Inclusion body myositis is the most common inflammatory muscle disease in older adults. The disease is characterized by progressive weakness and wasting of both proximal muscles and distal muscles, most apparent in the finger flexors and knee extensors. IBM is confused with an different class of diseases, called hereditary inclusion body myopathies; the "M" in hIBM is an abbreviation for "myopathy" while the "M" in IBM is an abbreviation for "myositis". These diseases should not be confused with each other. In IBM, two processes appear to occur in the muscles in parallel, one autoimmune and the other degenerative. Inflammation is evident from the invasion of muscle fibers by immune cells. Degeneration is characterized by the appearance of holes, deposits of abnormal proteins, filamentous inclusions in the muscle fibers. SIBM is a rare disease, with a prevalence ranging from 1 to 71 individuals per million. Weakness comes on in an asymmetric manner and progresses leading to severe weakness and wasting of arm and leg muscles.
IBM is more common in men than women. Patients may become unable to perform activities of daily living and most require assistive devices within 5 to 10 years of symptom onset. SIBM is not considered a fatal disorder. Death in IBM is sometimes related to respiratory failure. There is no effective treatment for the disease. How sIBM affects individuals is quite variable; because sIBM affects different people in different ways and at different rates, there is no "textbook case." SIBM results in general, progressive muscle weakness. The quadriceps and forearm muscles are affected early on. Common early symptoms include frequent tripping and falling, weakness going up stairs and trouble manipulating the fingers. Foot drop in one or both feet has been advanced stages of polymyositis. During the course of the illness, the patient's mobility is progressively restricted as it becomes hard for him or her to bend down, reach for things, walk and so on. Many patients say they have balance problems and fall as the muscles cannot compensate for an off-balanced posture.
Because sIBM makes the leg muscles weak and unstable, patients are vulnerable to serious injury from tripping or falling down. Although pain has not been traditionally part of the "textbook" description, many patients report severe muscle pain in the thighs; when present, difficulty swallowing is a progressive condition in those with inclusion body myositis and leads to death from aspiration pneumonia. Dysphagia is present in 40 to 85% of IBM cases. IBM can result in diminished capacity for aerobic exercise; this decline is most a consequence of the sedentary lifestyle, associated with the symptoms of IBM. Therefore, one focus of treatment should be the improvement of aerobic capacity. Patients with sIBM eventually need to resort to a cane or a walker and in most cases, a wheelchair becomes a necessity. "The progressive course of s-IBM leads to severe disability. Finger functions can become impaired, such as for manipulating pens, keys and zippers, pulling handles, grasping handshakes. Arising from a chair becomes difficult.
Walking becomes more precarious. Sudden falls, sometimes resulting in major injury to the skull or other bones, can occur from walking on minimally-irregular ground or from other minor imbalances outside or in the home, due to weakness of quadriceps and gluteus muscles depriving the patient of automatic posture maintenance. A foot-drop can increase the likelihood of tripping. Dysphagia can occur caused by upper esophageal constriction that can be symptomatically improved, for several months to years, by bougie dilation per a GI or ENT physician. Respiratory muscle weakness can sometimes eventuate." The cause of IBM is unknown. IBM results from the interaction of a number of genetic and environmental factors. There are two major theories about. One hypothesis suggests that the inflammation-immune reaction, caused by an unknown trigger – an undiscovered virus or an autoimmune disorder– is the primary cause of sIBM and that the degeneration of muscle fibers and protein abnormalities are secondary features.
Despite the arguments "in favor of an adaptive immune response in sIBM, a purely autoimmune hypothesis for sIBM is untenable because of the disease's resistance to most immunotherapy."The second school of thought advocates the theory that sIBM is a degenerative disorder related to aging of the muscle fibers and that abnormal pathogenic protein accumulations in myofibrils play a key causative role in sIBM. This hypothesis emphasizes the abnormal intracellular accumulation of many proteins, protein aggregation and misfolding, proteosome inhibition, endoplasmic reticulum stress. One review discusses the "limitations in the beta-amyloid-mediated theory of IBM myofiber injury."Dalakas suggested that a chain of events causes IBM—some sort of virus a retrovirus, triggers the cloning of T cells. These T cells appear to be driven by specific antigens to invade muscle fibers. In people with sIBM, the muscle cells display “flags” telling the immune system that they are infected or damaged (the muscle
Thomas Hellman is a French-Canadian singer, radio columnist, author. He sings both in English. Hellman's M. A thesis in French literature in McGill University explored the subject of bilingualism and identity in the works of Samuel Beckett. Hellman has released seven albums, he writes a literary column for Radio-Canada. He has published essays on music and identity in several French Canadian literary reviews, including Liberté, L’inconvénient and Moebius. In 2013, he released an illustrated book-cd Thomas Hellman chante Roland Giguère, with 13 poems by Quebec poet and visual artist Roland Giguere, that Hellman put to music; this work was awarded a Coup de coeur from the Académie Charles Cros in France. Thomas with the help of director Brigitte Haentjens, put together a show with these songs and other literary texts set to music. Hellman’s most recent show, Rêves américains, de la ruée vers l’or à la grande crise, explores North American history, from the gold rush to the Great Depression, through venerable old folk songs, literary texts put to music, his own texts.
It is part theater, part story-telling, part musical concert and has been performed in music festivals, theaters, as well as in literary festivals in Canada and Europe, with musicians Olaf Gundel and Sage Reynolds. Thomas has composed music for film and theater, he was nominated for a prix Jutra for Best original composition for Martin Laroche’s film Fair sex. He has contributed as a singer on several children’s albums and shows with the company La montagne secrete/ The secret mountain, he gives musically illustrated lectures in colleges and literary events in French Canada and Europe. Thomas Hellman is a radio columnist for Radio-Canada, the French arm of the CBC. In 2010, he created a series of 10 columns for the show Éclectique, during a nine-month residency at the Cité des arts de Paris; this series -part story-telling, part musical performance- marked the beginning of his career in radio, which included his becoming a book reviewer on Christiane Charette. He made a series of 30 pieces on the history of American music during the Great Depression for La tête ailleurs between 2011 and 2013.
This series inspired his most recent album and show Rêves américains, de la ruée vers l’or à la grande crise. Thomas has been doing a regular column on the literary show Plus on est de fous plus on lit in which he explores classical literary works, in relation to current events. Thomas has collaborated with English CBC. In 2012, he did a series called Ten essential books for the popular English radio show Cinq à six, hosted by Jeanette Kelly: he introduced the audience to what he considered to be ten essential books of French Canadian literature. Thomas Hellman won the prix des diffuseurs européens SODEC-RIDEAU in 2017, the prix OFQJ-Rideau in 2014, the Prix Miroir in 2006, the Prix Félix-Leclerc de la chanson in 2007, the prix Coup de cœur de l’Académie Charles-Cros in 2007, again in 2013. Rêves américains, tome 2: La Grande Crise - 2018 Rêves américains, tome 1: La ruée vers l’or - 2015 Thomas Hellman chante Roland Giguère - 2012 Prêts, partez - 2008 Departure Song - 2007 L'Appartement - 2005 Stories from Oscar’s Old Café - 2002 Something Wrong - 1998 Official website thomashellman.com Profile on the Radio-Canada website
Kenneth "Ken" J. George, is a Cornish oceanographer and linguist noted as being the originator of Kernewek Kemmyn, an orthography for the Cornish language which he claims is more faithful to Middle Cornish phonology than its precursor. George has published over eighty items relating to Celtic linguistics, including several dictionaries of Cornish, his edition of the discovered Middle Cornish play Bewnans Ke was published by the Cornish Language Board in May 2006. George received a Commendation for this work in the 2007 Holyer an Gof awards, he has translated numerous hymns and songs into Cornish, the lyrics of Die Zauberflöte. He has composed a substantial amount of poetry in Cornish, including the full-length play Flogholeth Krist, in the style of the Ordinalia. George lives in Cornwall, speaks Breton and French as well as English and Cornish. George was Principal Lecturer in Ocean Science in the Institute of Marine Studies at the University of Plymouth. George was made a Bard of Gorseth Kernow in 1979.
This reflected one of his research interests in the other being numerical modelling. He has over fifty publications in the oceanographic field, including the textbook Tides for Marine Studies, which has sold over 1000 copies. George is a Gorseth Kernow representative committee member of the Kesva an Taves Kernewek, a body promoting the Cornish language. George took early retirement in 2006, has been learning Japanese
Ivey Foreman Lewis was an American botanist and geneticist who served for two decades as dean of the University of Virginia and helped found the Virginia Academy of Science. A proponent of eugenics throughout his career, in his final years and his sister Nell Battle Lewis gained national attention for their opposition to racial desegregation in public education the United States Supreme Court decisions in Brown v. Board of Education. Lewis was born in Raleigh, North Carolina to a prominent physician and public health official Richard Henry Lewis, he had two brothers. His father remarried twice, he had a half sister Nell Battle Lewis. Lewis earned a B. S. and M. S. at the University of North Carolina, a PhD at Johns Hopkins University. During his own post-graduate studies through Johns Hopkins in Baltimore, Lewis taught Biology at Randolph–Macon College in Ashland, Virginia from 1905 to 1912. After he received his PhD, Lewis accepted a position as Assistant Professor of Botany at the University of Wisconsin.
He taught as Professor of Botany at the University of Missouri from 1914 to 1915. In 1915, University of Virginia president Edwin A. Alderman recruited Lewis, who became Professor of Biology and Agriculture, began to modernize the institution and increase its research output. Lewis became popular at the University, as well as important in the state's scientific community—helping to found the Virginia Academy of Science and serving as its first president. Lewis was appointed Dean of the University in 1934 and, Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences in 1946, a position he held until his retirement in 1953, he is buried at the University of Virginia Cemetery. Lewis's signature course was Biology C1: Evolution and Heredity, he provided much of the scientific rationale for the eugenics movement now best known for the discredited legal decision in Buck v. Bell. In the 1920s, Lewis championed the state's Anglo-Saxon clubs as staving off apocalyptic "racial decay", including giving a lecture "What Biology Says to the Man of Today."
Lewis thus worked with alumnus John Powell, Major Earnest S. Cox and Dr. Walter Plecker, he advised against hiring academicians who might question his group of eugenicists, or advocate environmental solutions to social problems, or critically examine southern traditions, as well as criticized Jewish sociologists. Lewis had unsuccessfully opposed admission of Gregory Swanson, who matriculated at the University's Law School in the fall of 1950 pursuant to a federal court order after the NAACP victories in Sweatt v. Painter and McLaurin v. Oklahoma, but Swanson left about a year after encountering the "overwhelming climate of racial hostility and harassment" he had experienced, thus Walter N. Ridley, a professor at Virginia State College who arrived a semester after Swanson became the first recipient of a postgraduate degree at UVA. During Virginia's Massive Resistance crisis after his retirement, Lewis attempted to "hold the line" and limit desegregation to token individuals, taking an active part in the radical Defenders of State Sovereignty and Individual Liberties.
Lewis was a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, served as president of the American Society of Naturalists, American Biological Society, the Botanical Society of America. The standard author abbreviation I. F. Lewis is used to indicate this person as the author when citing a botanical name. Works by or about Ivey Foreman Lewis at Internet Archive
In 1854, Frenchman Eugene Lefaucheux introduced the Lefaucheux Model 1854, notable as being the first revolver to use self-contained metallic cartridges rather than loose powder, pistol ball, percussion caps. The M1854 model was a pinfire revolver holding six rounds, it was a French military revolver chambered for the 12 mm pinfire cartridge, based on a design by Casimir Lefaucheux. The M1854 revolver spawned numerous variants, some of which were produced under license in other countries, it was exported during the 1860s and sold as both a military and civilian sidearm with either a short or long barrel. Most military models were produced only with single-action whereas civilian models were made with double action; the revolver was a six-shot open-framed design, loaded via a hinged gate on the right side of the frame, through which empty cartridges were ejected via an ejector rod running along the barrel. It was first fielded in the 1858 variation by the French Navy; the French Navy found the metallic cartridge to be useful at sea and in wet conditions, as pre-metallic paper cartridges suffered from moisture damage rendering them useless.
The M1854 model and variants were exported to many nations. Italy was the largest customer. Norway received 800 units in June 1860, 1,100 in March 1864. Versions with an octagonal barrel were ordered in April 1864 and received in May 1864. Turkey ordered a small amount in September 1864. Romania received about 2,000 in December 1864; the Swedish navy made numerous orders, receiving at least 2,130 units by February 1864, continuing to order through 1866. Greece received 200 units in April 1861. Japan made two orders by 1862; the United States' Union Army and the Confederate States Army both ordered and received over 12,000 revolvers by January 1862. There is confusion about the Lefaucheux 1854 and 1858 models; the information in this entry refers to the M1854 and its variants made in France for others or made under license elsewhere. The M1854 was in 12mm pinfire but was made in a 7 mm version by Escoffier in 1858 and patented with double action. A 9 mm version was available with either a rounded or an octagonal barrel.
A version using center fire cartridges was developed. Models were purchased by Spain, Russia and Norway and built under license. Spain was the first nation to do so, producing the 1858 "Officier" by Orbea Hermanos at Eibar and Turbia. Spain made an 1863 model under license. After buying several thousand from France, Italy began producing some of its own at the Glisenti company in Brescia. Norway purchased a license in 1864 and designed their own model, accepted by their military as the M/1864, it produced about 1700 copies at Kongsberg Vapenfabrikk. In 1898, Norway converted their existing M/1864s to use center fire cartridges, designating the upgrade M/64/98. Norway's use of the Lefaucheux revolver was common up to 1920. In 1926, there were about 1371 models of all types in their inventory. Both the Confederate and Federal forces used Lefaucheux revolvers in the American Civil War; the Union Army issued them to cavalry soldiers in the states of Illinois, Kentucky and Wisconsin. Some of the models sold to the American powers kept the original designation, M1854, were produced either at Lefaucheux Paris, Liege, or local producers under license.
However, these pinfire revolvers were replaced in service in the war as more Colt and Remington revolvers became available. Among American troops, the weapon was referred to as the "French Tranter". After the war many were sold back to France when it entered the Franco-Prussian war in 1870 and needed weapons. About 6,780 of the original 12,000 revolvers or so shipped to America were returned to France. Lefaucheux M 1854 revolver http://s144812367.onlinehome.fr
The 1979 Cal Poly Pomona Broncos football team represented California State Polytechnic University, Pomona during the 1979 NCAA Division II football season. Cal Poly Pomona competed in the California Collegiate Athletic Association. Cal Poly Pomona was led by third-year head coach Jim Jones, they played home games at Kellogg Field in California. On the field, the Broncos finished the season with a record of eight losses. However, it was determined that the team had used ineligible players during the season so they were required to forfeit all three of their victories; the adjusted record becomes. Overall, the team was outscored by its opponents 200–287 for the season. No Cal Poly Pomona players were selected in the 1980 NFL Draft