Natural gas is a occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting of methane, but including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, or helium. It is formed when layers of decomposing plant and animal matter are exposed to intense heat and pressure under the surface of the Earth over millions of years; the energy that the plants obtained from the sun is stored in the form of chemical bonds in the gas. Natural gas is a occurring hydrocarbon used as a source of energy for heating and electricity generation, it is used as a fuel for vehicles and as a chemical feedstock in the manufacture of plastics and other commercially important organic chemicals. Natural gas is called a non-renewable resource. Natural gas is found in deep underground rock formations or associated with other hydrocarbon reservoirs in coal beds and as methane clathrates. Petroleum is another fossil fuel found in close proximity to and with natural gas. Most natural gas was created over time by two mechanisms: thermogenic.
Biogenic gas is created by methanogenic organisms in marshes, bogs and shallow sediments. Deeper in the earth, at greater temperature and pressure, thermogenic gas is created from buried organic material. In petroleum production gas is burnt as flare gas; the World Bank estimates that over 150 cubic kilometers of natural gas are flared or vented annually. Before natural gas can be used as a fuel, but not all, must be processed to remove impurities, including water, to meet the specifications of marketable natural gas; the by-products of this processing include: ethane, butanes and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, water vapor, sometimes helium and nitrogen. Natural gas is informally referred to as "gas" when compared to other energy sources such as oil or coal. However, it is not to be confused with gasoline in North America, where the term gasoline is shortened in colloquial usage to gas. Natural gas was discovered accidentally in ancient China, as it resulted from the drilling for brines.
Natural gas was first used by the Chinese in about 500 BCE. They discovered a way to transport gas seeping from the ground in crude pipelines of bamboo to where it was used to boil salt water to extract the salt, in the Ziliujing District of Sichuan; the discovery and identification of natural gas in the Americas happened in 1626. In 1821, William Hart dug the first natural gas well at Fredonia, New York, United States, which led to the formation of the Fredonia Gas Light Company; the state of Philadelphia created the first municipally owned natural gas distribution venture in 1836. By 2009, 66 000 km³ had been used out of the total 850 000 km³ of estimated remaining recoverable reserves of natural gas. Based on an estimated 2015 world consumption rate of about 3400 km³ of gas per year, the total estimated remaining economically recoverable reserves of natural gas would last 250 years at current consumption rates. An annual increase in usage of 2–3% could result in recoverable reserves lasting less as few as 80 to 100 years.
In the 19th century, natural gas was obtained as a by-product of producing oil, since the small, light gas carbon chains came out of solution as the extracted fluids underwent pressure reduction from the reservoir to the surface, similar to uncapping a soft drink bottle where the carbon dioxide effervesces. Unwanted natural gas was a disposal problem in the active oil fields. If there was not a market for natural gas near the wellhead it was prohibitively expensive to pipe to the end user. In the 19th century and early 20th century, unwanted gas was burned off at oil fields. Today, unwanted gas associated with oil extraction is returned to the reservoir with'injection' wells while awaiting a possible future market or to repressurize the formation, which can enhance extraction rates from other wells. In regions with a high natural gas demand, pipelines are constructed when it is economically feasible to transport gas from a wellsite to an end consumer. In addition to transporting gas via pipelines for use in power generation, other end uses for natural gas include export as liquefied natural gas or conversion of natural gas into other liquid products via gas to liquids technologies.
GTL technologies can convert natural gas into liquids products such as diesel or jet fuel. A variety of GTL technologies have been developed, including Fischer–Tropsch, methanol to gasoline and syngas to gasoline plus. F–T produces a synthetic crude that can be further refined into finished products, while MTG can produce synthetic gasoline from natural gas. STG+ can produce drop-in gasoline, jet fuel and aromatic chemicals directly from natural gas via a single-loop process. In 2011, Royal Dutch Shell's 140,000 barrels per day F–T plant went into operation in Qatar. Natural gas can be "associated", or "non-associated", is found in coal beds, it sometimes contains a significant amount of ethane, propane and pentane—heavier hydrocarbons removed for commercial use prior to the methane being sold as a consumer fuel or chemical plant feedstock. Non-hydrocarbons such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen and hydrogen sulfide must be removed before the natural gas can be transported. Natural gas extracted from oil wells is called casinghead gas (whether or not produced up the a
A latrine is a toilet or an simpler facility, used as a toilet within a sanitation system. For example, it can be a communal trench in the earth in a camp to be used as emergency sanitation, a hole in the ground, or more advanced designs, including pour-flush systems; the term "latrine" is still used in emergency sanitation situations. Nowadays, the word "toilet" is more used than "latrine", except for simple systems like "pit latrine" or "trench latrine"; the use of latrines was a major advancement in sanitation over more basic practices such as open defecation, helped control the spread of many waterborne diseases The word "latrine" is derived from the Latin lavatrina, meaning bath. It is nowadays still used in the term "pit latrine", it has the connotation of something being less hygienic than a standard toilet. It is used to describe communal facilities, such as the shallow-trench latrines used in emergency sanitation situations, e.g. after an earthquake, flood or other natural disaster. Many forms of latrine technology have been used, from simple to more complex.
The more sophisticated the system, the more that the term "toilet" is used instead of "latrine". A pit latrine is a inexpensive toilet, minimally defined as a hole in the ground. More sophisticated pit latrines may include a floor plate, or ventilation to reduce odor and fly and mosquito breeding. Many military units, if intended for extended use, place basic shelters and seating over the pits. A pit is sited well away from any water sources to minimize possible contamination. After prolonged use, a pit is buried. Other types of pit latrines may include the Reed Odourless Earth Closet, the arborloo or treebog, or the twin pit pour-flush pit latrine, popularized by Sulabh International; the shelter that covers such a pit latrine is known in some varieties of English as an outhouse. In a location without longer term sanitation infrastructure, such as for emergency sanitation, a trench latrine is a workable solution, it consists of a pit or a trench in the ground, 4 feet to 5 feet deep and 4 feet to 20 feet long.
A slit-trench latrine consists of a shallow trench, narrow enough to stand with one leg on either side. This type is used either by squatting, with the users' legs straddling the pit, or by various arrangements for sitting or leaning against a support structure; such support may be a log, branch or similar arrangement placed at right angles to the long axis of the pit. This type of latrine is not found in developing countries but can be used for emergency sanitation; the shallow-trench latrine is wider than the latter. It is shallow, with a depth of about 150 mm; this type of latrine is used in the initial phases of emergencies and is a simple improvement on open defecation fields. A rule of thumb in emergency sanitation provision is to allow 0.25 m2 of land per person per day. This means nearly two hectares per week. Men’s and women’s areas should always be separated. An aqua privy is a small septic tank located directly below a dry toilet squatting pan or bowl which has a drop pipe extending below the liquid level in the tank to form a simple water seal to minimise odors.
Campers refer to a cathole -- a shallow scrape. Emergency sanitation Reredorter, medieval monastic latrine
A bucket toilet is a basic form of a dry toilet whereby a bucket is used to collect excreta. Feces and urine are collected together in the same bucket, leading to odor issues; the bucket may be situated in a nearby small structure. Where people do not have access to improved sanitation – in low-income urban areas of developing countries – an unimproved bucket toilet might be better than open defecation, they can play a temporary role in e.g. after earthquakes. However, the unimproved bucket toilet may carry significant health risks compared to an improved sanitation system; the bucket toilet system, with collection organised by the municipality, used to be widespread in wealthy countries. Once the basic bucket toilet has been "improved", it evolves into a number of different systems, which are more referred to as either container-based sanitation systems, composting toilets, or urine-diverting dry toilets. Bucket toilets are used in households and in health care facilities in some low- and middle- income countries where people do not have access to improved sanitation.
In those settings, bucket toilets are more to be used without a liner, or the liner is not removed each time the bucket is emptied. This is because the users cannot afford to discard suitably sized, sturdy liners. Instead, the users may place some dry material in the base of the bucket in order to facilitate easier emptying. Bucket toilets have been common in cold climates where installing running water can be difficult and expensive and subject to freezing-related pipe breakage, for example in Alaska and rural areas of Canada. In natural disasters and other emergencies, the portability of bucket latrines can make them a useful part of an appropriate emergency response where pit latrines cannot be isolated from floodwater or groundwater and where the contents can be safely disposed into sanitary systems, taking measures to avoid contact with the contents. Different organizations give advice on; the Twin Bucket Emergency Toilet system, for example, has been developed in Christchurch, New Zealand following their infrastructure destroying earthquake in 2011.
The system has been endorsed by the Portland Bureau of Emergency Management. It is promoted by the volunteer advocacy group PHLUSH for reasons of safety and matching ecological sanitation principles; the bucket is emptied when it emits excessive foul odor. Some sources say; the quantity of excreta varies depending on the amount of fiber in the local diet. If the bucket has a liner emptying is more hygienic in areas with poor water access for cleaning the collection chamber than without a liner, as the bag could be sealed with a knot and the bucket would remain clean. To minimize offensive odors and prevent the spread of disease, the material in the bucket can be covered with some covering material after each use, such as quick lime, wood ash or fine sawdust; when the bucket is full, it can be covered with a lid and stored away until the collected waste can either be disposed of or treated for safe reuse, e.g. via composting the material. An unimproved, open bucket in which excreta are not covered by carbon matter does not offer much protection to the user from the pathogens in the feces, which can lead to significant health risks.
Flies can access the contents. There is the risk that the bucket can tip over and spill its contents. Unhygienic emptying and disposal practices add further opportunities for pathogens to be spread, for example, if the bucket is not cleaned after each use or if a liner is not used. For these reasons, unimproved bucket toilets were not considered as improved sanitation systems according to WHO and UNICEF for monitoring access to basic sanitation as part of Goal 7 of the Millennium Development Goals. At the time of these goals, IAPMO had not yet published new standards for acceptable improved bucket toilet procedure. For application in emergencies, it is possible to use two buckets: one for urine, the other one for feces and soiled toilet paper; the Wellington Region Emergency Management Office recommends strong 15–20 litres buckets or pails and the use of dry mulch material that can consist of sawdust, dry leaves, soil, or shredded newspaper. The bottom of the "urine bucket" should be emptied every day.
The content is poured onto a disused green space after diluting the urine with water. The bottom of the "feces bucket" should be covered with dry mulch. After every use, a handful of dry mulch should be used to cover the feces in order to keep it as dry as possible. After the bucket is full, it should be emptied into a hole in the ground or into a separate large storage bin. Since feces contain pathogens, they should be handled with caution. Unimproved bucket toilets can be upgraded to become improved bucket toilets, where some composting starts in the bucket itself but most of it takes place in an external composter. An upgraded system may consist o
A recreational vehicle abbreviated as RV, is a motor vehicle or trailer which includes living quarters designed for accommodation. Types of RVs include motorhomes, caravans, fifth-wheel trailers, popup campers and truck campers. Typical amenities of an RV include a kitchen, a bathroom, one or more sleeping facilities. RVs can range from the utilitarian — containing only sleeping quarters and basic cooking facilities — to the luxurious, with features like air conditioning, water heaters and satellite receptors, quartz countertops, for example. RVs can either be self-motorized. Most RVs are single-deck. To allow a more compact size while in transit, larger RVs have expandable sides, called slide-outs, or canopies. An early type of caravan is the horse-drawn covered wagon, which from circa 1745 played a significant part in opening up of the interior of the North American continent to white settlement. By the 1920s the RV was well established in the United States, with RV camping clubs established across the country, despite the unpaved roads and limited camping facilities.
Several companies began manufacturing house trailers. Airstream is one such company; until the 1950s, the RV industry was connected to the mobile home industry because most mobile homes were shorter than 9 metres long, thus transportable. During the 1950s, the RV and mobile home industries became separated and RV manufacturers began building self-contained motorhomes. In Europe, wagons built for accommodation were developed in France around 1810, they were used in Britain by circus performers from the 1820s. Romani people only began living in caravans circa 1850. In Canada, the earliest motorhomes were built on car or truck bodies from about 1910. In Australia, the earliest known motorhome was built in 1929; this motorhome is recognized as being the first motorized caravan in Australia and is located in the Goolwa museum. Although the most common usage of RVs is as temporary accommodation when traveling, some people use an RV as their main residence. In the United States and Canada, travelling south each winter to a warmer climate is referred to as snowbirding.
In Australia, the slang term for a retired person who travels in a recreational vehicle is a "grey nomad". Some owners fit solar panels to the roof of their RV. Usage of RVs is common at rural festivals such as Burning Man; as of 2016, the average age of a person owning a recreational vehicle in the United States was 45, with a three year decrease since 2015. Gallant, JD. How to Select and Buy an RV. RV Consumer Group. ISBN 1890049-9-05. Freeman, Jayne; the Complete RV Handbook. McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 978-0-07-144339-5. Moeller, Bill; the Complete Book of Boondock RVing: Camping Off the Beaten Path. McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 978-0-07-149065-8. "Hitting the Trail 1935 Style". Popular Mechanics: 40–42. July 1935
A toilet brush is a tool for cleaning a toilet bowl. The modern plastic version was invented in 1932 by William C. Schopp of Huntington Park, California, US and patented in 1933 by the Addis Brush Company; the toilet brush is used with toilet cleaner or bleach. The toilet brush can be used to clean the upper area of the toilet, around the bowl. However, it cannot be used to clean far into the toilet's U-bend and should not be used to clean the toilet seat. In many cultures it is considered impolite to clean away biological debris without the use of chemical toilet cleaning products, as this can leave residue on the bristles. By contrast, others consider it impolite not to clean away biological debris using the toilet brush. A typical toilet brush consists of a hard bristled end with a rounded shape and a long handle. Today toilet brushes are made of plastic, but were made of wood with pig bristles or from the hair of horses, oxen and badgers; the brush is stored in a holder, but in some cases hidden in a tube.
An electric toilet brush is a little different from a normal toilet brush. The bristles are fastened on the rotor of a motor; the power supply is attached without any metal contact via electromagnetic induction. In recent years, there has been a general shift in design with a new emphasis on ergonomically designed brushes. Further design enhancements have included innovative holders that snap shut around the bristled end, thereby preventing the release of smells and other unpleasantries. Further development of the traditional toilet brush focus on the risk of germ incubation within the brush holder. A toilet brush has been patented which introduces a reservoir of anti-bacterial fluid, allowing the brush to be dipped and sanitized after each use; the first successful artificial Christmas tree was made from brush bristles by Addis using the same machinery used to manufacture its toilet brushes. The trees were made from the same animal-hair bristles used in the brushes, except they were dyed green.
In recent years many new products aiming to reinvent the traditional toilet brush have emerged to the market. The LooBlade is a toilet brush with an 8-blade silicone head and hydrophobic properties that sheds water and dries quickly, it is claimed to be able to kill 99.9 % of germs after cleaning. It was invented by Garry Stewart; the Loogun is an alternative to the toilet brush. It's a pressure washer that sprays a powerful jet of clean water that washes away stubborn marks both above and below the water line; the device never touches the toilet, so the device stays hygienic and safe for children. The Handi Sani is a self-cleaning toilet brush, it works by attaching the Handi Sani brush holder to the side of the tank with one small hose running into the tank to take advantage of clean water, another hose running into the toilet bowl for proper draining. The brush is placed inside the Handi Sani so that when the toilet is flushed, the attachment fills up with clean water while draining the dirty water into the toilet bowl.
Automatic self-clean toilet seat Bidet Self-cleaning toilet bowl Shit stick Toilet Washlet Xylospongium
A bedpan or bed pan is a receptacle used for the toileting of a bedridden patient in a health care facility, is made of metal, ceramic, or plastic. A bedpan can be used for both fecal discharge. Many diseases can confine a patient to bed, necessitating the use of bedpans, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and dementia. Additionally, many patients may be confined to a bed temporarily as a result of a temporary illness, injury, or surgery, thereby necessitating the use of a bedpan. Bedpans are constructed of stainless steel, easy to clean and durable, but may be cold and uncomfortable to use; the supporting area of some products is small, prolonged use can cause pressure ulcers. To solve these problems, new ergonomic bedpans have been developed, which support the patient with a larger area of warm plastic; some designs cover the genitalia during use, offering protection and an extra measure of privacy. On the other hand, the material is more difficult to sterilize, may become a reservoir for microorganisms.
Fracture bedpans are smaller than standard size bedpans, have one flat end. These bedpans are designed for patients who have had a hip fracture or are recovering from hip replacement; this type of bedpan may be used for those patients who cannot raise their hips high enough or roll over onto a regular size bedpan. In recent years, a bedpan liner made of recycled wood pulp is more popular in UK hospitals. An alternative to the recycled pulp liner is the plastic bedpan liner, which creates a barrier between the waste and the bedpan; some liners are made of biodegradable plastic and contain absorbent powder to eliminate splashing and spills. Liners are used in hospitals to decrease infection, can be purchased and used for home health care. Chamber pot Media related to Bedpans at Wikimedia Commons
A flush toilet is a toilet that disposes of human excreta by using water to flush it through a drainpipe to another location for disposal, thus maintaining a separation between humans and their excreta. Flush toilets can be designed for squatting, in the case of squat toilets; the opposite of a flush toilet is a dry toilet. Flush toilets are a type of plumbing fixture and incorporate an "S", "U", "J", or "P" shaped bend called a trap that causes water to collect in the toilet bowl and act as a seal against noxious gases. Most flush toilets are connected to a sewerage system that conveys waste to a sewage treatment plant; when a toilet is flushed, the wastewater flows into a septic tank, or is conveyed to a treatment plant. Associated devices are urinals, which handle only urine, bidets, which can be used for cleansing of the anus and genitals after using the toilet. A typical flush toilet is a fixed, vitreous ceramic bowl, connected to a drain. After use, the bowl is cleaned by the rapid flow of water into the bowl.
This flush may flow from a dedicated tank, a high-pressure water pipe controlled by a flush valve, or by manually pouring water into the bowl. Tanks and valves are operated by the user, by pressing a button, pulling a lever or pulling a chain; the water is directed around the bowl by a molded flushing rim around the top of the bowl or by one or more jets, so that the entire internal surface of the bowl is rinsed with water. A typical toilet has a tank fixed above the bowl which contains a fixed volume of water, two devices; the first device allows part of the contents of the tank to be discharged into the toilet bowl, causing the contents of the bowl to be swept or sucked out of the toilet and into the drain, when the user operates the flush. The second device automatically allows water to enter the tank until the water level is appropriate for a flush; the water may be discharged through a siphon. A float commands the refilling device. Toilets without cisterns are flushed through a simple flush valve or "Flushometer" connected directly to the water supply.
These are designed to discharge a limited volume of water when the lever or button is pressed released. A toilet may be pour-flushed; this type of flush toilet has no cistern or permanent water supply, but is flushed by pouring in a few litres of water from a container. The flushing can use as little as 2–3 litres; this type of toilet is common in many Asian countries. The toilet can be connected to one or two pits, in which case it is called a "pour flush pit latrine" or a "twin pit pour flush pit latrine", it can be connected to a septic tank. The flushing system provides a large flow of water into the bowl, they take the form of either fixed tanks of water or flush valves. Flush tanks or cisterns incorporate a mechanism to release water from the tank and an automatic valve to allow the cistern to be refilled automatically; this system is suitable for locations plumbed with 1⁄2 inch or 3⁄8 inch water pipes which cannot supply water enough to flush the toilet. The tank collects between 6 and 17 litres of water over a period of time.
In modern installations the storage tank is mounted directly above and behind the bowl. Older installations, known as "high suite combinations", used a high-level cistern, fitted above head height, activated by a pull chain connected to a flush lever on the cistern; when more modern close-coupled cistern and bowl combinations were first introduced, these were first referred to as "low suite combinations". Modern versions have a neater-looking low-level cistern with a lever that the user can reach directly, or a close-coupled cistern, lower down and fixed directly to the bowl. In recent decades the close coupled tank/bowl combination has become the most popular residential system, as it has been found by ceramic engineers that improved waterway design is a more effective way to enhance the bowl's flushing action than high tank mounting. Tank fill; the valves are of two main designs: the concentric-float design. The side-float design has existed for over a hundred years; the concentric design has only existed since 1957, but is becoming more popular than the side-float design.
The side-float design uses a float on the end of a lever to control the fill valve. The float is shaped like a ball, so the mechanism is called a ball-valve or a ballcock; the float was made from copper sheet, but it is now plastic. The float is located to one side of inlet at the end of a rod or arm; as the float rises, so does the float-arm. The arm connects to the fill valve that blocks the water flow into the toilet tank, shuts off the water when the float reaches a set height; this maintains a constant level in the tank. The newer concentric-float fill valve consists of a tower, encircled by a plastic float assembly. Operation is otherwise the same as a side-float fill valve though the float position is somewhat different. By virtue of its more compact layout