Mark Althavan Andrews, better known by his stage name Sisqó, is an American R&B singer, record producer and actor. He is the lead singer of R&B group Dru Hill, has released solo material. Sisqo's successful debut solo album, Unleash the Dragon, included the hit singles "Thong Song" and "Incomplete"; as a teen Andrews worked at The Fudgery in Baltimore's Inner Harbor with Larry "Jazz" Anthony, James "Woody" Green, Tamir "Nokio" Ruffin. The quartet would be signed as the group Dru Hill to Island Records in 1996, he lived in the Reservoir Hill neighborhood at 908 Newington Avenue near Druid Hill Park, where the group got their name. Andrews graduated from Mergenthaler Vocational-Technical High School in 1994. SisQó's visual trademarks are his hairstyles and flamboyant stage costumes, which were flashier than those of his groupmates. Over his career as a recording artist, both with and without Dru Hill, Sisqó's hairstyles have included a bleached blond Caesar, a platinum Caesar, blond cornrows, a neon-red dyed Caesar, a blond Mohawk.
After Woody left Dru Hill in 1999 to pursue a solo career, it was decided that the other members would follow suit and issue their own solo albums. SisQós solo debut, Unleash the Dragon, was released on Def Soul Records in November 1999. Unleash the Dragon sold moderately at first, until the February 2000 release of its second single, the novelty "Thong Song". A runaway hit, "Thong Song" and its follow-up, "Incomplete", were major hits on the Billboard Hot 100 chart, with "Thong Song" making it to number three, "Incomplete" going to #1; this success resulted in Play Along Toys manufacturing a SisQó a Celebrity doll in 2001. Formed by SisQó in 1999, LovHer was the first female quartet on the Def Soul label, their single "How It's Gonna Be" was featured on the Rush Hour 2 soundtrack in 2001. Conflicts within Dru Hill prevented the group from reuniting as planned in 2000; this is attributed to time conflicts during the recording of SisQó's second solo LP. During this period, SisQó branched out into hosting the dance competition program SisQós Shakedown on MTV, into film, taking on supporting roles in the films Get Over It with Kirsten Dunst and Snow Dogs with Cuba Gooding, Jr..
He starred as a vampire in Sabrina the Teenage Witch. Although his second LP, Return of Dragon, released in June 2001 went platinum, its singles "Can I Live" and "Dance for Me" performed far below expectations. By 2002, SisQó reunited with Dru Hill, which released its third LP in late 2002; the LP underperformed, the group was subsequently released from their recording contract. In January 2008, SisQó was a contestant on a reality show called "Gone Country."In 2010, SisQó was a contestant on the British reality television show Celebrity Big Brother 2010. He was the fifth contestant to be evicted. Dru Hill released its third album, InDRUpendence Day, in 2010 as an independent release through Kedar Entertainment; the group appeared at this time in the reality show Keith Sweat's Platinum House on BET's sister station Centric. In July 2013, SisQó appeared on the reality show Celebrity Wife Swap, where his girlfriend was "swapped" with the wife of 1990s pop singer Gerardo Mejía. SisQó continued to tour through the 2010s, both as a member of Dru Hill, as a solo act.
His third solo album, Last Dragon, was released on February 10, 2015. The singles, "A-List" and "L. I. P.s" were released ahead of the album, with the latter reaching number 23 on the US Adult R&B charts, becoming SisQó's first charting US single since 2001's "Can I Live". As of 2015, SisQó, along with the other members of Dru Hill, claimed that their record label botched a record deal, costing them millions in the process. In 2016, SisQó provided a rap counterpoint in a duet with country music singer Marie Osmond, in her song "Give me a Good Song", featured on Music Is Medicine, released on April 15, 2016. In 2017, SisQó, sang on a remake of his "Thong Song" produced by JCY. In 2018, SisQo released a holiday book for children, titled "SisQo's Perfect Christmas", with creative partner, Tilesha Brown. Sisqó resides in Maple Grove, Minnesota, a suburb of Minneapolis, with his partner Elizabeth Pham, dating since 2003. In 2014, they both appeared on an episode of Wife Swap; the pair have two children together, a son born in 2012, a daughter born in 2014.
Sisqo married Elizabeth Pham on August 2018, according to US Weekly. His children's godfather is R&B singer K-Ci Hailey. Sisqó has a daughter, born in 1995, from a previous relationship, he has a son, born in 1999, lives in Switzerland. With Dru Hill Dru Hill Enter the Dru Dru World Order InDRUpendence Day Solo albums Unleash the Dragon Return of Dragon Last Dragon Mixtape albums Dragon Music The Return of the Dragon Compilation albums 20th Century Masters - The Millennium Collection: The Best of Sisqó Extended Play albums Thong Song - Best Of - EP Unreleased albums The Last Dragon 2001: Get Over It! 2002: Snow Dogs 2003: Pieces of April 2006: Surf School 2000: MTV Movie Awards 2000: Sisqós Shakedown 2000: MTV Cribs 2001: The Tonight Show with Jay Leno 2001: Sabrina the Teenage Witch 2008: Gone Country 2008: I Love the New Millennium, 7 episodes 2009: Keith Sweat's Platinum House (with Dru Hill, Peachtr
A-side and B-side
The terms A-side and B-side refer to the two sides of 78, 45, 331⁄3 rpm phonograph records, or cassettes, whether singles, extended plays, or long-playing records. The A-side featured the recording that the artist, record producer, or the record company intended to receive the initial promotional effort and receive radio airplay to become a "hit" record; the B-side is a secondary recording that has a history of its own: some artists released B-sides that were considered as strong as the A-side and became hits in their own right. Others took the opposite approach: producer Phil Spector was in the habit of filling B-sides with on-the-spot instrumentals that no one would confuse with the A-side. With this practice, Spector was assured that airplay was focused on the side he wanted to be the hit side. Music recordings have moved away from records onto other formats such as CDs and digital downloads, which do not have "sides", but the terms are still used to describe the type of content, with B-side sometimes standing for "bonus" track.
The first sound recordings at the end of the 19th century were made on cylinder records, which had a single round surface capable of holding two minutes of sound. Early shellac disc records records only had recordings on one side of the disc, with a similar capacity. Double-sided recordings, with one selection on each side, were introduced in Europe by Columbia Records in 1908, by 1910 most record labels had adopted the format in both Europe and the United States. There were no record charts until the 1930s, radio stations did not play recorded music until the 1950s. In this time, A-sides and B-sides existed. In June 1948, Columbia Records introduced the modern 331⁄3 rpm long-playing microgroove vinyl record for commercial sales, its rival RCA Victor, responded the next year with the seven-inch 45 rpm vinylite record, which would replace the 78 for single record releases; the term "single" came into popular use with the advent of vinyl records in the early 1950s. At first, most record labels would randomly assign which song would be an A-side and which would be a B-side.
Under this random system, many artists had so-called "double-sided hits", where both songs on a record made one of the national sales charts, or would be featured on jukeboxes in public places. As time wore on, the convention for assigning songs to sides of the record changed. By the early sixties, the song on the A-side was the song that the record company wanted radio stations to play, as 45 rpm single records dominated the market in terms of cash sales, it was not until 1968, for example, that the total production of albums on a unit basis surpassed that of singles in the United Kingdom. In the late 1960s, stereo versions of pop and rock songs began to appear on 45s; the majority of the 45s were played on AM radio stations, which were not equipped for stereo broadcast at the time, so stereo was not a priority. However, the FM rock stations did not like to play monaural content, so the record companies adopted a protocol for DJ versions with the mono version of the song on one side, stereo version of the same song on the other.
By the early 1970s, double-sided hits had become rare. Album sales had increased, B-sides had become the side of the record where non-album, non-radio-friendly, instrumental versions or inferior recordings were placed. In order to further ensure that radio stations played the side that the record companies had chosen, it was common for the promotional copies of a single to have the "plug side" on both sides of the disc. With the decline of 45 rpm vinyl records, after the introduction of cassette and compact disc singles in the late 1980s, the A-side/B-side differentiation became much less meaningful. At first, cassette singles would have one song on each side of the cassette, matching the arrangement of vinyl records, but cassette maxi-singles, containing more than two songs, became more popular. Cassette singles were phased out beginning in the late 1990s, the A-side/B-side dichotomy became extinct, as the remaining dominant medium, the compact disc, lacked an equivalent physical distinction.
However, the term "B-side" is still used to refer to the "bonus" tracks or "coupling" tracks on a CD single. With the advent of downloading music via the Internet, sales of CD singles and other physical media have declined, the term "B-side" is now less used. Songs that were not part of an artist's collection of albums are made available through the same downloadable catalogs as tracks from their albums, are referred to as "unreleased", "bonus", "non-album", "rare", "outtakes" or "exclusive" tracks, the latter in the case of a song being available from a certain provider of music. B-side songs may be released on the same record as a single to provide extra "value for money". There are several types of material released in this way, including a different version, or, in a concept record, a song that does not fit into the story lin
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion. YouTube allows users to upload, rate, add to playlists, comment on videos, subscribe to other users, it offers a wide variety of corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, other content such as video blogging, short original videos, educational videos. Most of the content on YouTube is uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Hulu offer some of their material via YouTube as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed inappropriate are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.
YouTube and its creators earn advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Music and YouTube Premium, subscription services offering premium and ad-free music streaming, ad-free access to all content, including exclusive content commissioned from notable personalities; as of February 2017, there were more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, one billion hours of content being watched on YouTube every day. As of August 2018, the website is ranked as the second-most popular site in the world, according to Alexa Internet. YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, including its handling of copyrighted content contained within uploaded videos, its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods, hosting videos ostensibly targeting children but containing violent and/or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters, videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections, fluctuating policies on the types of content, eligible to be monetized with advertising.
YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal. Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. According to a story, repeated in the media and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos, shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story, digestible". Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from Janet Jackson's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was exposed during her performance, from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Karim could not find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site.
Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, had been influenced by the website Hot or Not. Difficulty in finding enough dating videos led to a change of plans, with the site's founders deciding to accept uploads of any type of video. YouTube began as a venture capital-funded technology startup from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital and an $8 million investment from Artis Capital Management between November 2005 and April 2006. YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California; the domain name www.youtube.com was activated on February 14, 2005, the website was developed over the subsequent months. The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo; the video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, can still be viewed on the site. YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005; the first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005.
Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site launched on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day. The site grew and, in July 2006, the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010. In May 2011, 48 hours of new videos were uploaded to the site every minute, which increased to 60 hours every minute in January 2012, 100 hours every minute in May 2013, 300 hours every minute in November 2014, 400 hours every minute in February 2017; as of January 2012, the site had 800 million unique users a month. It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000. According to third-party web analytics providers and SimilarWeb, YouTube is the second-most visited website in the world, as of December 2016.
A phonograph record is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove. The groove starts near the periphery and ends near the center of the disc. At first, the discs were made from shellac. In recent decades, records have sometimes been called vinyl records, or vinyl; the phonograph disc record was the primary medium used for music reproduction throughout the 20th century. It had co-existed with the phonograph cylinder from the late 1880s and had superseded it by around 1912. Records retained the largest market share when new formats such as the compact cassette were mass-marketed. By the 1980s, digital media, in the form of the compact disc, had gained a larger market share, the vinyl record left the mainstream in 1991. Since the 1990s, records continue to be manufactured and sold on a smaller scale, are used by disc jockeys and released by artists in dance music genres, listened to by a growing niche market of audiophiles; the phonograph record has made a notable niche resurgence in the early 21st century – 9.2 million records were sold in the U.
S. in 2014, a 260% increase since 2009. In the UK sales have increased five-fold from 2009 to 2014; as of 2017, 48 record pressing facilities remain worldwide, 18 in the United States and 30 in other countries. The increased popularity of vinyl has led to the investment in new and modern record-pressing machines. Only two producers of lacquers remain: Apollo Masters in California, MDC in Japan. Phonograph records are described by their diameter in inches, the rotational speed in revolutions per minute at which they are played, their time capacity, determined by their diameter and speed. Vinyl records may be scratched or warped if stored incorrectly but if they are not exposed to high heat, carelessly handled or broken, a vinyl record has the potential to last for centuries; the large cover are valued by collectors and artists for the space given for visual expression when it comes to the long play vinyl LP. The phonautograph, patented by Léon Scott in 1857, used a vibrating diaphragm and stylus to graphically record sound waves as tracings on sheets of paper, purely for visual analysis and without any intent of playing them back.
In the 2000s, these tracings were first scanned by audio engineers and digitally converted into audible sound. Phonautograms of singing and speech made by Scott in 1860 were played back as sound for the first time in 2008. Along with a tuning fork tone and unintelligible snippets recorded as early as 1857, these are the earliest known recordings of sound. In 1877, Thomas Edison invented the phonograph. Unlike the phonautograph, it could both record and reproduce sound. Despite the similarity of name, there is no documentary evidence that Edison's phonograph was based on Scott's phonautograph. Edison first tried recording sound on a wax-impregnated paper tape, with the idea of creating a "telephone repeater" analogous to the telegraph repeater he had been working on. Although the visible results made him confident that sound could be physically recorded and reproduced, his notes do not indicate that he reproduced sound before his first experiment in which he used tinfoil as a recording medium several months later.
The tinfoil was wrapped around a grooved metal cylinder and a sound-vibrated stylus indented the tinfoil while the cylinder was rotated. The recording could be played back immediately; the Scientific American article that introduced the tinfoil phonograph to the public mentioned Marey and Barlow as well as Scott as creators of devices for recording but not reproducing sound. Edison invented variations of the phonograph that used tape and disc formats. Numerous applications for the phonograph were envisioned, but although it enjoyed a brief vogue as a startling novelty at public demonstrations, the tinfoil phonograph proved too crude to be put to any practical use. A decade Edison developed a improved phonograph that used a hollow wax cylinder instead of a foil sheet; this proved to be both a better-sounding and far more useful and durable device. The wax phonograph cylinder created the recorded sound market at the end of the 1880s and dominated it through the early years of the 20th century. Lateral-cut disc records were developed in the United States by Emile Berliner, who named his system the "gramophone", distinguishing it from Edison's wax cylinder "phonograph" and American Graphophone's wax cylinder "graphophone".
Berliner's earliest discs, first marketed in 1889, only in Europe, were 12.5 cm in diameter, were played with a small hand-propelled machine. Both the records and the machine were adequate only for use as a toy or curiosity, due to the limited sound quality. In the United States in 1894, under the Berliner Gramophone trademark, Berliner started marketing records of 7 inches diameter with somewhat more substantial entertainment value, along with somewhat more substantial gramophones to play them. Berliner's records had poor sound quality compared to wax cylinders, but his manufacturing associate Eldridge R. Johnson improved it. Abandoning Berliner's "Gramophone" tradem
How Many Licks?
"How Many Licks?" is a song by American rapper Lil' Kim featuring vocals by American musician Sisqó from her second studio album, The Notorious K. I. M.. It was released as the record's second single in 2000. Mario Winans and Sean Combs produced "How Many Licks?", wrote it with Lil' Kim and Sisqó. The hip hop song samples the Knight Rider theme song, with lyrics expressing a woman's desire for oral sex and her sexual relationships with a variety of men; the chorus is a reference to the advertising slogan for Tootsie Pops. A remix by The Neptunes has additional vocals from American artists Kelis, Lil' Cease, Snoop Dogg. "How Many Licks?" was praised by music critics after its release and in retrospective reviews. However, African-American studies professor Mark Anthony Neal criticized the song's treatment of black female sexuality. Commentators compared its content to Trinidadian-American rapper Nicki Minaj's 2014 single, "Anaconda". "How Many Licks?" Peaked at number 75 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart and charted in several other countries, but was not as commercially successful as Lil' Kim's previous releases.
The song's music video was directed by Francis Lawrence and features the singer as a sex doll in three sexual fantasies. Sisqó did not appear in Def Jam. Although music critics praised the visual, its treatment of sexuality elicited varied opinions from academics, it was compared to music videos by other artists, including Minaj's 2011 single "Stupid Hoe" and American rapper Missy Elliott's 1997 single "The Rain". In addition to the clip, Lil' Kim promoted "How Many Licks?" with live performances. Mario Winans and Sean Combs produced "How Many Licks?" and wrote it with Lil' Kim and Sisqó, who are credited under their legal names. Sisqó contributed verses; the vocals were recorded by Dave Wade and Stephen Dent at Daddy's House Recording Studios in New York City and Trans Continental Studios in Orlando, with Ed Raso mixing the audio."How Many Licks?" was released as the second single from Lil' Kim's second album, The Notorious K. I. M. as a 12-inch single and CD single by Queen Bee Entertainment.
A remix by American production duo the Neptunes was made available, with vocals by American singer Kelis and verses by American rappers Lil' Cease and Snoop Dogg. The song's original version was included on several compilations, including the 2001 albums The Source Hip Hop Music Awards 2001, Pure Dance 2001, Hip Hop Soul Party: Episode V, 2008's 15 of the Best Urban Classics. "How Many Licks?" is a three-minute and 52-second hip hop song that uses a sample from the theme song of the television series Knight Rider. Music critic Simon Reynolds described its composition as "full of Daft Punk-like noises", an NME writer called it "pornographic funk". Michael Arceneaux of VH1 wrote that the single and other tracks from The Notorious K. I. M. have a "far more commercial" sound than the rapper's previous releases. The lyrics of "How Many Licks?" are part of a movement in 1990s hip hop music to express sexuality positively. Sexuality studies professor Thomas A. Foster wrote that Lil' Kim reverses a trend in hip hop music which objectifies women for the male gaze and celebrates male sexuality.
Gender studies scholar Aine McGlynn described "How Many Licks?" as one of the most sexually-explicit songs to receive airplay. The lyrics describe a woman's interest in oral sex, with Preezy of The Boombox calling the song a "sexual anthem". Lyrics include: "Roll some weed with some tissue and close your eyes/ Then imagine your tongue in between my thighs." Lil' Kim raps about having sex with men of various nationalities, spanking one from "down South" and "com in his mouth". The rapper notes that people masturbate or have sex to her music: "goes out to my niggaz in jail / Beating they dicks to the double X-L." She re-imagines herself as "an image in a magazine, a poster, a character in a gangsta narrative, a luxury item and a bling accessary". Lil' Kim and Sisqó exchange pick-up lines during the song; the chorus refers to the advertising slogan for Tootsie Pops, ties sexuality to consumerism according to media studies professor Scott Wilson. For the track's remix, Lil' Kim associates her rapping abilities with oral sex: "Ya neva seen this stroke of genius / put tha cleanest, meanest lips on ya penis!"
She is noted to popularize the word "gangstress" which she had used in "Spend a Little Doe", a track from her 1996 album Hard Core, a remix of the American trio Intro's 1995 single "Funny How Time Flies". The rapper further introduces herself as "the female Mack". "How Many Licks?" received positive reviews from music critics following its release and during retrospective reviews. Commentators praised the single for its sexual content. Michelle Goldberg of Salon wrote that Lil' Kim maintained a focus on her "playfully ripe side" from Hard Core. Noisey's Adria Young referred to its lyrics in 2015 as "some of the rap diva’s most raunchy verses to date", citing the song as an example of how Sisqó pushed the envelope of sexuality in popular culture. Brittany Vincent of Billboard noted it as an example of how the rapper was unafraid of exploring sex in her music. An editor for Apple Music included the song on its "Lil' Kim Essentials" playlist, writing that Lil Kim' "more than held her own as an agile and self-possessed MC who pushed hip-hop toward its unalloyed id".
However, African-American studies professor Mark Anthony Neal criticized the single for perpetuating the sexual objectification of women. Comparing "How Many Licks?" with American singe
A ballad is a form of verse a narrative set to music. Ballads derive from the medieval French chanson balladée or ballade, which were "danced songs". Ballads were characteristic of the popular poetry and song of Ireland and Britain from the medieval period until the 19th century, they were used across Europe, in Australia, North Africa, North America and South America. Ballads are 13 lines with an ABABBCBC form, consisting of couplets of rhymed verse, each of 14 syllables. Another common form is ABCB repeated, in alternating 8 and 6 syllable lines. Many ballads were sold as single sheet broadsides; the form was used by poets and composers from the 18th century onwards to produce lyrical ballads. In the 19th century, the term took on the meaning of a slow form of popular love song and is used for any love song the sentimental ballad of pop or rock, although the term is associated with the concept of a stylized storytelling song or poem when used as a title for other media such as a film; the ballad derives its name from medieval French dance songs or "ballares", from which'ballet' is derived, as did the alternative rival form that became the French ballade.
As a narrative song, their theme and function may originate from Scandinavian and Germanic traditions of storytelling that can be seen in poems such as Beowulf. Musically they were influenced by the Minnelieder of the Minnesang tradition; the earliest example of a recognizable ballad in form in England is "Judas" in a 13th-century manuscript. Ballads were written to accompany dances, so were composed in couplets with refrains in alternate lines; these refrains would have been sung by the dancers in time with the dance. Most northern and west European ballads are written in ballad stanzas or quatrains of alternating lines of iambic tetrameter and iambic trimeter, known as ballad meter. Only the second and fourth line of a quatrain are rhymed, taken to suggest that ballads consisted of couplets of rhymed verse, each of 14 syllables; this can be seen in this stanza from "Lord Thomas and Fair Annet": The horse | fair Ann | et rode | upon | He amb | led like | the wind |, With sil | ver he | was shod | before, With burn | ing gold | behind |.
There is considerable variation on this pattern in every respect, including length, number of lines and rhyming scheme, making the strict definition of a ballad difficult. In southern and eastern Europe, in countries that derive their tradition from them, ballad structure differs like Spanish romanceros, which are octosyllabic and use consonance rather than rhyme. Ballads are influenced by the regions in which they originate and use the common dialect of the people. Scotland's ballads in particular, both in theme and language, are characterised by their distinctive tradition exhibiting some pre-Christian influences in the inclusion of supernatural elements such as travel to the Fairy Kingdom in the Scots ballad "Tam Lin"; the ballads do not correct version. The ballads remained an oral tradition until the increased interest in folk songs in the 18th century led collectors such as Bishop Thomas Percy to publish volumes of popular ballads. In all traditions most ballads are narrative in nature, with a self-contained story concise, rely on imagery, rather than description, which can be tragic, romantic or comic.
Themes concerning rural laborers and their sexuality are common, there are many ballads based on the Robin Hood legend. Another common feature of ballads is repetition, sometimes of fourth lines in succeeding stanzas, as a refrain, sometimes of third and fourth lines of a stanza and sometimes of entire stanzas. Scholars of ballads have been divided into "communalists", such as Johann Gottfried Herder and the Brothers Grimm, who argue that ballads are communal compositions, "individualists" such as Cecil Sharp, who assert that there was one single original author. Communalists tend to see more recent printed, broadside ballads of known authorship as a debased form of the genre, while individualists see variants as corruptions of an original text. More scholars have pointed to the interchange of oral and written forms of the ballad; the transmission of ballads comprises a key stage in their re-composition. In romantic terms this process is dramatized as a narrative of degeneration away from the pure'folk memory' or'immemorial tradition'.
In the introduction to Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border the romantic poet and historical novelist Walter Scott argued a need to'remove obvious corruptions' in order to attempt to restore a supposed original. For Scott, the process of multiple recitations'incurs the risk of impertinent interpolations from the conceit of one rehearser, unintelligible blunders from the stupidity of another, omissions to be regretted, from the want of memory of a third.' John Robert Moore noted'a natural tendency to oblivescence'. According to Scott, transcribed ballads have a'flatness and insipidity' compared to their oral counterparts. European Ballads have been classified into three major groups: traditional and literary. In America a distinction is drawn between ballads that are versions of European British and Irish songs, and'Native American ballads
Dru Hill is an American R&B group, most popular during the 1990s, whose repertoire included soul, hip hop soul and gospel music. Founded in Baltimore and active since 1992, Dru Hill recorded seven Top 40 hits, is best known for the R&B #1 hits "In My Bed", "Never Make a Promise", "How Deep Is Your Love"; the group consist of lead singer Mark "Sisqó" Andrews, Tamir "Nokio" Ruffin and, Larry "Jazz" Anthony, James "Woody Rock" Green. Signing to Island Records through Haqq Islam's University Records imprint, the group released two successful albums, Dru Hill and Enter the Dru, before separating for a period from late 1999 to 2002, during which time Sisqó and Woody released solo albums. While Woody's Soul Music LP was a moderate success in the gospel music industry, Sisqó's debut album, Unleash the Dragon, its hit singles, "Thong Song" and "Incomplete", were major pop successes, established Sisqó as a household name outside Dru Hill. Sisqó's second album, Return of Dragon, did not sell as well. In 2002, by part of the Def Soul record label, the group reunited and added fifth member Rufus "Scola" Waller to the lineup for their third album, Dru World Order, whose underperformance led to the group being dropped from Def Soul.
In 2009, the group signed to Kedar Entertainment Group and released their fourth album, InDRUpendence Day, the following year, with new member Tao taking the place of the again departed Woody. The members of Dru Hill were natives of Maryland. Mark Andrews and James Green met each other in middle school, both became acquaintances of Tamir Ruffin when all three began pursuing careers in the music industry. Ruffin, nicknamed "Nokio" enlisted Green to form a singing group. Woody and Sisqo formed an early incarnation of the group that featured other members, including Bravette Fleet and Chris Thomas, natives of Baltimore who attended Baltimore City College, with Nokio and Woody called 14K Harmony and began performing around the Baltimore area. At one talent show at Morgan State University, they were discovered by local talent manager Kevin Peck and appeared on Amateur Night at Showtime at the Apollo; the group made a name for itself by getting jobs at The Fudgery, a local fudge factory at Harborplace at Baltimore's Inner Harbor, where they started a store tradition of singing and performing to entertain guests while making fudge.
Most of their early repertoire was made up of gospel music as well as an early song by the group, "Please Remove Yo' Shoes". The group became a gospel group after a deal with Elektra Records fell through but switched to a more commercially viable music which prompted Woody's mother to pull him out of the group but the group begged her to let him return and she reluctantly agreed to if he promised he would return to his gospel roots. By 1994, Fleet and Thomas split from the group to pursue other interests, at which point Larry "Jazz" Anthony, who studied as an opera student at Frederick Douglass High School, joined the group. Nokio saw. Sisqó, Nokio and Woody continued to hone their skills working at the Fudgery, they performed under the name Storm became Legacy. In 1995, Hiram Hicks president of Island Black Music saw the boys perform in a talent show and wanted to fly them to New York to record a song called Tell Me for a movie Eddie starring Whoopi Goldberg. Blackstreet member Dave Hollister, now pursuing a solo career sang on the song but after Legacy sang it for Hiram his vocals were scrapped as they recorded the song and were signed that night.
After the group signed to Island Records, the label suggested they change their name from Legacy to Dru Hill after Druid Hill Park, a popular park on the west side of Baltimore, the name of, pronounced "Dru Hill" in the local Baltimore accent. A dragon is used as a logo for the group. Between their first and second albums, Dru Hill contributed "We're Not Making Love No More", a #2 R&B and #13 Pop hit, to the Soul Food soundtrack. "We're Not Making Food No More" was written and produced by star producer Babyface. Dru Hill and rapper Foxy Brown recorded "Big Bad Mama", a remake of Carl Carlton's 1981 hit "She's a Bad Mama Jama", the main single for the soundtrack to the 1997 Bill Bellamy film Def Jam's How to Be a Player; the group was instrumental in writing and producing for new University artist Mýa, whose first two singles "It's All About Me" and "Movin' On", were co-written by Sisqó, who performs guest vocals on "It's All About Me". In 1997, Dru Hill filed a lawsuit against Island Records, seeking a release from its contract, after an Island employee hit one of the group's managers, Keith Ingram, over the head with a pool cue.
It was discovered. At an October 1997 deposition hearing, Eric Kronfeld and chief operating officer of Island's parent company PolyGram, was asked why he had hired such an individual, his response was that if he were not to hire African-Americans with criminal records "there would be no African-Americans employees in our society or in our industry."Kronfield's remarks set off a wave of controversy when word of them reached the media in November. The Reverend Jesse Jackson became involved, publicly stating that PolyGram, based in the Netherlands, had "a pattern of race and sex exclusion." Jackson met with PolyGram chairman Alain Levy and several other executives, who issued a public apology for Kronfield's statement, replaced Kronfield as president with Motown Records' chairman Cl