Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom provide emergency care to people with acute illness or injury and are predominantly provided free at the point of use by the four National Health Services of England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Emergency care including ambulance and emergency department treatment is free to everyone, regardless of immigration or visitor status; the NHS commissions most emergency medical services through the 14 NHS organisations with ambulance responsibility across the UK. As with other emergency services, the public access emergency medical services through one of the valid emergency telephone numbers. In addition to ambulance services provided by NHS organisations, there are some private and volunteer emergency medical services arrangements in place in the UK, the use of private or volunteer ambulances at public events or large private sites, as part of community provision of services such as community first responders. Air ambulance services in the UK are not part of the NHS and are funded through charitable donations.
Paramedics are seconded from a local NHS ambulance service, with the exception of Great North Air Ambulance Service who employ their own paramedics. Doctors are provided by their home hospital and spend no more than 40% of their time with an air ambulance service. Public ambulance services across the UK are required by law to respond to four types of requests for care, which are: Emergency calls Doctor's urgent admission requests High dependency and urgent inter-hospital transfers Major incidentsAmbulance trusts and services may undertake non-urgent patient transport services on a commercial arrangement with their local hospital trusts or health boards, or in some cases on directly funded government contracts, although these contracts are fulfilled by private and voluntary providers; the National Health Service Act 1946 gave county and borough councils a statutory responsibility to provide an emergency ambulance service, although they could contract a voluntary ambulance service to provide this, with many contracting the British Red Cross, St John Ambulance or another local provider.
The last St John Division, to be so contracted is reputed to have been at Whittlesey in Cambridgeshire, where the two-bay ambulance garage can still be seen at the branch headquarters. The Regional Ambulance Officers’ Committee reported in 1979 that “There was considerable local variation in the quality of the service provided in relation to vehicles and equipment. Most Services were administered by Local Authorities through their Medical Officer of Health and his Ambulance Officer, a few were under the aegis of the Fire Service, whilst others relied upon agency methods for the provision of part or all of their services.” The 142 existing ambulance services were transferred by the National Health Service Reorganisation Act 1973 from local authority to central government control in 1974, consolidated into 53 services under regional or area health authorities. This led to the formation of predominantly county based ambulance services, which merged up and changed responsibilities until 2006, when there were 31 NHS ambulance trusts in England.
The June 2005 report "Taking healthcare to the Patient", authored by Peter Bradley, Chief Executive of the London Ambulance Service, for the Department of Health led to the merging of the 31 trusts into 13 organisations in England, plus one organisation each in Wales and Northern Ireland. Following further changes as part of the NHS foundation trust pathway, this has further reduced to 10 ambulance service trusts in England, plus the Isle of Wight which has its own provision. Following the passage of the Health and Social Care Act 2012, commissioning of the ambulance services in each area passed from central government control into the hands of regional clinical commissioning groups; the commissioners in each region are responsible for contracting with a suitable organisation to provide ambulance services within their geographical territory. The primary provider for each area is held by a public NHS body, of which there are 11 in England, 1 each in the other three countries. In England there are now ten NHS ambulance trusts, as well as an ambulance service on the Isle of Wight, run directly by Isle of Wight NHS Trust, with boundaries following those of the former regional government offices.
The ten trusts are: East Midlands Ambulance Service NHS Trust East of England Ambulance Service NHS Trust London Ambulance Service NHS Trust North East Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust North West Ambulance Service NHS Trust South Central Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South East Coast Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South Western Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust West Midlands Ambulance Service University NHS Foundation Trust Yorkshire Ambulance Service NHS TrustThe English ambulance trusts are represented by the Association of Ambulance Chief Executives, with the Scottish and Northern Irish providers all associate members. On the 14 November 2018 West Midlands Ambulance Service became the UK's first university-ambulance trust; the service was operated before reorganisation in 1974 by the St Andrews’ Ambulance Association under contract to the Secretary of State for Scotland. The Scottish Ambulance Service is a Special Health Board that provides ambulance services throughout whole of Scotland, on behalf of the Health and Social Care Directorates of the Scottish Government.
Due to the remote nature of many areas of Scotland compared to the other Home Nations, the Scottish Ambulance Service has Britain's only publi
Stagecoach Merseyside & South Lancashire
Stagecoach Merseyside & South Lancashire is a major operator of bus services in North West England. It is a subsidiary of the Stagecoach Group, has its origins in the purchase of Ribble Motor Services in 1988 from the National Bus Company and Glenvale Transport in 2005; the head office of Stagecoach Merseyside & South Lancashire is in Liverpool and was formed in 2011 following the merger of Stagecoach Merseyside and Ribble Motor Services, the Chorley and Preston operations of Stagecoach North West. From January 2013, Stagecoach Merseyside & South Lancashire includes the Chester and Rock Ferry depots of First Chester & The Wirral following their takeover from FirstGroup. From July 2016 Stagecoach Chester took over several former GHA Coaches routes after the firm went into Administration. Stagecoach is the trading name of Ribble Motor Services Ltd, purchased by Stagecoach in 1988 and was known as Stagecoach Ribble, operated services around the Central Lancashire area, serving Preston, Chorley and Blackburn.
The company operated Network Chorley which provided transport around the local Chorley area until 2012. Since 2015 the company has been known as Stagecoach in Chorley; when the company was formed, Stagecoach in Lancashire operated many bus services in Chorley and Leyland. These included the Route 125,125C, 125PHS, 126, 109, 113, 114, 115, 118, 119, 10, 11, 12, 12A, 13, 1, 1A, 2, 2A, 3, 3A, 7, 8, 337, 347, X60, X61, 124. By 2013, the new company, Stagecoach Merseyside & South Lancashire based in Merseyside, had phased out many of the original Chorley services. By 2015 Stagecoach in Chorley operated just the 125, 109, 1, 2, 1B, 7 and 24A and 109A; the Preston side of the company operate the service 115 to Chorley every two hours on a Saturday. Routes such as the 115, 119 and 114 have been sold to competing operators like John Fishwick & Sons and Preston Bus, whilst others have been replaced, merged or eliminated. In September 2015, Stagecoach announced the purchase of 24 Alexander Dennis Enviro400 buses, in the'Stagecoach Gold Specification' for the Route 125 between Bolton and Preston.
The new vehicles will replace the old fleet of Dennis Trident 2s and Alexander Dennis Enviro 400s that the company inherited when it was formed. Stagecoach closed the Eaves Lane depot in Chorley in October 2015, it was replaced by an outstation on an industrial estate on the outskirts of Chorley to house the modern fleet of Alexander Dennis Enviro400s operated; the other vehicles were transferred to Stagecoach in Preston. In October 2015, Stagecoach took over John Fishwick & Sons services 111, 115 and 119 until 8 April 2016. Stagecoach trail ran a Stagecoach Gold service on Route 125 on 17 October 2015, the full fleet entered service on 16 November 2015. Stagecoach lost funding from Lancashire County Council in 2016 and had to cancel and revise many routes in the Chorley area; the college services 109, 109A and 115 were withdrawn and have since been operated by Tyrers of Adlington. Stagecoach in Chorley's business was affected by Lancashire County Council funding cuts and many routes have been withdrawn.
Stagecoach in Chorley now operate: Route 125 - BOLTON - CHORLEY - PRESTON Route 109 - CHORLEY - EUXTON - LEYLAND - PRESTON Route 109A - CHORLEY - BUCKSHAW VILLAGE - PRESTON Route 111 - PRESTON - LEYLAND Route 125C - CHORLEY - NEWMAN COLLEGE Route X8 - CHORLEY - PRESTON - M6 - WINDERMERE - AMBLESIDE - GRASMERE - KESWICK Runs Every Saturday leaving Chorley at 0920 and arriving back at 1920**** From 1 April 2017 until 4 November 2017 Stagecoach in Merseyside was the trading name of Glenvale Transport Ltd, purchased by Stagecoach in 2005. The original company was formed in 2001 following Arriva's takeover of MTL Group in 2000 and was ordered by the Competition Commission to sell the Gillmoss depot to avoid Arriva owning a monopoly of services in Merseyside. Stagecoach failed in an original attempt to obtain the depot in 2001, losing out to Glenvale Transport. Stagecoach bought Glenvale Transport in 2005 beating off competition from rivals FirstGroup, Go-Ahead Group and Transdev Blazefield. In August 2011, Stagecoach Group announced plans to re-structure their UK Bus operations in the North West of England with the former Stagecoach North West operations, which consisted of Stagecoach in Cumbria, Stagecoach in Lancashire and Stagecoach in Lancaster.
The re-structuring saw Stagecoach North West split up into two halves, with Cumbria and Lancaster operations merging into Stagecoach Cumbria & North Lancashire and Stagecoach in Merseyside merging with Stagecoach in Lancashire. The other Stagecoach operation in the North West of England, Stagecoach Manchester, remained unaffected and continues as a separate operation. In November 2012, Stagecoach Group announced they had agreed a deal to purchase the operations of First Chester & The Wirral from FirstGroup for £4.5 million. The deal included the two main depots in Chester and Rock Ferry, as well as a depot in Wrexham used for school services, plus 110 buses and 290 employees; the purchase was made through Stagecoach's Merseyside subsidiary, Glenvale Transport, bringing the Chester & Wirral operations under Stagecoach Merseyside. It was Stagecoach's second purchase from FirstGroup, following the purchase of First Greater Manchester's Wigan depot in October 2012; the takeover was confirmed to be completed on 13 January 2013 with Stagecoach using ex-First buses and ticket machines before re-painting existing buses, bringing in old fleet vehicles from other areas and bringing in new buses and ticket machines.
All ex-first routes are now run by Stagecoach buses. Chester Liverpool Preston Wirral Stagecoach
Warrington Bank Quay railway station
Warrington Bank Quay railway station is one of two railway stations serving the town centre of Warrington in Cheshire, England. Warrington Bank Quay is a north-south oriented mainline station on one side of the main shopping area, with the west-east oriented Warrington Central on the other side to the north west operating a more frequent service to the neighbouring cities of Liverpool and Manchester. Cheshire Cat Buses are operated from the station into Warrington Bus Interchange and in the opposite direction to the Centre Park business park, Stockton Heath and further south into Cheshire; the station is directly on the West Coast Main Line. The station consists of two island platforms; the easternmost retains the 19th century buildings, with the western island's buildings dating from the 1950s. Passengers enter the station at street level through a functional modern entrance containing an information office and ticket office, proceed through a subway, reaching the elevated platforms by stairs or a lift.
There is a buffet on the eastern platform. Platform 1 serves arrivals and departures to Liverpool Lime Street with this service terminating at the platform, for North Wales services. Platform 2 is used for North Wales services, southbound intercity services to Birmingham New Street and London Euston. Platform 3 serves northbound intercity trains to Glasgow Central. Platform 4 for services from North Wales to Manchester; the platforms are not bidirectional, except that the slow line between the station and Winwick Junction, some 2 1⁄2 miles to the north. This allows northbound departures from platform 1; the present platform 4 was numbered 5 for many years, because there was to be a north-facing bay platform in the west island, numbered 4, but this saw no passenger use after electrification in 1972 being removed later. The station's best known landmark is the huge Unilever detergent manufacturing plant which stands overlooking the site; the station suffered from years of neglect and, because of this, Virgin Trains announced improvements to the station.
In 2009, an extension to the existing car park and a new taxi rank were built, along with improvements to the platforms and a new ticket office and travel centre. The new entrance hall is now complete, with a newsagents; the buffet on the London bound platforms has been modernised, however a first class lounge is yet to materialise. Until 1965 the west-east oriented platforms, 6 and 7, were situated on what had been the St Helens Railway lines which pass beneath the station and the north-south West Coast Main Line; the West Coast Main Line was elevated to pass over the west to east line when the current station was opened in 1868). Although it was not the official title, this part of the station was referred to as Bank Quay Low Level; the line remains for freight use only. The station lies on the West Coast Main Line, operated by Virgin Trains, with regular services to London and Scotland. A regular regional express service operates between Manchester and North Wales operated by Transport for Wales.
There are local electric services to Liverpool operated by Northern and one early morning service per day to Ellesmere Port via Helsby with returning morning and afternoon services. Normal weekday service consists of: Hourly to London Euston, operated by a Virgin Pendolino, calling at:London Euston only. Hourly to London Euston via Birmingham New Street, operated by either a Virgin Pendolino or a Virgin Voyager, calling at:Crewe, Sandwell & Dudley, Birmingham New Street, Birmingham International, Milton Keynes Central and London Euston. Hourly to Glasgow Central, operated by a Virgin Pendolino, calling at:Wigan North Western, Lancaster, Penrith and Glasgow Central. Additional peak services operate between Birmingham New Street-Glasgow Central/Edinburgh/Preston/Carlisle/Lancaster. Two-hourly to Edinburgh Waverley, operated by either a Virgin Pendolino or a Virgin Voyager, calling at:Wigan North Western, Lancaster, Penrith, Carlisle and Edinburgh Waverley. Two-hourly to Glasgow Central, operated by either a Virgin Pendolino or a Virgin Voyager, calling at:Wigan North Western, Lancaster, Penrith and Glasgow Central.
Hourly to Manchester Piccadilly, operated by Transport for Wales, calling at:Earlestown, Newton-le-Willows, Manchester Oxford Road and Manchester Piccadilly. Hourly to Llandudno, operated by Transport for Wales, calling at:Runcorn East, Helsby, Shotton, Prestatyn, Abergele & Pensarn, Colwyn Bay, Llandudno Junction and Llandudno. Hourly to Liverpool Lime Street operated by Northern calling at:Earlestown, St Helens Junction, Lea Green, Whiston, Roby, Broad Green, Wavertree Tech Park, Edge Hill and Liverpool Lime Street. Hourly operated by Northern terminates here from Liverpool Lime Street. There is a limited service: To Ellesmere Port operated by Northern calling at:Helsby, Ince & Elton, Stanlow & Thornton and Ellesmere Port; the new Arriva-operated Northern Rail franchise will provide additional services from here to Chester, Manchester Victoria and Leeds via the Calder Valley line as part of its Northern Connect network. The station received media coverage in February 2009 due to a sign erected prohibiting kissing from its drop-off point.
The reason stated is to avoid queues. Colin Daniels, chief executive of the Warrington Chamber of Commerce suggested the idea light-heartedly, but Virgin Trains have included it as part of their regeneration of the station; the signs were removed three weeks and sold to raise
North West England
North West England, one of nine official regions of England, consists of the five counties of Cheshire, Greater Manchester and Merseyside. The North West had a population of 7,052,000 in 2011, it is the third-most populated region in the United Kingdom after the South Greater London. The largest settlements are Manchester, Warrington and Blackpool. North West England is bounded to the west by the Irish Sea; the region extends from the Scottish Borders in the north to the West Midlands region in the south. To its southwest is North Wales. Amongst the better known of the North West's physiographical features are the Lake District and the Cheshire Plain; the highest point in North West England is Cumbria, at a height of 3,209 feet. Windermere is the largest natural lake in England. Broad Crag Tarn on Broad Crag is England's highest lake. Wast Water is England's deepest lake, being 74m deep. A mix of rural and urban landscape, two large conurbations, centred on Liverpool and Manchester, occupy much of the south of the region.
The north of the region, comprising Cumbria and northern Lancashire, is rural, as is the far south which encompasses parts of the Cheshire Plain and Peak District. The region includes parts of three National parks and three areas of Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty; the official region consists of the following subdivisions: *metropolitan county After abolition of the Greater Manchester and Merseyside County Councils in 1986, power was transferred to the Metropolitan Boroughs making them Unitary Authorities. In April 2011, Greater Manchester gained a top-tier administrative body in the form of the Greater Manchester Combined Authority, which means the 10 Greater Manchester Boroughs are once again second-tier authorities. Source: Office for National Statistics Mid Year Population Estimates North West England's population accounts for just over 13% of England's overall population. 37.86% of the North West's population resides in Greater Manchester, 21.39% in Lancashire, 20.30% in Merseyside, 14.76% in Cheshire and 7.41% live in the largest county by area, Cumbria.
According to 2009 Office for National Statistics estimates, 91.6% of people in the region describe themselves as'White': 88.4% White British, 1.0% White Irish and 2.2% White Other. During the Industrial Revolution hundreds of thousands of Welsh people migrated to the North West of England to work in the coal mines. Parts with notably high populations with Welsh ancestry as a result of this include Liverpool, Widnes, Wallasey, Ashton-in-Makerfield and Birkenhead; the Mixed Race population makes up 1.3% of the region's population. There are 323,800 South Asians, making up 4.7% of the population, 1.1% Black Britons. 0.6% of the population are Chinese and 0.5% of people belong to another ethnic group. North West England is a diverse region, with Manchester and Liverpool amongst the most diverse cities in Europe. 19.4% of Blackburn with Darwen's population are Muslim, the third-highest among all local authorities in the United Kingdom and the highest outside London. Areas such as Moss Side in Greater Manchester are home to a 30%+ Black British population.
In contrast, the town of St. Helens in Merseyside, unusually for a city area, has a low percentage of ethnic minorities with 98% identifying as White British; the City of Liverpool, over 800 years old, is one of the few places in Britain where ethnic minority populations can be traced back over dozens of generations: being the closest major city in England to Ireland, it is home to a significant ethnic Irish population, with the city being home to one of the first Afro-Caribbean communities in the UK, as well as the oldest Chinatown in Europe. Summarised There are around 400,000 people living in the North West of any Asian ethnicity Around 125,000 people from the North West are of full or partial Sub-African and/or Caribbean descent The single largest non-white ethnic group in the North West are Pakistanis, numbering at least 144,400 The list below is not how many people belong to each ethnic group; the fifteen most common countries of birth in 2001 for North West citizens were as follows England – 6,169,753 Scotland – 109,163 Wales – 73,850 Ireland – 56,887 Pakistan – 46,529 Northern Ireland – 34,879 India – 34,600 Germany – 19,931 China and Hong Kong – 15,491 Bangladesh – 13,746 South Africa – 7,740 United States – 7,037 Jamaica – 6,661 Italy – 6,325 Australia – 5,880 Poland – The table below is based on the 2011 UK Census.
One in five of the population in the North West is Catholic, a result of large-scale Irish emigration in the nineteenth century as well as the high number of English recusants in Lancashire. For top-tier authorities, Manchester has the highest teenage pregnancy rate in the region. For council districts, Burnley has the highest rate followed by Hyndburn, both in Lancashire. Of the nine regions of the England, the North West has the fourth-highest GVA per capita—the highest outside southern England. Despite this the region has above average multiple deprivation with wealth concentrated on affluent areas like rural Cheshire, rural Lancashire, south Cumbria; as measured by the Indices of deprivation 2007, the
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
The River Mersey is a river in the North West of England. Its name is derived from the Anglo-Saxon language and translates as "boundary river"; the river may have been the border between the ancient kingdoms of Mercia and Northumbria and for centuries it formed part of the boundary between the historic counties of Lancashire and Cheshire. The start of the Mersey is at the confluence of the River River Goyt in Stockport, it flows westwards through the suburban areas of south Manchester into the Manchester Ship Canal at Irlam, becoming a part of the canal and maintaining the canal's water levels. After 4 miles the river exits the canal, it narrows as it passes between the towns of Runcorn and Widnes. From Runcorn the river widens into a large estuary, 3 miles across at its widest point near Ellesmere Port; the course of the river turns north as the estuary narrows between Liverpool and Birkenhead on the Wirral Peninsula to the west, empties into Liverpool Bay. In total the river flows 70.33 miles.
A railway tunnel between Birkenhead and Liverpool as part of the Mersey Railway opened in 1886. Two road tunnels pass under the estuary from Liverpool: the Queensway Tunnel opened in 1934 connecting the city to Birkenhead, the Kingsway Tunnel, opened in 1971, to Wallasey. A road bridge, completed in 1961 and named the Silver Jubilee Bridge, crosses between Runcorn and Widnes, adjacent to the Runcorn Railway Bridge which opened in 1868. A second road bridge, the Mersey Gateway, opened in October 2017, carrying a six-lane road connecting Runcorn's Central Expressway with Speke Road and Queensway in Widnes; the Mersey Ferry operates between Pier Head in Liverpool and Woodside in Birkenhead and Seacombe, has become a tourist attraction offering cruises that provide an overview of the river and surrounding areas. Water quality in the Mersey was affected by industrialisation, in 1985, the Mersey Basin Campaign was established to improve water quality and encourage waterside regeneration. In 2009 it was announced that the river is "cleaner than at any time since the industrial revolution" and is "now considered one of the cleanest in the UK".
The Mersey Valley Countryside Warden Service manages local nature reserves such as Chorlton Ees and Sale Water Park. The river gave its name to Merseybeat, developed by bands from Liverpool, notably the Beatles. In 1965 it was the subject of the top-ten hit single "Ferry Cross the Mersey" by Gerry and the Pacemakers, its name is derived from the Anglo-Saxon mǣres, "of a boundary" and ēa, "a river." The Mersey was the border river between Mercia and Northumbria. Its Welsh name is Afon Merswy, it has been given the alternative etymology of Celtic "môr-afon" meaning "sea river"; the Mersey is formed from three tributaries: the River Goyt and the River Tame. The modern accepted start of the Mersey is at the confluence of the Tame and Goyt, in central Stockport, Greater Manchester. However, older definitions, many older maps, place its start a few miles up the Goyt at Compstall; the 1784 John Stockdale map shows the River Mersey extending to Mottram, forming the boundary between Cheshire and Derbyshire.
In the west of Stockport it flows at the base of a cliff below the road called Brinksway before reaching flat country. From Central Stockport the river flows through or past Heaton Mersey, Northenden, Chorlton-cum-Hardy, Sale, Ashton on Mersey and Flixton at Irlam flows into the Manchester Ship Canal, the canalised section of the River Irwell at this point; the old course of the Mersey has been obliterated by the canal past Hollins Green to Rixton although the old river bed can be seen outside Irlam and at Warburton. At Rixton the River Bollin enters the canal from the south and the Mersey leaves the canal to the north, meandering through Woolston, where the ship canal company's dredgings have formed the Woolston Eyes nature reserve, on to Warrington; the river is tidal from Howley Weir in Warrington, although high spring tides top the weir. Before construction of the ship canal, work to improve navigation included Woolston New Cut, bypassing a meander, Howley Lock for craft to avoid the weir.
The island formed between the weir and the lock is known locally as "Monkey Island". West of Warrington the river widens, narrows as it passes through the Runcorn Gap between the towns of Runcorn and Widnes, in Halton; the Manchester Ship Canal passes through the gap to the south of the river. The gap is bridged by Runcorn Railway Bridge. Another crossing, the Mersey Gateway road bridge opened in October 2017. From the Runcorn Gap, the river widens into a large estuary, 3 miles wide at its widest point near Ellesmere Port; the course of the river heads north, with Liverpool to the east and the Wirral Peninsula to the west. The Manchester Ship Canal enters the river at Eastham Locks; the eastern part of the estuary is much affected by silting, part of it is marked on modern maps as dry land rather than tidal. The wetlands are of importance to wildlife, are listed as a Ramsar site. Most of the conurbation on both sides of the estuary is known as Merseyside; the estuary narrows between Liverpool and Birkenhead, where it is constricted to a width of 0.7 miles, between Albert Dock in Liverpool and the Woodside ferry terminal in Birkenhead.
On the Liverpool side, Liverpool Docks stretch for over 7.5 miles, the largest enclosed interconnected do
The River Gowy is a river in Cheshire, England, a tributary of the River Mersey. It rises in western Cheshire in the hills near Peckforton Castle close to the source of the River Weaver. While the Weaver flows south the Gowy flows north and for several miles provides the valley used by the Shropshire Union Canal, it runs just to the east of Chester and passes through a syphon under the Manchester Ship Canal to meet the Mersey near Stanlow. Its total length is around 20 miles. Perennially popular with fishermen and home to several rare invertebrates, it has been polluted in its lower reaches in recent decades, due in part to the oil refinery at Stanlow and the arrival of the nearby M53 and M56 motorways, leading to schemes by environmental groups to clean up the area and to restock the fish population; the Gowy Meadows Nature Reserve, founded in 2002 and stretching from the A5117 to the M56, is an area of river valley peat covered with wet grassland or grazing meadows. This area of 160 hectares, owned by Shell UK, has been created as a nature reserve by Cheshire Wildlife Trust.
Surveys by the Environment Agency show that the Gowy's eel population has held up well despite a Europe-wide massive decline in numbers. The reasons for this are unclear but local anglers suggest that eel in the river may not follow normal migration patterns because of the closed nature of the river flow caused by the system of syphoning under the ship canal. At one time the river provided power for up to 20 watermills. Today only a few remain: Bates Walk Mill, Bunbury Mill and Trafford Mill; the latter is owned by United Utilities plc. Bunbury Mill is open to the public at times. Trafford Mill is being developed as a museum and an educational and training resource concentrating on conservation-related activities; the river's length has been increased over the centuries as land has been reclaimed by draining the marshes. It was on the marshes at Gibbet’s Field near Mickle Trafford that James Brown and Thomas Price were hanged in January 1795 for the abduction and robbery of a mail boy. Thornton Brook Mill Brook Back Brook Barrow Brook Milton Brook Waterless Brook Southley Brook Crimes Brook