The geometer moths are moths belonging to the family Geometridae of the insect order Lepidoptera, the moths and butterflies. Their scientific name derives from the Ancient Greek geo γη or γαια'the earth' and metron μέτρων'measure' in reference to the way their larvae, or inchworms, appear to "measure the earth" as they move along in a looping fashion. A large family, it has around 23,000 species of moths described, over 1400 species from six subfamilies indigenous to North America alone. A well-known member is the peppered moth, Biston betularia, subject of numerous studies in population genetics. Several other geometer moths are notorious pests. Many geometrids have slender abdomens and broad wings which are held flat with the hind wings visible; as such, they appear rather butterfly-like. They tend to blend into the background with intricate, wavy patterns on their wings. In some species, females have reduced wings. Most are of moderate size, about 3 cm in wingspan, but a range of sizes occur from 10–50 mm, a few species reach an larger size.
They have distinctive paired tympanal organs at the base of the abdomen. The name "Geometridae" derives from Latin geometra from Greek γεωμέτρης; this refers to the means of locomotion of the larvae or caterpillars, which lack the full complement of prolegs seen in other lepidopteran caterpillars, with only two or three pairs at the posterior end instead of the usual five pairs. Equipped with appendages at both ends of the body, a caterpillar clasps with its front legs and draws up the hind end clasps with the hind end and reaches out for a new front attachment - creating the impression that it measures its journey; the caterpillars are accordingly called loopers, spanworms, or inchworms after their characteristic looping gait. The cabbage looper and soybean looper are not inchworms, but caterpillars of a different family. In many species of geometer moths, the inchworms are about 25 mm long, they tend to be green, grey, or brownish and hide from predators by fading into the background or resembling twigs.
Many inchworms, when disturbed, stand erect and motionless on their prolegs, increasing the resemblance. Some have filaments, they are gregarious and are smooth. Some eat lichen, flowers, or pollen, while some, such as the Hawaiian species of the genus Eupithecia, are carnivorous. Certain destructive inchworms are called cankerworms; the placement of the example species follows a 1990 systematic treatment. Subfamilies are tentatively sorted in a phylogenetic sequence, from the most basal to the most advanced. Traditionally, the Archiearinae were held to be the most ancient of the geometer moth lineages, as their caterpillars have well-developed prolegs. However, it now seems that the Larentiinae are older, as indicated by their numerous plesiomorphies and DNA sequence data, they are either an basal lineage of the Geometridae – together with the Sterrhinae –, or might be considered a separate family of Geometroidea. As regards the Archiearinae, some species that were traditionally placed therein seem to belong to other subfamilies.
Larentiinae – about 5,800 species, includes the pug moths temperate, might be a distinct familySterrhinae – about 2,800 species tropical, might belong to same family as the Larentiinae Birch mocha, Cyclophora albipunctata False mocha, Cyclophora porata Maiden's blush, Cyclophora punctaria Riband wave, Idaea aversata Small fan-footed wave, Idaea biselata Single-dotted wave, Idaea dimidiata Small scallop, Idaea emarginata Idaea filicata Dwarf cream wave, Idaea fuscovenosa Rusty wave, Idaea inquinata Purple-bordered gold, Idaea muricata Bright wave, Idaea ochrata Least carpet, Idaea rusticata Small dusty wave, Idaea seriata Purple-barred yellow, Lythria cruentaria Vestal, Rhodometra sacraria Common pink-barred, Rhodostrophia vibicaria Middle lace border, Scopula decorata Cream wave, Scopula floslactata Small blood-vein, Scopula imitaria Lewes wave, Scopula immorata Lesser cream wave, Scopula immutata Mullein wave, Scopula marginepunctata Zachera moth, Semiothisa zachera Blood-vein, Timandra comae Eastern blood-vein, Timandra griseataDesmobathrinae – pantropical Geometrinae – emerald moths, about 2,300 named species, most tropical Archiearinae – 12 species.
Infant, Archiearis infans Scarce infant, Leucobrephos brephoides Oenochrominae – in some treatments used as a "wastebin taxon" for genera that are difficult to place in other groups Alsophilinae – a few genera, defoliators of trees, might belong in the Ennominae, tribe Boarmiini March moth, Alsophila aescularia Fall cankerworm, Alsophila pometariaEnnominae – about 9,700 species, including some defoliating pests, global distribution Geometridae genera incertae sedis include: Dichromodes Homoeoctenia Nearcha Fossil Geometridae taxa include: †Hydriomena? protrita Cockerell, 1922 Hausmann, A.: The geometrid moths of Europe. Apollo Books. Minet, J. & Scoble, M. J.: The Drepanoid / Geometroid Assemblage. In: N. P. Kristensen: Handbuch der Zoologie. Eine Naturgeschichte der Stämme des Tierreiches
John William Coltrane was an American jazz saxophonist and composer. Working in the bebop and hard bop idioms early in his career, Coltrane helped pioneer the use of modes and was at the forefront of free jazz, he led at least fifty recording sessions and appeared on many albums by other musicians, including trumpeter Miles Davis and pianist Thelonious Monk. Over the course of his career, Coltrane's music took on an spiritual dimension, he remains one of the most influential saxophonists in music history. He received many posthumous awards, including canonization by the African Orthodox Church and a Pulitzer Prize in 2007, his second wife was pianist Alice Coltrane and their son, Ravi Coltrane, is a saxophonist. Coltrane was born in his parents' apartment at 200 Hamlet Avenue in Hamlet, North Carolina on September 23, 1926, his father was John R. Coltrane and his mother was Alice Blair, he attended William Penn High School. Beginning in December 1938, his father and grandparents died within a few months of each other, leaving him to be raised by his mother and a close cousin.
In June 1943, he moved to Philadelphia. In September, his mother bought him an alto, he played alto horn in a community band before beginning alto saxophone in high school. From early to mid-1945 he had his first professional work: a "cocktail lounge trio" with piano and guitar. To avoid being drafted by the Army, Coltrane enlisted in the Navy on August 6, 1945, the day the first U. S. atomic bomb was dropped on Japan. He was trained as an apprentice seaman at Sampson Naval Training Station in upstate New York before he was shipped to Pearl Harbor, where he was stationed at Manana Barracks, the largest posting of African-American servicemen in the world. By the time he got to Hawaii in late 1945, the Navy was downsizing. Coltrane's musical talent was recognized, he became one of the few Navy men to serve as a musician without having been granted musician's rating when he joined the Melody Masters, the base swing band; as the Melody Masters was an all-white band, Coltrane was treated as a guest performer to avoid alerting superior officers of his participation in the band.
He continued to perform other duties when not playing with the band, including kitchen and security details. By the end of his service, he had assumed a leadership role in the band, his first recordings, an informal session in Hawaii with Navy musicians, occurred on July 13, 1946. He played alto saxophone on a selection of jazz standards and bebop tunes. After being discharged from the Navy as a seaman first class in August 1946, Coltrane returned to Philadelphia, where he "plunged into the heady excitement of the new music and the blossoming bebop scene." After touring with King Kolax, he joined a band led by Jimmy Heath, introduced to Coltrane's playing by his former Navy buddy, trumpeter William Massey, who had played with Coltrane in the Melody Masters. He studied jazz theory with guitarist and composer Dennis Sandole and continued under Sandole's tutelage through the early 1950s. Although he started on alto saxophone, he began playing tenor saxophone in 1947 with Eddie Vinson. Coltrane called this a time.
There were many things that people like Hawk, Ben and Tab Smith were doing in the'40s that I didn't understand, but that I felt emotionally." A significant influence, according to tenor saxophonist Odean Pope, was the Philadelphia pianist and theorist Hasaan Ibn Ali. "Hasaan was the clue to... the system. Hasaan was the great influence on Trane's melodic concept." An important moment in the progression of Coltrane's musical development occurred on June 5, 1945, when he saw Charlie Parker perform for the first time. In a DownBeat magazine article in 1960 he recalled, "the first time I heard Bird play, it hit me right between the eyes." Parker became an idol, they played together in the late 1940s. He was a member of groups led by Dizzy Gillespie, Earl Bostic, Johnny Hodges in the early to mid-1950s. In the summer of 1955, Coltrane was freelancing in Philadelphia while studying with guitarist Dennis Sandole when he received a call from Davis; the trumpeter, whose success during the late forties had been followed by several years of decline in activity and reputation, due in part to his struggles with heroin, was again active and about to form a quintet.
Coltrane was with this edition of the Davis band from October 1955 to April 1957. During this period Davis released several influential recordings that revealed the first signs of Coltrane's growing ability; this quintet, represented by two marathon recording sessions for Prestige in 1956, resulted in the albums Cookin', Relaxin', Workin', Steamin'. The "First Great Quintet" disbanded due in part to Coltrane's heroin addiction. During the part of 1957 Coltrane worked with Thelonious Monk at New York's Five Spot Café, played in Monk's quartet, owing to contractual conflicts, took part in only one official studio recording session with this group. Coltrane recorded many albums for Prestige under his own name at this time, but Monk refused to record for his old label. A private recording made by Juanita Naima Coltrane of a 1958 reunion of the group was issued by Blue Note Records as Live at the Five Spot—Discovery! in 1993. A high quality tape of a concert given by this quartet in November 1957 was found and was released by Blue Note in 2005.
Recorded by Voice of America, the performances confirm the group's reputation
Lawrence is the county seat of Douglas County and sixth-largest city in Kansas. It is located in the northeastern sector of the state, astride Interstate 70, between the Kansas and Wakarusa Rivers; as of the 2010 census, the city's population was 87,643. Lawrence is a college town and the home to both the University of Kansas and Haskell Indian Nations University. Lawrence was founded by the New England Emigrant Aid Company, was named for Amos Adams Lawrence, a Republican abolitionist from Massachusetts, who offered financial aid and support for the settlement. Lawrence was central to the "Bleeding Kansas" period and was the site of the Wakarusa War and the Sack of Lawrence. During the American Civil War, it was the site of the Lawrence massacre. Lawrence began as a center of free-state politics. From here, its economy diversified into many industries, including agriculture and education, beginning with the founding of the University of Kansas in 1865, Haskell Indian Nations University in 1884, as well as several private and public schools.
Prior to Kansas Territory being established in May 1854, most of Douglas County was part of the Shawnee Indian Reservation. During this period, the Oregon Trail ran parallel to the Kansas River through the area where Lawrence would be situated and a hill known as "Hogback Ridge"; this area was used as an outlook by those on the trail. While this territory was technically unopened to settlement prior to 1854, there did exist a few "squatter settlements" in the area just north of the Kansas River. Lawrence was founded "strictly for political reasons" having to do with the issue of slavery, debated in the United States during the early-to-mid 1800s. Northern Democrats, led by Senators Lewis Cass of Michigan and Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois promoted the idea of "popular sovereignty" as a middle position on the slavery issue. Proponents of this doctrine argued that it was more democratic, as it allowed the citizens of newly-organized territories to have final say in regards to the permissibly of slavery in their own lands.
Douglas made popular sovereignty the backbone of his Kansas–Nebraska Act—legislation that repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820 and created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska—which passed in Congress in 1854. Around this time, the Christian abolitionist and Protestant minister Richard Cordley noted that "there was a feeling of despondency all over the north" because the bill's passage "opened Kansas to slavery was thought to be equivalent to making Kansas a slave state." This was because nearby Missouri allowed slavery, many rightly assumed that the first settlers in Kansas Territory would come flooding in from this state, bringing their penchant for slavery with them. In time, anger at the Kansas-Nebraska Act united antislavery forces into a movement committed to stopping the expansion of slavery. Many of these individuals decided to "meet the question on the terms of the bill itself" by migrating to Kansas, electing antislavery legislators, banning the practice of slavery altogether.
These settlers soon became known as "Free-Staters". In his book A History of Lawrence, Cordley wrote: The most systematic and extensive movement, was made "The New England Emigrant Aid Company"... The men engaged in it, Eli Thayer, Amos A. Lawrence, others, began their work at once, arousing public interest and making arrangements to facilitate emigration to Kansas; as early as June, 1854, they sent Dr. Charles Robinson, of Fitchburg, Mr. Charles H. Branscomb, of Holyoke, to explore the territory and select a site for a colony... Robinson his party climbed the hill along this spur, looked off over what was afterwards the site of Lawrence, they marked the magnificence of the view. Whether they thought of what might afterwards occur is not known; when he was asked, therefore, to go and explore the country with a view to locating colonies, it was not altogether an unknown land to him. Branscomb was tasked with exploring the Kansas River up to about the location of Fort Riley, whereas Robinson scouted land near Fort Leavenworth and the nearby city of the same name.
The two chose this site because it was the "first desirable location where emigrant Indians had ceded their land rights." The area was attractive because it was close to not only on the Oregon Trail, but the Santa Fe and the 1846 Military Trails. Concurrent with Robinson and Branscomb's exploration, the New England Emigrant Aid Company was soliciting some of its members into settling in Kansas. At first, the New England Emigrant Aid Company had wanted to send a somewhat sizeable group of settlers to claim the land. A cholera outbreak in the Missouri Valley preve
Beverly Ann Bivens is the former lead singer with the American West Coast folk-rock group We Five from 1965 to 1967. After her marriage to jazz musician Fred Marshall and the break-up of We Five, she sang for a while with the experimental Light Sound Dimension, but, by the late 1960s had left the music scene. After many years of relative seclusion, she sang at the opening of an exhibition in San Francisco in 2009, her son is the saxophonist Joshi Marshall. Beverly Ann Bivens was born in Santa Ana, California on April 28, 1946, her father, Charles Walter Bivens, was from Arkansas, with pre-revolutionary Welsh antecedents who came to America via London, England. Beverly attended Santa Ana High School and Orange Coast Junior College, where she majored in liberal arts. With the encouragement of her mother, Bivens had developed her singing voice as a child. Around 1963-4, she began performing with Mike Stewart and Jerry Burgan, who had formed a folk duo at high school and branched out into electronic music with guitarist Bob Jones, whom they met at the University of San Francisco.
She had been recommended to Mike Stewart by Terry Kirkman of The Association, the boyfriend of her sister Barbara. In 1963, she and Glen Campbell, who played banjo, had performed background vocals on Desert Pete, a recording by the Kingston Trio, of which Stewart's brother John was a member. With the addition of Pete Fullerton, the new group called the Ridgerunners and, for a while, the Mike Stewart Quintet, became known as We Five, they recorded their first album, the eclectic You Were on My Mind, for A&M records in 1965 after Herb Alpert, founder of A&M, heard them at the "hungry i", a folk/night club on Jackson Street in the North Beach area of San Francisco. We Five's first single, from their debut album of the same name, was a reworked version of Sylvia Tyson's song "You Were On My Mind", it became one of the first folk-rock hits, reaching number three in the Billboard "Hot 100" in August 1965. Tyson says that she was unaware that her song had been covered until she heard We Five's version on a car radio while driving on Highway 101 in California.
One consequence of We Five's success was that Tyson's song, until had been unavailable in sheet form, was published by Witmark of New York, with a photograph of Bivens and We Five on the cover. However, with the so-called "British invasion" at its height, We Five's recording had only limited international success, having been covered reluctantly, though in Britain by Crispian St. Peters. On 2 October 1965, We Five performed You Were on My Mind live on the ABC television show The Hollywood Palace, on which they were introduced by guest compère Fred Astaire. Video footage of this performance survives, as does that of appearances around the same time on the Jack Benny and Bob Hope shows and Shivaree. There have been some claims that Bivens did not sing on the original studio recording of You Were on My Mind and that the female voice was that of another artist. However, most sources, including We Five's Jerry Burgan in his 2014 memoir, have rejected this suggestion. A subsequent 1965 single, Chet Powers's Let's Get Together, was a more modest commercial success, reaching number 31 on the Hot 100.
The song, recorded in 1964 by the Kingston Trio, became a much bigger hit in 1969 for the Youngbloods under the shortened title Get Together. A third single, You Let a Love Burn Out, was trailed by A&M as a "3rd We Five smash in a row" on the back of a Grammy nomination for You Were on My Mind. Released early in 1966, its "twangy-oriental sound", with Bivens "really put her voice in front of the others and set the tempo for the remainder of the group" represented a significant departure of style that, in various ways, was to be adopted by other bands in the coming year. However, it made limited public impact, a fate shared in May 1966 by a further single, There Stands the Door. Pete Fullerton felt that, with both these recordings, "there was always that edge of whining". Bivens' voice gave We Five its memorable sound. Operatic in quality, its range was described as low tenor to high soprano. Bob Jones has recalled that "Bev had this husky kind of voice, somehow there's this old soul in there".
Bivens' performances on the album You Were On My Mind and in concert foreshadowed a female vocal style that, by 1967, was associated with, among others, Elaine "Spanky" McFarlane, Grace Slick of the Great Society and Jefferson Airplane, Cass Elliot and Michelle Phillips of The Mamas & the Papas. Bivens was said to have inspired Jefferson Airplane's original vocalist Signe Toly Anderson, well established on San Francisco's jazz and folk scene before joining the Airplane, it may be no coincidence either that Karen Carpenter who, like Bivens, had a fine vocal range, was signed by Alpert to A&M, with her brother Richard, in 1969. Bivens' influence was apparent too in recordings by some male bands: for example, the Turtles' single Happy Together and the Cowsills' The Rain, the Park and Other Things, as well as I Will Have You by the imitative British band, Just Five. In 2002, the British newspaper The Independent described We Five as having "bridged the gap" between Peter and Mary and the Mamas and Papas.
In the latt
Grange Hill is a British television children's drama series made by the BBC and portraying life in a typical secondary school. The show began its run on 8 February 1978 on BBC1, was one of the longest-running programmes on British television when it ended its run on 15 September 2008, it was created by Phil Redmond, responsible for the Channel 4 dramas Brookside and Hollyoaks. After 30 years, the show was cancelled in 2008 as it was felt by the BBC that the series had run its course; the drama was centred on the fictional comprehensive school of Grange Hill in the fictitious North London borough of Northam. As well as dealing with school-related issues such as bullying, learning difficulties, teacher-pupil relationships and conflicts, Grange Hill "broke new ground over the years, with the kind of hard-hitting storylines not seen in children's dramas", such as racism, teenage pregnancy, HIV/AIDS, knife crime, rape/sexual assault, mental illness, cancer, gun crime, child abuse and death; the series was to have been called "Grange Park", which would go on to be used as the name of the school in another Redmond creation, the Channel 4 soap opera Brookside.
Grange Hill was conceived by ATV writer Phil Redmond, who first approached various television companies with the idea in 1975, unsuccessfully. In 1976, he managed to sell the idea to the BBC, the children's drama executive Anna Home commissioned an initial series of nine episodes in a trial run, the first being broadcast on 8 February 1978. From the start, the series caused controversy for its real-life, gritty portrayal of school life, which differed from the idealised portrayals of earlier school dramas. Redmond has said that he wasn't able to start pushing the boundaries until series; this led to Redmond being summoned to lunch by BBC bosses and forced to agree that there would be no further series unless he toned things down. Grange Hill's highest-profile period was undoubtedly the mid- to late 1980s. One of the most famous storylines during this time was that of Zammo McGuire, played by Lee Macdonald, his addiction to heroin; this storyline ran over two series and focused on Zammo's descent into drugs and how it strained his relationship with girlfriend Jackie and friend Kevin.
The show's other favourite characters during this period were Gonch and Hollo, played by John Holmes and Bradley Sheppard. During his time at the school Gonch took part in many moneymaking schemes, most of which were unsuccessful. There was a comedic element to the duo's relationship. Script editor Anthony Minghella, who worked on the series for several years during the 1980s won an Academy Award for Best Director for the film The English Patient in 1996. During the 1990s, Grange Hill did not receive the same media attention that it had had just a few years before; the teachers were now equals in the narrative, with their personal lives taking up as much time as those of the pupils. In 1994, two characters were introduced with disabilities: Denny Roberts, who had dwarfism, Rachel Burns, who had cerebral palsy. Both characters were presented as "one of the gang" and hated being accorded any special treatment because of their circumstances; this prompted the BFI's 2002 publication The Hill And Beyond to comment that Grange Hill had become politically correct.
Beginning on 4 April 1993, in celebration of the programme's 15th anniversary, the first fifteen series of Grange Hill were repeated during Children's BBC's Sunday morning slots on BBC1 and BBC2. The repeats ended with Series 16 in 1999. In the 1990s Grange Hill was repeated in full on digital satellite and cable channel UK Gold, which broadcast the late 1970s and early 80s episodes of the show. In 1998, it reappeared on sister channel UK Gold Classics, a digital-only channel showing programmes aired on UK Gold, Grange Hill was part of its schedule; the channel lasted only six months, before becoming UK Gold 2 in April 1999. Interest in Grange Hill was renewed in the late 1990s and the series celebrated its 20th anniversary with the introduction of sinister Scottish bully Sean Pearce, who carried a knife and slashed the face of a classmate. Cast member Laura Sadler, involved in this storyline, died after falling out of a building in June 2003. By 2001, the series was entirely issue-led and the decision to tackle the subject of rape upset some parents.
But when Phil Redmond took over production of Grange Hill in 2003, his plan was to get the show back to its roots and the issues were toned down as Redmond skewed the show towards a younger audience. In early 2006, it was announced that a film of Grange Hill was to be released in late 2007 focusing on the lives of former pupils. Grange Hill returned on 14 April 2008 with its final series, including a return of the original theme music. Series 31 returned to BBC1 after the 2007 series was shown on the CBBC Channel. For its first 25 years Grange Hill was produced in-house by the BBC the show was made independently for the corporation by Mersey TV, the production house founded by Redmond, hence the reason for the production move. Location external and some i
In music, counterpoint is the relationship between voices that are harmonically interdependent yet independent in rhythm and contour. It has been most identified in the European classical tradition developing during the Renaissance and in much of the common practice period in the Baroque; the term originates from the Latin punctus contra punctum meaning "point against point". Counterpoint has been used to designate a voice or an entire composition. Counterpoint focuses on melodic interaction—only secondarily on the harmonies produced by that interaction. In the words of John Rahn: It is hard to write a beautiful song, it is harder to write several individually beautiful songs that, when sung sound as a more beautiful polyphonic whole. The internal structures that create each of the voices separately must contribute to the emergent structure of the polyphony, which in turn must reinforce and comment on the structures of the individual voices; the way, accomplished in detail is...'counterpoint'.
Counterpoint theory has been given a mathematical foundation in the work initiated by Guerino Mazzola. In particular, his model gives a structural foundation of forbidden parallels of fifths and the dissonant fourth; the model has been extended to microtonal contexts by Octavio Agustin. Some examples of related compositional techniques include: the round, the canon, the most complex contrapuntal convention: the fugue. All of these are examples of imitative counterpoint. In 1725 Johann Joseph Fux published Gradus ad Parnassum, in which he described five species: Note against note. A succession of theorists quite imitated Fux's seminal work with some small and idiosyncratic modifications in the rules. Many of Fux's rules concerning the purely linear construction of melodies have their origin in solfeggi. Concerning the common practice era, alterations to the melodic rules were introduced to enable the function of certain harmonic forms; the combination of these melodies produced the figured bass.
The following rules apply to melodic writing in each species, for each part: The final must be approached by step. If the final is approached from below the leading tone must be raised in a minor key, but not in Phrygian or Hypophrygian mode. Thus, in the Dorian mode on D, a C♯ is necessary at the cadence. Permitted melodic intervals are the perfect fourth and octave, as well as the major and minor second and minor third, ascending minor sixth; the ascending minor sixth must be followed by motion downwards. If writing two skips in the same direction—something that must be only done—the second must be smaller than the first, the interval between the first and the third note may not be dissonant; the three notes should be from the same triad. In general, do not write more than two skips in the same direction. If writing a skip in one direction, it is best to proceed after the skip with motion in the other direction; the interval of a tritone in three notes should be avoided as is the interval of a seventh in three notes.
There must be a climax or high point in the line countering the cantus firmus. This occurs somewhere in the middle of exercise and must occur on a strong beat. An outlining of a seventh is avoided within a single line moving in the same direction. And, in all species, the following rules govern the combination of the parts: The counterpoint must begin and end on a perfect consonance. Contrary motion should predominate. Perfect consonances must be approached by contrary motion. Imperfect consonances may be approached by any type of motion; the interval of a tenth should not be exceeded between two adjacent parts. Build from the bass, upward. In first species counterpoint, each note in every added part sounds against one note in the cantus firmus. Notes in all parts are sounded and move against each other simultaneously. Since all notes in First species counterpoint are whole notes, rhythmic independence is not available. In the present context, a "step" is a melodic interval of whole step. A "skip" is an interval of a fourth.
An interval of a fifth or larger is referred to as a "leap". A few further rules given by Fux, by study of the Palestrina style, given in the works of counterpoint pedagogues, are as follows. Begin and end on either the unison, octave, or fifth, unless the added part is underneath, in which case begin and end only on unison or octave. Use no unisons except at the beginning or end. Avoid parallel fifths or octaves between any two parts. Avoid moving in parallel fourths. Avoid moving in parallel thirds or sixths for long. Attempt to keep any two adjacent parts within a tenth of each other, unless an exceptionally pleasing line can be written by moving outside that range. Avoid having any two parts move in the same direction by skip Attempt to have as much contrary motion as possible. Avoid dissonant inter
K. Eric Drexler
Kim Eric Drexler is an American engineer best known for seminal studies of the potential of molecular nanotechnology, from the 1970s and 1980s. His 1991 doctoral thesis at Massachusetts Institute of Technology was revised and published as the book Nanosystems: Molecular Machinery Manufacturing and Computation, which received the Association of American Publishers award for Best Computer Science Book of 1992. K. Eric Drexler was influenced by ideas on Limits to Growth in the early 1970s. During his first year at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, he sought out someone, working on extraterrestrial resources, he found Gerard K. O'Neill of Princeton University, a physicist famous for his work on storage rings for particle accelerators and his landmark work on the concepts of space colonization. Drexler participated in NASA summer studies on space colonies in 1975 and 1976, he fabricated metal films a few tens of nanometers thick on a wax support to demonstrate the potentials of high performance solar sails.
He was active in space politics, helping the L5 Society defeat the Moon Treaty in 1980. Besides working summers for O'Neill, building mass driver prototypes, Drexler delivered papers at the first three Space Manufacturing conferences at Princeton; the 1977 and 1979 papers were co-authored with Keith Henson, patents were issued on both subjects, vapor phase fabrication and space radiators. During the late 1970s, Drexler began to develop ideas about molecular nanotechnology. In 1979, he encountered Richard Feynman's provocative 1959 talk There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom. In 1981, Drexler wrote a seminal research article, published by PNAS, "Molecular engineering: An approach to the development of general capabilities for molecular manipulation"; this article has continued to be cited, more than 620 times, during the following 35 years. The term "nano-technology" had been coined by the Tokyo Science University professor Norio Taniguchi in 1974 to describe the precision manufacture of materials with nanometer tolerances, Drexler unknowingly used a related term in his 1986 book Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology to describe what became known as molecular nanotechnology.
In that book, he proposed the idea of a nanoscale "assembler" which would be able to build a copy of itself and of other items of arbitrary complexity. He first published the term "grey goo" to describe what might happen if a hypothetical self-replicating molecular nanotechnology went out of control, he has subsequently tried to clarify his concerns about out-of-control self-replicators, make the case that molecular manufacturing does not require such devices. Drexler and Christine Peterson, at that time husband and wife, founded the Foresight Institute in 1986 with the mission of "Preparing for nanotechnology." Drexler is no longer a member of the Foresight Institute. In March 2004, Drexler signed scientists' open letter in support of cryonics. In August 2005 Drexler joined Nanorex, a molecular engineering software company based in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, to serve as the company's Chief Technical Advisor. Nanorex's nanoENGINEER-1 software was able to simulate a hypothetical differential gear design in "a snap".
Drexler holds three degrees from MIT. He received his B. S. in Interdisciplinary Sciences in 1977 and his M. S. in 1979 in Astro/Aerospace Engineering with a Master's thesis titled "Design of a High Performance Solar Sail System." In 1991, he earned a Ph. D. through the MIT Media Lab after the departments of electrical engineering and computer science refused to approve Drexler's plan of study. His Ph. D. work was the first doctoral degree on the topic of molecular nanotechnology and his thesis, "Molecular Machinery and Manufacturing with Applications to Computation," was published as Nanosystems: Molecular Machinery and Computation, which received the Association of American Publishers award for Best Computer Science Book of 1992. Drexler was married to Christine Peterson for 21 years; the marriage ended in 2002. In 2006, Drexler married Rosa Wang, a former investment banker who works with Ashoka: Innovators for the Public on improving the social capital markets. Drexler's work on nanotechnology was criticized as naive by Nobel Prize winner Richard Smalley in a 2001 Scientific American article.
Smalley first argued. He argued that nanomachines would have to resemble chemical enzymes more than Drexler's assemblers and could only work in water. Drexler maintained that both were straw man arguments, in the case of enzymes, wrote that "Prof. Klibanov wrote in 1994,'... using an enzyme in organic solvents eliminates several obstacles...'" Drexler had difficulty in getting Smalley to respond, but in December 2003, Chemical and Engineering news carried a four-part debate. Ray Kurzweil disputes Smalley's arguments; the National Academies of Sciences and Medicine, in its 2006 review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative, argues that it is difficult to predict the future capabilities of nanotechnology: Although theoretical calculations can be made today, the attainable range of chemical reaction cycles, error rates, speed of operation, thermodynamic efficiencies of such bottom-up manufacturing systems cannot be reliably predicted at this time. Thus, the attainable perfection and complexity of manufactured products, while they can be calculated in theory, cannot be predicted with confidence.
The optimum research paths that might lead to systems which exceed the thermodynamic efficiencies and other capabilities of biological systems cannot be reliably predicted at this ti