SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Income in the United States

Income in the United States is measured by the United States Department of Commerce either by household or individual. The differences between household and personal income is considerable since 42% of households, the majority of those in the top two quintiles with incomes exceeding $57,658, now have two income earners; this difference becomes apparent when comparing the percentage of households with six figure incomes to that of individuals. In 2006, 17.3% of households had incomes exceeding $100,000, compared to less than 6% of individuals. Overall the median household income was $46,326 in 2006 while the median personal income was $32,140. Income inequality in the United States has increased considerably. Between 1979 and 2004, the mean after-tax income of the top percentile increased 167%, versus 69% for the top quintile overall, 29% for the fourth quintile, 21% for the middle quintile, 17% for the second quintile and 6% for the bottom quintile. While wages for women have increased median earnings of male wage earners have remained stagnant since the late 1970s.

Household income, has risen due the increasing number of households with more than one income earner and women's increased presence in the labor force. Half of the U. S. population lives in poverty or is low-income, according to U. S. Census data. On the other hand, some members of the U. S. population have earned a considerable income: the top earner in 2011, hedge fund manager John Paulson, earned $4.9 billion, according to Business Insider. Compensation in the United States Economy of the United States Income inequality in the United States Socio-economic mobility in the United States Unemployment in the United States United States counties by per capita income Savings rate vs Fed rate from 1954 Historical relationship between the savings rate and the Fed rate - since 1954

Randy Jones (ice hockey)

Randy Jones is a former Canadian professional ice hockey player who played eight seasons in the National Hockey League with the Philadelphia Flyers, Los Angeles Kings, Tampa Bay Lightning and Winnipeg Jets. Jones is the head coach of the Brockville Braves hockey club. Jones played junior hockey with the Cobourg Cougars of the Ontario Provincial Junior A Hockey League, he played for Clarkson University in the NCAA from 2001 through 2003. On July 24, 2003, he was signed to a contract as a free agent by the Philadelphia Flyers. Jones eased his way into the Flyers lineup, spending most of his first season with their American Hockey League affiliate, the Philadelphia Phantoms, he played with the Phantoms through the 2004–05 NHL lockout, the next season, he split games between the Phantoms and the Flyers. He played 66 games in the 2006–07 NHL season, started the 2007–08 NHL season with the Flyers. On October 27, 2007, he boarded Patrice Bergeron of the Boston Bruins. Bergeron was knocked unconscious and wheeled off on a stretcher, sent to the hospital.

Jones was assessed a game misconduct. He issued an apology during the second period of the game. On October 29, it was announced. On the ruling, NHL Senior Executive Vice President of Hockey Operations Colin Campbell said, "While it is my determination that Jones did not intend to injure his opponent, he did deliver a hard check to a player, in a vulnerable position." Bergeron did not play for the remainder of the season. On July 2, 2008 the Flyers announced. On September 26, 2009, the Flyers announced that they had placed Jones on waivers in order to clear up space under the salary cap, he cleared waivers and was assigned to the Adirondack Phantoms on September 30. On October 29, 2009, Jones was claimed off re-entry waivers by the Los Angeles Kings. After becoming an unrestricted free agent, Jones signed a one-year deal with the Tampa Bay Lightning on August 25, 2010; the following season he signed a one-year contract worth $1.15 million with the Winnipeg Jets on July 2, 2011. Jones endured the NHL lockout as a free agent, with a lack of NHL interest he was belatedly signed midway in to the 2012–13 season to a try-out with the Oklahoma City Barons of the AHL on February 3, 2013.

On October 28, 2013, the Portland Pirates of the AHL signed Jones to a professional tryout contract. Biographical information and career statistics from NHL.com, or Eliteprospects.com, or Hockey-Reference.com, or Legends of Hockey, or The Internet Hockey Database

Emmanuel Amoroso

Emmanuel Ciprian Amoroso, CBE, FRCS, FRCOG, FRCP, FRCPath, FRS, was a Trinidadian reproductive physiologist and developmental biologist with an interest in placenta physiology. Studying medicine in Ireland in the 1920s, he was subsequently based in Britain for the rest of his life, he was the first person from the West Indies to be elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society, in 1957, he had the distinction of being a Fellow of four of the Royal Colleges: Surgeons in 1960, Obstetricians and Gynaecologists in 1965, Physicians in 1966, Pathologists in 1973. Emmanuel Ciprian Amoroso was born on 16 September 1901 in Woodbrook, Port of Spain and Tobago, one of 12 siblings in a Catholic family, his father, Thomas Amoroso, was a bookkeeper who owned estates dealing in cocoa, his mother Juliana Centeno was of Venezuelan descent. Amoroso began his formal education in St. Thomas' Preparatory School, went on to Saint Mary's College in 1913. In 1917, he came first in Saint Mary's College in the Junior Cambridge Certificate, but did not gain a scholarship.

He left school early due to sight loss as a result of typhoid fever, taught for a short period in Saint Mary's College after recovering his sight. In 1922, aged 21, Amoroso went to Dublin and enrolled at University College Dublin to study medicine supporting himself by selling newspapers outside the main railway station. At UCD, he received an array of student awards and scholarships, with prizes in botany, zoology and physics, anatomy and physiology, pharmacology, materia medica and therapeutics, medicine and the John McArdle Medal in surgery. While still studying he gave lectures in anatomy, in which subject he earned a BSc with honours in 1926. In 1929 he graduated MB BCh BAO with a first-class honours, achieving the highest marks attained in the final medical exam, after which he completed his surgical internship at the now defunct Jervis Street Hospital in Dublin. In December 1929, Amoroso received a scholarship from the National University of Ireland to complete research work on myelination of pigs' cranial nerves.

Funded by this "travelling studentship", he went to Germany for a year to study in Albert-Ludwigs University and Kaiser Wilhelm Institut für Zellforschung until 1932. During this time, he learned German, published his first paper in that language, his fluency in German was helpful with his work on the placenta, as much of the early research on that topic was done by German aristocrats. In 1933, Amoroso went to London, where he was demonstrator in embryology and histology at University College London. In 1933, he began a PhD, which he received in 1934 for his work on the development of the urogenital system in rabbits. After a chance meeting with Hewlett Johnson to be known as the "red dean of Canterbury", Amoroso was told about an opening with the Royal Veterinary College for a senior assistant for histology and embryology, he applied for the position, his appointment taking effect in October 1934. In his early days at the veterinary college, as the first staff member of colour, he was subjected to racism and resentment from some colleagues.

He became a lecturer in Histology and Embryology at the RVC in 1935. For the duration of World War II, the Royal Veterinary College was moved to the campus of the University of Reading. During this period, Amoroso collaborated with several other reproductive biologists, he was a founder member, in 1946, of the Society for Endocrinology. In 1947, he became a fellow of the Zoological Society of London, the next year he was appointed as professor of physiology at the Royal Veterinary College. In 1957, he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society, the first person from the West Indies to be a Royal Society fellow. Amoroso became Professor emeritus at the Royal Veterinary College after retiring in 1968. Thereafter, he moved from London to Cambridge, living in Cherry Hinton, in 1969 was appointed Visiting Scientist at the Agricultural Research Council's Institute of Animal Physiology at Babraham. Additionally, during the 1970s, he lectured internationally, holding visiting professorships in Australia, Chile, the US, Nairobi, in 1973 was appointed Special Professor to the Department of Physiology and Environmental Studies at the University of Nottingham.

In 1931 he published Amoroso's first paper, on the epithelium of the pancreas. As Lord Zuckerman noted: "Then came others on diverse topics. Twenty years passed before he began to focus on the problem of placentation, with which his name will be best remembered. Here his gift of synthesis found full play, he threw new light on the evolutionary adaptation of the placenta for viviparous reproduction, his conclusions being based not just on his own researches and experience as a microanatomist and general biologist, but on his familiarity with the literature in several disciplines." Amoroso's research into the placenta was published in Francis Marshall's Physiology of Reproduction in 1952. He published his last paper at the age of 80. Amoroso received countless professional honours; as well as being elected FRS in 1957, he was elected Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of England in 1960, Fellow of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists in 1965, of the Royal College of Physicians of London in 1966, of the Royal College of Pa