Race and ethnicity in Brazil
Brazilian society is made up of a confluence of people of several different origins, from the original Native Brazilians, with the influence of Portuguese colonists, Black African, European and Japanese immigration. Other significant groups include Koreans, Chinese and Bolivians. Brazil has seen greater racial equality over time. According to a recent review study, "There has been major, albeit uneven, progress in these terms since slavery, which has not wholly translated into equality of income: only in 2010 did the black-to-white income ratio eclipse its 1960 level, although it appears to be at an all-time high. Education and migration were important factors in closing the gap, whereas school quality and discrimination may explain its persistence." The Brazilian population was formed by the influx of Portuguese settlers and African slaves Bantu and West African populations, into a territory inhabited by various indigenous tribal populations Tupi, Guarani and Ge In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, in what is known as Great Immigration, new groups arrived of Portuguese, Italians and German origin, but from Japanese, the Middle East, Eastern Europe.
When the Portuguese reached what is now called Brazil in 1500, its native population was composed of about 2.5 million Amerindians. Up to 1532, the Portuguese made no real effort to colonise the land, limiting to the establishment of "feitorias" to organise the trade of brazilwood; when it became clear that this policy would result in the land being taken by other European powers – namely the French and the Dutch – the Portuguese Crown decided to occupy the territory by fostering agricultural activities – sugarcane crops – in Brazil. This resulted not only in the growth of the population of Portuguese origin, but in the introduction of African slavery in Brazil. During the colonial period, the Portuguese prohibited any influx of other Europeans to Brazil. In consequence, the Portuguese and their descendants constituted the overwhelming majority of the White population of colonial Brazil. However, in the Southern Brazilian areas disputed between Portugal and Spain, a genetic study suggests that the predominant genomic ancestry of the Brazilian Gaúchos may be Spanish, not Portuguese.
A small number of Dutch settlers remained in the Northeast after the Portuguese retook Dutch Brazil and may have contributed to the demographic composition of Northeastern Brazil. And after the country's independence in 1822, immigration to Brazil was Portuguese, though a significant number of German immigrants settled in the Southern region. Combined with the European demographic crisis, this resulted in the immigration of about 5 million people European peasants, in the last quarter of the 19th century and first half of the 20th; the majority of these immigrants were either Portuguese or Italian, though significant numbers of Spaniards – which include Portuguese emigrating from Vigo on false passports –, Japanese, Middle Easterns, Eastern Europeans immigrated. There are few reliable statistics on the Brazilian population before the 1872 census, which counted 9,930,478, of which 3,787,289 Whites, 1,954,452 blacks, 4,188,737 pardos; these figures do not yet reflect the influx of the five million immigrants mentioned above, since up to 1872 only about 270,000 immigrants had arrived in Brazil.
According to Judicael Clevelário's calculations, the total population of immigrant origin in 1872 would be of about 240,000 people. There seems to be no easy explanation of why slaves were not employed as wage workers at the abolition of slavery. One possibility is the influence of race-based ideas from the second half of the 19th and early 20th centuries, which were based on theories of White superiority. On the other hand, Brazilian latifundiaries had been using slave manpower for centuries, with no complaints about the quality of this workforce, there were not important changes in Brazilian economy or work processes that could justify such sudden preoccupation with the "race" of the labourers, their embracing of those new identitarian ideas, proved quite flexible opportunist: with the slowdown of Italian immigration since 1902 and the Prinetti Decree, Japanese immigration started in 1908, with any qualms about their non-European origins being forgotten. An important, ignored, part of this equation was the political situation in Brazil, during the final crisis of slavery.
According to Petrônio Domingues, by 1887 the slave struggles pointed to a real possibility of widespread insurrection. On October 23, in São Paulo, for instance, there were violent confrontations between the police and rioting Blacks, who chanted "long live freedom" and "death to the slaveowners"; the president of the province, Rodrigues Alves, reported the situation as following: The massive flight of slaves from several fazendas threatens, in some places in the province, public order, alarming the proprietaries and the productive classes. Uprisings erupted in Itu, Indaiatuba, Amparo and Capivari. Fights were happening in daylight, guns were spotted among the fugitives, instead of hiding from police, seemed ready to engage in confrontation, it was as a response to such events that, on May 13, 1888, slavery was
Agribusiness is the business of agricultural production. The term was coined in 1957 by Davis, it includes agrichemicals, crop production, farm machinery and seed supply, as well as marketing and retail sales. All agents of the food and fiber value chain and those institutions that influence it are part of the agribusiness system. Within the agriculture industry, "agribusiness" is used as a portmanteau of agriculture and business, referring to the range of activities and disciplines encompassed by modern food production. There are academic degrees in and departments of agribusiness, agribusiness trade associations, agribusiness publications, so forth, worldwide. In the context of agribusiness management in academia, each individual element of agriculture production and distribution may be described as agribusinesses. However, the term "agribusiness" most emphasizes the "interdependence" of these various sectors within the production chain. Among critics of large-scale, vertically integrated food production, the term agribusiness is used negatively, synonymous with corporate farming.
As such, it is contrasted with smaller family-owned farms. Examples of agribusinesses include seed and agrichemical producers like Dow AgroSciences, DuPont and Syngenta; as concern over global warming intensifies, biofuels derived from crops are gaining increased public and scientific attention. This is driven by factors such as oil price spikes, the need for increased energy security, concern over greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels, support from government subsidies. In Europe and in the US, increased research and production of biofuels have been mandated by law. Studies of agribusiness come from the academic fields of agricultural economics and management studies, sometimes called agribusiness management. To promote more development of food economies, many government agencies support the research and publication of economic studies and reports exploring agribusiness and agribusiness practices; some of these studies are on foods produced for export and are derived from agencies focused on food exports.
These agencies include the Foreign Agricultural Service of the U. S. Department of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and New Zealand Trade and Enterprise; the Federation of International Trade Associations publishes studies and reports by FAS and AAFC, as well as other non-governmental organizations on its website. Ray A. Goldberg coined the term agribusiness together with coauthor John H. Davis, they provided a rigorous economic framework for the field in their book A Concept of Agribusiness. That seminal work traces a complex value-added chain that begins with the farmer's purchase of seed and livestock and ends with a product fit for the consumer's table. Agribusiness boundary expansion is driven by a variety of transaction costs. Manuel Alvarado Ledesma and Peter D. Goldsmith explain the implications of weak institutions on agribusiness investment. According to them weak institutions lead to policy development and enforcement grounded in the moment, rather than based on precedent and deliberative processes over time.
Agrarian law Agrarian reform Agricultural machinery industry Agricultural marketing Agricultural value chain Agroecology Biofuel Contract farming Energy crop Factory farming Industrial agriculture Land banking List of environment topics John Wilkinson. "The Globalization of Agribusiness and Developing World Food Systems". Monthly Review. Gitta and South, David. Southern Innovator Magazine Issue 3: Agribusiness and Food Security: United Nations Office for South-South Cooperation. ISSN 2222-9280 https://web.archive.org/web/20160304034828/http://www.ifama.org/files/IS_Ledesma_Formatted.pdf
Economic inequality covers a wide variety of topics. It can refer to the distribution of wealth. Besides economic inequality between countries or states, there are important types of economic inequality between different groups of people. Important types of economic measurements focus on wealth and consumption. There are many methods for measuring economic inequality, with the Gini coefficient being a used one. Another type of measure is the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, a statistic composite index that takes inequality into account. Important concepts of equality include equity, equality of outcome, equality of opportunity. Research suggests. Whereas globalization has reduced global inequality, it has increased inequality within nations. In 1820, the ratio between the income of the top and bottom 20 percent of the world's population was three to one. By 1991, it was eighty-six to one. A 2011 study titled "Divided we Stand: Why Inequality Keeps Rising" by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development sought to explain the causes for this rising inequality by investigating economic inequality in OECD countries.
Single-headed households in OECD countries have risen from an average of 15% in the late 1980s to 20% in the mid-2000s, resulting in higher inequality. Assortative mating refers to the phenomenon of people marrying people with similar background, for example doctors marrying doctors rather than nurses. OECD found out that 40% of couples where both partners work belonged to the same or neighbouring earnings deciles compared with 33% some 20 years before. In the bottom percentiles number of hours worked; the main reason for increasing inequality seems to be the difference between the demand for and supply of skills. Income inequality in OECD countries is at its highest level for the past half century; the ratio between the bottom 10 % and the top 10 % has increased to 1:9 in 25 years. There are tentative signs of a possible convergence of inequality levels towards a common and higher average level across OECD countries. With few exceptions, the wages of the 10% best-paid workers have risen relative to those of the 10% lowest paid.
A 2011 OECD study investigated economic inequality in Argentina, China, Indonesia and South Africa. It concluded that key sources of inequality in these countries include "a large, persistent informal sector, widespread regional divides, gaps in access to education, barriers to employment and career progression for women."A study by the World Institute for Development Economics Research at United Nations University reports that the richest 1% of adults alone owned 40% of global assets in the year 2000. The three richest people in the world possess more financial assets than the lowest 48 nations combined; the combined wealth of the "10 million dollar millionaires" grew to nearly $41 trillion in 2008. A January 2014 report by Oxfam claims that the 85 wealthiest individuals in the world have a combined wealth equal to that of the bottom 50% of the world's population, or about 3.5 billion people. According to a Los Angeles Times analysis of the report, the wealthiest 1% owns 46% of the world's wealth.
In January 2015, Oxfam reported that the wealthiest 1 percent will own more than half of the global wealth by 2016. An October 2014 study by Credit Suisse claims that the top 1% now own nearly half of the world's wealth and that the accelerating disparity could trigger a recession. In October 2015, Credit Suisse published a study which shows global inequality continues to increase, that half of the world's wealth is now in the hands of those in the top percentile, whose assets each exceed $759,900. A 2016 report by Oxfam claims that the 62 wealthiest individuals own as much wealth as the poorer half of the global population combined. Oxfam's claims have however been questioned on the basis of the methodology used: by using net wealth, the Oxfam report, for instance, finds that there are more poor people in the United States and Western Europe than in China. Anthony Shorrocks, the lead author of the Credit Suisse report, one of the sources of Oxfam's data, considers the criticism about debt to be a "silly argument" and "a non-issue … a diversion."
Oxfam's 2017 report says the top eight billionaires have as much wealth as the bottom half of the global population, that rising inequality is suppressing wages, as businesses are focused on delivering higher returns to wealthy owners and executives. In 2018, the Oxfam report said that the wealth gap continued to widen in 2017, with 82% of global wealth generated going to the wealthiest 1%; the 2019 Oxfam report said that the poorest half of the human population has been losing wealth at the same time that a billionaire is minted every two days. According to PolitiFact, the top 400 richest Americans "have more wealth than half of all Americans combined." According to The New York Times on July 22, 2014, the "richest 1 percent in the United States now own more wealth than the bottom 90 percent". Inherited wealth may help explain why many Americans who have become rich may have had a "substantial head start". In September 2012, according to the Institute for Policy Studies (I
Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention and treatment of disease, illness and other physical and mental impairments in people. Health care is delivered by health professionals in allied health fields. Physicians and physician associates are a part of these health professionals. Dentistry, nursing, optometry, pharmacy, occupational therapy, physical therapy and other health professions are all part of health care, it includes work done in providing primary care, secondary care, tertiary care, as well as in public health. Access to health care may vary across countries and individuals influenced by social and economic conditions as well as health policies. Health care systems are organizations established to meet the health needs of targeted populations. According to the World Health Organization, a well-functioning health care system requires a financing mechanism, a well-trained and adequately paid workforce, reliable information on which to base decisions and policies, well maintained health facilities to deliver quality medicines and technologies.
An efficient health care system can contribute to a significant part of a country's economy and industrialization. Health care is conventionally regarded as an important determinant in promoting the general physical and mental health and well-being of people around the world. An example of this was the worldwide eradication of smallpox in 1980, declared by the WHO as the first disease in human history to be eliminated by deliberate health care interventions; the delivery of modern health care depends on groups of trained professionals and paraprofessionals coming together as interdisciplinary teams. This includes professionals in medicine, physiotherapy, dentistry and allied health, along with many others such as public health practitioners, community health workers and assistive personnel, who systematically provide personal and population-based preventive and rehabilitative care services. While the definitions of the various types of health care vary depending on the different cultural, political and disciplinary perspectives, there appears to be some consensus that primary care constitutes the first element of a continuing health care process and may include the provision of secondary and tertiary levels of care.
Health care can be defined as either private. Primary care refers to the work of health professionals who act as a first point of consultation for all patients within the health care system; such a professional would be a primary care physician, such as a general practitioner or family physician. Another professional would be a licensed independent practitioner such as a physiotherapist, or a non-physician primary care provider such as a physician assistant or nurse practitioner. Depending on the locality, health system organization the patient may see another health care professional first, such as a pharmacist or nurse. Depending on the nature of the health condition, patients may be referred for secondary or tertiary care. Primary care is used as the term for the health care services that play a role in the local community, it can be provided in different settings, such as Urgent care centers which provide same day appointments or services on a walk-in basis. Primary care involves the widest scope of health care, including all ages of patients, patients of all socioeconomic and geographic origins, patients seeking to maintain optimal health, patients with all types of acute and chronic physical and social health issues, including multiple chronic diseases.
A primary care practitioner must possess a wide breadth of knowledge in many areas. Continuity is a key characteristic of primary care, as patients prefer to consult the same practitioner for routine check-ups and preventive care, health education, every time they require an initial consultation about a new health problem; the International Classification of Primary Care is a standardized tool for understanding and analyzing information on interventions in primary care based on the reason for the patient's visit. Common chronic illnesses treated in primary care may include, for example: hypertension, asthma, COPD, depression and anxiety, back pain, arthritis or thyroid dysfunction. Primary care includes many basic maternal and child health care services, such as family planning services and vaccinations. In the United States, the 2013 National Health Interview Survey found that skin disorders and joint disorders, back problems, disorders of lipid metabolism, upper respiratory tract disease were the most common reasons for accessing a physician.
In the United States, primary care physicians have begun to deliver primary care outside of the managed care system through direct primary care, a subset of the more familiar concierge medicine. Physicians in this model bill patients directly for services, either on a pre-paid monthly, quarterly, or annual basis, or bill for each service in the office. Examples of direct primary care practices include Foundation Health in Colorado and Qliance in Washington. In context of global population aging, with increasing numbers of older adults at greater risk of chronic non-communicable diseases increasing demand for primary care services is expected in both developed and developing countries; the World Health Organization attributes the provision of essential primary care as an integral component of an inclusive primary health care strategy. Secondary care includes acute care: nec