu whose corners met at the capital; the four suyu were: Chinchaysuyu, Antisuyu and Kuntisuyu. The name Tawantinsuyu was, therefore, a descriptive term indicating a union of provinces; the Spanish transliterated the name as Tahuatinsuyu. The term Inka means "ruler" or "lord" in Quechua and was used to refer to the ruling class or the ruling family; the Incas were a small percentage of the total population of the empire numbering only 15,000 to 40,000, but ruling a population of around 10 million people.
The Spanish adopted the term as an ethnic term referring to all subjects of the empire rather than the ruling class. As such, the name Imperio inca referred to the nation that they encountered and subsequently conquered; the Inca Empire was the last chapter of thousands of years of Andean civilizations. The Andean civilization was one of five civilizations in the world deemed by scholars to be "pristine", indigenous and not derivative from other civilizations; the Inca Empire was preceded by two large-scale empires in the Andes: the Tiwanaku, based around Lake Titicaca and the Wari or Huari centered near the city of Ayacucho. The Wari occupied the Cuzco area for about 400 years. Thus, many of the characteristics of the Inca Empire derived from earlier multi-ethnic and expansive Andean cultures. Carl Troll has argued that the development of the Inca state in the central Andes was aided by conditions that allows for the elaboration of the staple food chuño. Chuño, which can be stored for long periods, is made of potato dried at the freezing temperatures that are common at nighttime in the southern Peruvian highlands.
Such link between the Inca state and chuño may be questioned as potatoes and other crops such as maize can be dried with only sunlight. Troll did argue that llamas, the Inca's pack animal, can be found in its largest numbers in this same region, it is worth considering the maximum extent of the Inca Empire coincided with the greatest distribution of llamas and alpacas in Pre-Hispanic America. The link between the Andean biomes of puna and páramo and the Inca state is a matter of research; as a third point Troll pointed out irrigation technology as advantageous to the Inca state-building. While Troll theorized environmental influences on the Inca Empire he opposed environmental determinism arguing that culture lay at the core of the Inca civilization; the Inca people were a pastoral tribe in the Cusco area around the 12th century. Incan oral history tells an origin story of three caves; the center cave at Tampu T'uqu was named Qhapaq T'uqu. The other