Performance art is a performance presented to an audience within a fine art context, traditionally interdisciplinary. Performance may be either scripted or unscripted, random or orchestrated, spontaneous or otherwise planned with or without audience participation; the performance can be live or via media. It can be any situation that involves four basic elements: time, the performer's body, or presence in a medium, a relationship between performer and audience. Performance art can happen anywhere, for any length of time; the actions of an individual or a group at a particular place and in a particular time constitute the work. Performance art is an contested concept: any single definition of it implies the recognition of rival uses; as concepts like "democracy" or "art", it implies productive disagreement with itself. The meaning of the term in the narrower sense is related to postmodernist traditions in Western culture. From about the mid-1960s into the 1970s derived from concepts of visual art, with respect to Antonin Artaud, the Situationists, installation art and conceptual art, performance art tended to be defined as an antithesis to theatre, challenging orthodox art forms and cultural norms.
The ideal had been an ephemeral and authentic experience for performer and audience in an event that could not be repeated, captured or purchased. The discussed difference, how concepts of visual arts and concepts of performing arts are utilized, can determine the meanings of a performance art presentation. Performance art is a term reserved to refer to a conceptual art which conveys a content-based meaning in a more drama-related sense, rather than being simple performance for its own sake for entertainment purposes, it refers to a performance presented to an audience, but which does not seek to present a conventional theatrical play or a formal linear narrative, or which alternately does not seek to depict a set of fictitious characters in formal scripted interactions. It therefore can include action or spoken word as a communication between the artist and audience, or ignore expectations of an audience, rather than following a script written beforehand; some kinds of performance art can be close to performing arts.
Such performance may utilize a script or create a fictitious dramatic setting, but still constitute performance art in that it does not seek to follow the usual dramatic norm of creating a fictitious setting with a linear script which follows conventional real-world dynamics. Performance artists challenge the audience to think in new and unconventional ways, break conventions of traditional arts, break down conventional ideas about "what art is"; as long as the performer does not become a player who repeats a role, performance art can include satirical elements. Some artists, e.g. the Viennese Actionists and neo-Dadaists, prefer to use the terms "live art", "action art", "actions", "intervention" or "manoeuvre" to describe their performing activities. As genres of performance art appear body art, fluxus-performance, action poetry, intermedia. Performance art activity is not confined to American art traditions. Performance artists and theorists point to different traditions and histories, ranging from tribal to sporting and ritual or religious events.
In an episode of In Our Time broadcast on Thu, 20 Oct 2005, 21:30 on BBC Radio 4, Angie Hobbs, Lecturer in Philosophy, University of Warwick. Western cultural theorists trace performance art activity back to the beginning of the 20th century, to the Russian constructivists and Dada. Dada provided a significant progenitor with the unconventional performances of poetry at the Cabaret Voltaire, by the likes of Richard Huelsenbeck and Tristan Tzara. Russian Futurist artists could be identified as precursors of performance, such as David Burliuk, who painted his face for his actions and Alexander Rodchenko and his wife Varvara Stepanova. According to the art critic Harold Rosenberg in the 1940s and 1950s Action Painting gave artists the freedom to perform—the canvas as "an arena in which to act", thereby rendering the paintings as traces of the artist's performance in his/her studio. Abstract expressionism and Action painting preceded the Fluxus movement and the emergence of Performance Art. Performance art was anticipated, if not explicitly formulated, by Japan's Gutai group of the 1950s in such works as Atsuko Tanaka's Electric Dress.
Yves Klein had been a precursor of performance art with the conceptual pieces of Zone de Sensibilité Picturale Immatérielle 1959–62, Anthropométries, works like the photomontage, Saut dans le vide. In the late 1960s Earth artists as diverse as Robert Smithson, Dennis Oppenheim, Michael Heizer and Carl Andre created environmental pieces that predict the performan
List Visual Arts Center
Established in 1985, the List Visual Arts Center is the contemporary art gallery of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. It is known for temporary exhibitions in its galleries located in the MIT Media Lab building, as well as its administration of the permanent art collection distributed throughout the university campus, faculty officies, student housing; the LVAC is internationally recognized for the 4 to 6 temporary exhibitions it presents each year in its 6,000-square-foot galleries, which are open to the general public. Admission is free to all, as are most events sponsored by the LVAC, including family-friendly hands-on art workshops; the LVAC is housed in the Wiesner building, an I. M. Pei-designed accessible facility that incorporates the work of painter Kenneth Noland, sculptor Scott Burton, environmental sculptor Richard Fleischner, all commissioned through MIT's Percent-for-Art program; the Percent-for-Art program, administered by the LVAC, allocates funds for the commission of artworks in connection with each new campus construction or major renovation project.
Past commissions include Louise Nevelson's Transparent Horizon in front of the Landau Building, Sol LeWitt's polychrome floor in the Green Center for Physics, Anish Kapoor's Non-Object in the Stata Center. The LVAC maintains a permanent collection sited throughout campus, of over 3,000 prints, drawings, sculptures, textiles and other objects of contemporary art; the public sculpture collection includes over 50 major works by such artists as Alexander Calder, Jorge Pardo, Henry Moore, Pablo Picasso, Louise Nevelson, Sarah Sze, Dan Graham, Jean-Robert Ipoustéguy, Cai Guo-Qiang, Jaume Plensa, Frank Stella, Mark DiSuvero. The public art has been called "one of the best collections of its kind" in a guide to American sculpture parks and gardens. An interactive map of all publicly situated art is available, as well as downloadable audio commentaries and printable brochures covering selected artworks. Detailed architectural coverage of major MIT buildings is available; the LVAC administers the Student Loan Art Program, consisting of over 600 original works of art in 2-dimensional framed media.
Through this popular annual loan program, students may borrow original works of art from the collection for their private rooms or communal spaces. Since 1977, the artworks available for loan are exhibited in a comprehensive September show, which may be viewed by the general public; each year 15 new works are added to the collection and displayed in the Student Center for a year, high-value selected older works are reassigned to the non-circulating permanent collection. New selections are made with the advice of the MIT Council for the Arts, consist of artist's limited edition prints or photographs. In addition, the LVAC administers a Campus Loan Art Program, which loans framed and sculptural artwork from its permanent collection for display in administration and staff offices; the LVAC has been the commissioning institution for the Venice Biennales three times at the US Pavilion: 1999, artist Ann Hamilton with commissioners Katy Kline and Helaine Posner 2003, artist Fred Wilson with Kathy Goncharov as the commissioner 2015, artist Joan Jonas with Paul Ha as commissioner List Visual Arts Center Map of public art on MIT campus
Multimedia is content that uses a combination of different content forms such as text, images, animations and interactive content. Multimedia contrasts with media that use only rudimentary computer displays such as text-only or traditional forms of printed or hand-produced material. Multimedia can be recorded and played, interacted with or accessed by information content processing devices, such as computerized and electronic devices, but can be part of a live performance. Multimedia devices are electronic media devices used to experience multimedia content. Multimedia is distinguished from mixed media in fine art. In the early years of multimedia the term "rich media" was synonymous with interactive multimedia, "hypermedia" was an application of multimedia; the term multimedia was coined by singer and artist Bob Goldstein to promote the July 1966 opening of his "LightWorks at L'Oursin" show at Southampton, Long Island. Goldstein was aware of an American artist named Dick Higgins, who had two years discussed a new approach to art-making he called "intermedia".
On August 10, 1966, Richard Albarino of Variety borrowed the terminology, reporting: "Brainchild of songscribe-comic Bob Goldstein, the'Lightworks' is the latest multi-media music-cum-visuals to debut as discothèque fare." Two years in 1968, the term "multimedia" was re-appropriated to describe the work of a political consultant, David Sawyer, the husband of Iris Sawyer—one of Goldstein's producers at L'Oursin. In the intervening forty years, the word has taken on different meanings. In the late 1970s, the term referred to presentations consisting of multi-projector slide shows timed to an audio track. However, by the 1990s'multimedia' took on its current meaning. In the 1993 first edition of Multimedia: Making It Work, Tay Vaughan declared "Multimedia is any combination of text, graphic art, sound and video, delivered by computer; when you allow the user – the viewer of the project – to control what and when these elements are delivered, it is interactive multimedia. When you provide a structure of linked elements through which the user can navigate, interactive multimedia becomes hypermedia."The German language society Gesellschaft für deutsche Sprache recognized the word's significance and ubiquitousness in the 1990s by awarding it the title of German'Word of the Year' in 1995.
The institute summed up its rationale by stating " has become a central word in the wonderful new media world". In common usage, multimedia refers to an electronically delivered combination of media including video, still images and text in such a way that can be accessed interactively. Much of the content on the web today falls within this definition; some computers which were marketed in the 1990s were called "multimedia" computers because they incorporated a CD-ROM drive, which allowed for the delivery of several hundred megabytes of video and audio data. That era saw a boost in the production of educational multimedia CD-ROMs; the term "video", if not used to describe motion photography, is ambiguous in multimedia terminology. Video is used to describe the file format, delivery format, or presentation format instead of "footage", used to distinguish motion photography from "animation" of rendered motion imagery. Multiple forms of information content are not considered modern forms of presentation such as audio or video.
Single forms of information content with single methods of information processing are called multimedia to distinguish static media from active media. In the fine arts, for example, Leda Luss Luyken's ModulArt brings two key elements of musical composition and film into the world of painting: variation of a theme and movement of and within a picture, making ModulArt an interactive multimedia form of art. Performing arts may be considered multimedia considering that performers and props are multiple forms of both content and media. Multimedia presentations may be viewed by person on stage, transmitted, or played locally with a media player. A broadcast may be a recorded multimedia presentation. Broadcasts and recordings can be digital electronic media technology. Digital online multimedia streamed. Streaming multimedia may be on-demand. Multimedia games and simulations may be used in a physical environment with special effects, with multiple users in an online network, or locally with an offline computer, game system, or simulator.
The various formats of technological or digital multimedia may be intended to enhance the users' experience, for example to make it easier and faster to convey information. Or in entertainment or art, to transcend everyday experience. Enhanced levels of interactivity are made possible by combining multiple forms of media content. Online multimedia is becoming object-oriented and data-driven, enabling applications with collaborative end-user innovation and personalization on multiple forms of content over time. Examples of these range from multiple forms of content on Web sites like photo galleries with both images and title user-updated, to simulations whose co-efficients, illustrations, animations or videos are modifiable, allowing the multimedia "experience" to be altered without reprogramming. In addition to seeing and hearing, haptic technology enables virtual objects to be felt. Emerging technology involving illusions of taste and smell may enhance the multimedia experience. Multimedia may be broadly divided into linear and non-linear categories: Linea
Istanbul Biennial is a contemporary art exhibition, held every two years in Istanbul, since 1987. The Biennial is organized by the Istanbul Foundation for Arts since its inception; the Biennial aims to create a meeting point in Istanbul in the field of visual arts between artists from diverse cultures and the audience. The biennials IKSV has organized up to now have enabled the formation of an international cultural network between local and international art circles, artists and art critics by bringing together new trends in contemporary art every two years. Istanbul Biennial adheres to an exhibition model in which the curator, appointed by an international advisory board, develops a conceptual framework according to which a variety of artists and projects are invited to the exhibition. After the first two biennials realized under the general coordination of Beral Madra in 1987 and 1989, IKSV decided to commission a different curator for each edition, starting with the 1992 Istanbul Biennial directed by Vasif Kortun.
The most comprehensive international art exhibition organized in Turkey and the wider region, Istanbul Biennial plays an important role as a local and regional platform for artists to reach an international audience, for the local audiences to meet artists from around the World. The opportunity to follow developments and discussions in the art world through a complementary educational programme is provided both for students and viewers of art through the exhibitions and translated panel discussions and workshops organized within the scope of the exhibitions. Istanbul’s 13th biennial in 2013 was overtaken by political events; the 2015 edition presented new works by more than 50 visual artists as well as oceanographers and neuroscientists. 1987 "Contemporary Art in Traditional Spaces" General Coordinator: Beral Madra 1989 "Contemporary Art in Traditional Spaces" General Coordinator: Beral Madra 1992 "Production of Cultural Difference" Director: Vasif Kortun 1995 "Orient-ation - The Image of Art in a Paradoxical World" Curator: René Block 1997 "On Life, Beauty and Other Difficulties" Curator: Rosa Martinez 1999 "The Passion and the Wave" Curator: Paolo Colombo 2001 "Egofugal - Fugue from Ego for the Next Emergence" Curator: Yuko Hasegawa 2003 "Poetic Justice" Curator: Dan Cameron 2005 "İstanbul" Curators: Charles Esche and Vasif Kortun 2007 "Not Only Possible, But Also Necessary: Optimism in the Age of Global War" Curator: Hou Hanru 2009 "What Keeps Mankind Alive?".
Curators: WHW / What, How & for Whom 2011 "Untitled" Curators: Adriano Pedrosa and Jens Hoffmann 2013 "Mom, am I barbarian?" Curator: Fulya Erdemci 2015 “SALTWATER: A Theory of Thought Forms” Drafter: Carolyn Christov-Bakargiev 2017 "A Good Neighbour". Curators: Elmgreen & Dragset The 12th Istanbul Biennial was curated by Jens Hoffmann and Adriano Pedrosa, ran from September 17 – November 13, 2011; the shows spanned two buildings at Istanbul's Antrepo. "Untitled" "Untitled" "Untitled" "Untitled" "Untitled" The 2009 biennial took place at three venues on the European side of the city: Antrepo, or warehouse, No. 3 in Tophane. All of the art selected for the 2011 edition was shown at one central location, in Warehouses No. 3 and 5 next to the Istanbul Modern museum. Istanbul Modern Istancool Art exhibition Proje4L / Elgiz Museum of Contemporary Art Dogancay Museum Official website
The Moscow Biennale of Contemporary Art is one of the most important Russian cultural events and was founded in 2003. The First Moscow Biennale of Contemporary Art caused great response both in Russia and abroad; the main exhibition “Dialectics of Hope” included projects by 41 artists from 22 countries and represented art that focuses on one of the most fundamental experiences of a modern human being: hope. The main project was realised near the Red Square; the Biennale’s special projects and parallel program numbered over 50 exhibitions of Russian actual art as well as European and Asian visual artists. Curators: Joseph Backstein, Daniel Birnbaum, Iara Boubnova, Nicolas Bourriaud, Rosa Martinez and Hans Ulrich Obrist; the main project of the Second Moscow Biennale of Contemporary Art titled “FOOTNOTES on Geopolitics and Amnesia” showed works of 115 artists from 20 countries. Different curators and curatorial teams realized 5 exhibitions of the main project united by one theme; the project featured the exhibitions organized at various venues including The State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow Contemporary Art Center Winzavod, Moscow Museum of Modern Art.
Exhibitions of the main project: Nothing but Footnotes? Art in the Epoch of Social Darwinism, Moscow-City, Federation Tower. Curator: Joseph Backstein. USA: American video art at the beginning of the 3rd Millennium, Shopping centre TsUM. Curators: Daniel Birnbaum, Gunnar B. Kvaran, Hans Ulrich Obrist. History in present tense. Moscow-City, Federation Tower. Curator: Iara Boubnova. Stock Zero, Or The Icy Water Of Egoistical Calculation, Moscow-City, Federation Tower. Curator: Nicolas Bourriaud. After all. Moscow-City, Federation Tower, State Schusev Museum of Architecture. Curators: Fulya Erdemci and Rosa Martinez; the commissioner of the Biennale was Joseph Backstein. The exhibition program of the Third Moscow Biennale of Contemporary Art featured main project "Against exclusion" and more than 39 special projects and 7 special guests shows; the main project of Third Moscow Biennale of Contemporary Art entitled "Against exclusion" was held at the Garage Center for Contemporary Culture and was presenting artists from Russia, United States, South America and Oceania.
French curator Jean-Hubert Martin mixed the work of well-known contemporary western artists with non-western and non-professional artists. He was assisted by Exhibition Designer and Dutch Curator Mattijs Visser and French Curator Oliver Varenne.. The Special Guest program represent personal exhibitions of the important figures of the modern art scene. Olga Chernysheva, Russia. "Present - Past", Baibakov Art Projects, Red October Antony Gormley, Great Britain. "Domain Field", The Garage Center for Contemporary Culture Michail Grobman, Israel. "The Metamorphoses of Collage", Moscow Museum of Modern Art Bertrand Lavier, France. AFTERMOON Atelier Van Lieshout, Netherlands. "Slave City", Moscow Contemporary Art Center WINZAVOD Vladimir Tarasov, Russia. "Sound Games", Multimedia Art Museum Luc Tuymans, Belgium. "Against the Day", Baibakov Art Projects, Red October There was a parallel program of exhibitions at Triumph Gallery, Zverev Center of Contemporary Art, Moscow Museum of Modern Art, The Lumiere Brothers Photogallery, The State Literary Museum, One Spectator’s Gallery, Praktika Theater, Pop/off/art Gallery, Regina Gallery, RuArts Gallery, State Museum of Alexander Pushkin, Design center ARTPLAY, State Museum of Contemporary Arts of the Russian Academy of Arts, The State Literary Museum, Fine Art Gallery, Kino Gallery, Instituto Cervantes de Moscu, Open Gallery, Vostochnaya gallery, The State Literary Museum, Aidan Gallery, Proekt Fabrika, Ravenscourt Galleries, Russian Academy of Arts, Red October, Petr Vois Gallery, Photographer.ru, Moscow Zoo, State Tretyakov Gallery, VP Studio, Kovcheg Gallery, State Museum of Contemporary Arts of the Russian Academy of Arts, ARTPLAY, Schusev State Museum of Architecture, Elena Vrublevskaya Gallery, National Centre for Contemporary Arts, XL Gallery, GP, Arka Gallery, Pobeda Gallery, Krokin Gallery, L-gallery, M&J Guelman Gallery.
The curator of the Fourth Moscow Biennale of Contemporary Art will be Peter Weibel, artist, theorist of media arts and director of the Center of Art and Media Technology in Karlsruhe. Fourth Moscow Biennale of Contemporary Art will take place in September–October 2011. Commissioner and the artistic director of the Biennale will be Joseph Backstein. Neue Review, "The First Moscow Biennale of Contemporary Art" Second Moscow Biennale of Contemporary Art Third Moscow Biennale of Contemporary Art Fourth Moscow Biennale of Contemporary Art Frieze Magazine, "3rd Moscow Biennale" Art Margins, "The 3rd Moscow Biennale of Contemporary Art" Artupdate,'List of participating artists in 5th Moscow Biennale announced Summer 2013'
The Kochi-Muziris Biennale is an international exhibition of contemporary art held in Kochi, Kerala. It is the biggest contemporary art festival in Asia; the Kochi-Muziris Biennale is an initiative of the Kochi Biennale Foundation with support from the Government of Kerala. The exhibition is set in spaces across Kochi, with shows being held in existing galleries and site-specific installations in public spaces, heritage buildings and disused structures. Indian and international artists exhibit artworks across a variety of mediums including film, painting, new media and performance art. Through the celebration of contemporary art from around the world, the Kochi-Muziris Biennale seeks to invoke the historic cosmopolitan legacy of the modern metropolis of Kochi, its mythical predecessor, the ancient port of Muziris. Alongside the exhibition the Biennale offers a rich programme of talks, screenings, music and educational activities for school children and students; the second edition of the biennale cost about Rs 17 crore up from the Rs 16.5 crore spent on the first edition.
The Kerala government’s contribution fell to Rs 3 crore from Rs 9 crore despite pleas for financial assistance. The organisers relied on sponsorship and online crowd funding for meeting the expenses; the number of visitors grew to five lakhs in the second edition, an increase of one lakh from the first edition. The Biennale was visited by more than six lakh people in its third edition. In May 2010, Mumbai based contemporary artists of Kerala origin, Bose Krishnamachari and Riyaz Komu, were approached by culture minister of Kerala, M. A Baby to start an international art project in the state. Acknowledging the lack of an international platform for contemporary art in India and Riyas proposed the idea of a Biennale in Kochi on the lines of the Venice Biennale; the Kochi Biennale Foundation is a non-profit charitable trust engaged in promoting art & culture and educational activities in India. KBF works around the year to strengthen contemporary art infrastructure and to broaden public access to art across India.
The Kochi Biennale Foundation is engaged in the conservation of heritage properties and monuments and the upliftment of traditional forms of art and culture. KBF was founded in 2010 by artists Bose Riyas Komu; the First Kochi-Muziris Biennale began on 12 December 2012. The Biennale hosted 80 artists with nearly 50 percent foreign artists, site-specific works and a sustained education programme in the three months; as a run-up to the event, in April, the Durbar Hall Kochi will host German modern artist Eberhard Havekost's exhibition "Sightseeing Trip", held in collaboration with Dresden State Art Collections. The Aspinwall House exhibits the art works of 44 artists spread across the premises. Entry was free till 23 December, replaced by ticketed entry at Rs.50 to help pay for daily running costs. According to artist and Kochi-Muziris Biennale artistic director Bose Krishnamachari support has come in many forms. Shalini and Sanjay Passi held a INR 25,000-per-head dinner in the capital to raise funds, raising ₹550,000.
Google met with the foundation and has offered help with the website, which received 7.5 million hits in the first month. The Jindals of Jindal Steel and Power Limited, the late Kerala Congress leader T. M. Jacob, R. K. Krishna Kumar of Tata group, Jayanta Matthews of Malayala Manorama and the businessman Shibu Mathai have all donated; the sites for the Kochi-Muziris Biennale were: According to Tate Modern, Kochi-Muziris Biennale was the best biennale they had seen. The biennale accrued 150,000 visitors in its first month and 250,000 visitors in its second, averaging a thousand visitors a day. Local people have stepped up, on an individual level, realising what the biennale has done for them, socio-economically and culturally, in terms of putting Kochi on the international culture map, something that does not go unappreciated in Kerala. McKinsey and companies have expressed their interest in studying the Biennale to know its economic effects. According to Karthyayani G. Menon, director of Jehangir Art Gallery in Mumbai, Kerala — unlike Mumbai, Baroda or Kolkata had not been in the forefront in encouraging artists and giving them good platforms but now she hoped that the biennale would mark a change to that situation.
Many eminent artists in Kerala raised concern over the alleged lack of transparency in the way the funds were spent by Kochi-Muziris Biennale foundation. At the same time many known contemporary artists of the state of Kerala had come out in support of the event as it could help in enhancing the image of Kochi. With the 2016 demonetization of the Indian economy, several artists and the organizers of the Biennale had to overcome a struggle to get things in place for the opening of the exhibition. However, the Biennale received a boost when at the official opening, the government of the southern state of Kerala promised $1.1m funding and support for a permanent venue to cement its place as the Venice Biennale of South Asia. Chief Minister Pinarayi Vijayan, the leader of the Left Democratic Front government and long-time secretary of the Indian Communist Party in the state, said the Biennale matched Kochi’s multi-layered history of settlement by Arabs, Jews, Dutch and different migrant communities from India.
Vijayan announced 75m rupees in funding for the Biennale, the highest sum a state government in India had given an arts event. His government would support a permanent venue for the "mega-prestigious" event that
The Gwangju Biennale is a contemporary art biennale founded in September 1995 in Gwangju, South Jeolla province, South Korea. The Gwangju Biennale is hosted by the city of Gwangju; the Gwangju Biennale Foundation hosts the Gwangju Design Biennale, founded in 2004. Beyond Borders: The 1st Gwangju Biennale—20 September to 20 November 1995 Unmapping the Earth: The 2nd Gwangju Biennale—1 September to 27 November 1997 Man and Space: The 3rd Gwangju Biennale—29 March to 7 June 2000 P_A_U_S_E: The 4th Gwangju Biennale—29 March - 29 June 2002 A Grain of Dust A Drop of Water: The 5th Gwangju Biennale—10th Sept to 11 Nov 2004 Fever Variations: The 6th Gwangju Biennale—8 September to 11 November 2006 On the Road / Position Papers / Insertions: The 7th Gwangju Biennale—5th Sept to 9 Nov 2008 10,000 LIVES: The 8th Gwangju Biennale—3 September to 7 November 2010 ROUNDTABLE: The 9th Gwangju Biennale—7 September to 11 November 2012 Burning Down the House: The 10th Gwangju Biennale—5 September to 9 November 2014 The Eighth Climate: The 11th Gwangju Biennale—2 September to 6 November 2016 Gwangju Biennale, website