California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
A municipality is a single administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished from the county, which may encompass rural territory or numerous small communities such as towns and hamlets; the term municipality may mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district; the term is derived from French Latin municipalis. The English word municipality derives from the Latin social contract municipium, referring to the Latin communities that supplied Rome with troops in exchange for their own incorporation into the Roman state while permitting the communities to retain their own local governments. A municipality can be any political jurisdiction from a sovereign state, such as the Principality of Monaco, to a small village, such as West Hampton Dunes, New York.
The territory over which a municipality has jurisdiction may encompass only one populated place such as a city, town, or village several of such places only parts of such places, sometimes boroughs of a city such as the 34 municipalities of Santiago, Chile. Powers of municipalities range from virtual autonomy to complete subordination to the state. Municipalities may have the right to tax individuals and corporations with income tax, property tax, corporate income tax, but may receive substantial funding from the state. In various countries, municipalities are referred to as "communes", notably in Romance languages such as French commune, Italian comune, Romanian comună, Spanish comuna, in Germanic languages such as German Kommune, Swedish kommun, Faroese kommuna, Norwegian, Danish kommune. However, in Moldova and Romania exist both municipalities and communes, a commune may be part of a municipality. Similar terms include Spanish ayuntamiento called municipalidad, Polish gmina, Dutch/Flemish Gemeente and Luxembourgish Gemeng.
In Australia, the term local government area is used in place of the generic municipality. Here, the "LGA Structure covers only incorporated areas of Australia. Incorporated areas are designated parts of states and territories over which incorporated local governing bodies have responsibility." In Canada, municipalities are local governments established through provincial and territorial legislation within general municipal statutes. Types of municipalities within Canada include cities, district municipalities, municipal districts, parishes, rural municipalities, townships and villes among others; the Province of Ontario has different tiers of municipalities, including lower and single tiers. Types of upper tier municipalities in Ontario include regional municipalities. Nova Scotia has regional municipalities, which include cities, districts, or towns as municipal units. In India, a Municipality or Nagar Palika is an urban local body that administers a city of population 100,000 or more. However, there are exceptions to that, as Municipality were constituted in urban centers with population over 20,000, so all the urban bodies which were classified as Municipality were reclassified as Municipality if their population was under 100,000.
Under the Panchayati Raj system, it interacts directly with the state government, though it is administratively part of the district it is located in. Smaller district cities and bigger towns have a Municipality. Municipality are a form of local self-government entrusted with some duties and responsibilities, as enshrined in the Constitutional Act,1992. In the United Kingdom, the term was used until the 1972 Local Government Act came into effect in 1974 in England and Wales, until 1975 in Scotland and 1976 in Northern Ireland, "both for a city or town, organized for self-government under a municipal corporation, for the governing body itself; such a corporation in Great Britain consists of a head as a mayor or provost, of superior members, as aldermen and councillors". Since local government reorganisation, the unit in England, Northern Ireland and Wales is known as a district, in Scotland as a council area. A district can retain its district title. In Jersey, a municipality refers to the honorary officials elected to run each of the 12 parishes into which it is subdivided.
This is the highest level of regional government in this jurisdiction. In Trinidad and Tobago, "municipality" is understood as a city, town, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. A town may be awarded borough status and on may be upgraded to city status. Chaguanas, San Fernando, Port of Spain and Point Fortin are the 5 current municipalities in Trinidad and Tobago. In the United States, "municipality" is understood as a city, village, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. In a state law contex
Macoupin County, Illinois
Macoupin County is a county located in the southwestern portion of the U. S. state of Illinois, is a part of the St. Louis Metropolitan Area. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 47,765; the county seat is Carlinville. Macoupin County is part of the Metro-East region of the St. Louis, MO-IL Metropolitan Statistical Area; the primary industry is agriculture, consisting of crops of corn and some wheat. The region was inhabited by Illinoisan Indians when the first white settlers arrived. Indeed, macoupin is the Miami-Illinois term for Nelumbo lutea. None of the native Indians remain, although some descendants of the earliest European settlers claim partial ancestry; the first European contact was by French explorers in the seventeenth century, travelling southward down the major rivers. The main European settlement was from the southwest, as people moved inland from the established transportation route of the Mississippi River. Macoupin County was established on January 17, 1829, it was formed out of Greene and Madison Counties and was named after Macoupin Creek, which runs near Carlinville and meanders southwest to the Illinois River.
The economy was based on subsistence agriculture, communication was to the southwest. In the middle 19th century, Illinois changed rapidly; the greatest change was in the building of railroads, Macoupin County was on the rail and road transportation link between St. Louis and the still-young metropolis of Chicago; the county lies midway between the relocated state capital of Springfield. The economy was still based on agriculture, but there was now easier access to markets. Towns were small, sparsely distributed, any new communities were founded along the railroad lines that provided transportation. Culturally, the county remained closer to its historical ties with St. Louis than to more northerly areas within the state. Agriculture remained a mainstay of the economy, but this was joined by coal mining, an industry that changed the complexion of the county. With coal underlying the entire region, the most economical development was to place mines alongside the railroad tracks, located in or near already-existing towns.
By the twentieth century, there were mines in many towns, all of them with substantial populations of foreign-born miners from everywhere in Europe. During the twentieth century and coal mining remained the mainstays of the county's economy, the county's fortunes rose and fell with them. Farming was still family based. Macoupin County was at the center of major labor disputes between mine owners and miners, was a hotbed of union activity; the county had played a major role in violent 1890s disputes that brought unwanted national attention, was at center stage when the United Mine Workers rose to power, was again prominent during the internecine war between the UMW and the Progressive Miners of America of the 1930s. Agriculture remained as the county's prime economic activity, but farming became a large-scale corporate enterprise, with small family farms disappearing. Coal mining decreased, has disappeared entirely. Buildings and structures related to coal mining were torn down as they wasted away, so that there is now little to see of this once-major industry.
Towns were characterized either by a main street layout. In the former, a central city block may be a small park with a gazebo, with the small businesses of the town surrounding it. In the latter, a single street will have the small businesses of the town lining either side of it. Carlinville has a city square layout, with the main county building occupying the central city block; this building houses all the offices of the county. Churches of the various denominations will lie within two or three blocks of the town square, or sometimes will lie along a single street near the town's center. With modern roads accessible, some towns in the northern part of the county became virtual bedroom communities as people commuted to Springfield to work and shop, hastening the decline of small businesses in the towns; the same effect was felt in the southernmost part of the county, in 2005, the U. S. Census Bureau included the county in the St. Louis Metropolitan Statistical Area due to increased commuting patterns and employment in St. Louis and the Metro-East.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 868 square miles, of which 863 square miles is land and 4.7 square miles is water. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Carlinville have ranged from a low of 17 °F in January to a high of 87 °F in July, although a record low of −23 °F was recorded in February 1905 and a record high of 113 °F was recorded in July 1954. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.95 inches in February to 4.25 inches in May. Sangamon County - northeast Montgomery County - east Madison County - south Greene County - west Jersey County - west Morgan County - northwest As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 47,765 people, 19,381 households, 13,224 families residing in the county; the population density was 55.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 21,584 housing units at an average density of 25.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.6% white, 0.8% black or African American, 0.3% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.2% from other races, 0.9% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 0.9% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 35.8% were German, 16.2% were Irish, 13.9% were English, 9.5% were American, and
Cook County, Illinois
Cook County is a county in the U. S. state of Illinois. It is the second-most populous county in the United States after California; as of 2017, the population was 5,211,263. Its county seat is Chicago, the largest city in Illinois and the third-most populous city in the United States. More than 40% of all residents of Illinois live in Cook County. Cook County's population is larger than that of 28 individual U. S. states, the combined populations of the seven smallest states. There are 135 incorporated municipalities or wholly within Cook County, the largest of, Chicago, home to 54% of the population of the county; that part of the county which lies outside the Chicago city limits is divided into 29 townships. Geographically, the county is the sixth-largest in Illinois by land area, it shares the state's Lake Michigan shoreline with Lake County. Including its lake area, the county has a total area of 1,635 square miles, the largest county in Illinois, of which 945 square miles is land and 690 square miles is water.
Land-use in Cook County is urban and densely populated. Cook County is included in the Chicago–Naperville–Elgin, IL–IN–WI Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is surrounded by. Cook County was created on January 15, 1831, out of Putnam County by an act of the Illinois General Assembly, it was the 54th county established in Illinois and was named after Daniel Cook, one of the earliest and youngest statesmen in Illinois history. He served as the second U. S. Representative from Illinois and the state's first Attorney General. In 1839, DuPage County was carved out of Cook County; the government of Cook County is composed of the Board of Commissioners, other elected officials such as the Sheriff, State's Attorney, Board of Review, Assessor, Circuit Court judges, Circuit Court Clerk, as well as numerous other officers and entities. Cook County is the only home rule county in Illinois; the Cook County Code is the codification of Cook County's local ordinances. Cook County's current County Board president is Toni Preckwinkle.
The Circuit Court of Cook County, an Illinois state court of general jurisdiction is funded, in part, by Cook County, accepts more than 1.2 million cases each year for filing. The Cook County Department of Corrections known as the Cook County Jail, is the largest single-site jail in the nation; the Cook County Juvenile Detention Center, under the authority of the Chief Judge of the court, is the first juvenile center in the nation and one of the largest in the nation. The Cook County Law Library is the second-largest county law library in the nation. In the 1980s, Cook County was ground zero to an extensive FBI investigation called Operation Greylord. Ninety-two officials were indicted, including 17 judges, 48 lawyers, 8 policemen, 10 deputy sheriffs, 8 court officials, a state legislator; the Bureau of Health Services administers the county's public health services and is the third-largest public health system in the nation. Three hospitals are part of this system: Jr.. Hospital of Cook County, Provident Hospital, Oak Forest Hospital of Cook County, along with over 30 clinics.
The Cook County Department of Transportation is responsible for the design and maintenance of roadways in the county. These thoroughfares are composed of major and minor arterials, with a few local roads. Although the County Department of Transportation was instrumental in designing many of the expressways in the county, today they are under the jurisdiction of the state; the Cook County Forest Preserves, organized in 1915, is a separate, independent taxing body, but the Cook County Board of Commissioners acts as its Board of Commissioners. The district is a belt of 69,000 acres of forest reservations surrounding the city of Chicago; the Brookfield Zoo and the Chicago Botanic Garden are located in the forest preserves. Cook County is the fifth-largest employer in Chicago. In March 2008, the County Board increased the sales tax by one percent to 1.75 percent. This followed a quarter-cent increase in mass transit taxes. In Chicago, the rate increased to 10.25 percent, the steepest nominal rate of any major metropolitan area in America.
In Evanston, sales tax reached Oak Lawn residents pay 9.5 percent. On July 22, 2008, the Cook County board voted against Cook County Commissioner's proposal to repeal the tax increase. In 2016, Cook County joined Chicago in adopting a $13 hourly minimum wage. Cook County Board chairman John Daley called the wage hike "the moral and right thing to do." In June 2017, nearly 75 home rule municipalities passed measures opting themselves out of the increase. The county has more Democratic Party members than any other Illinois county and it is one of the most Democratic counties in the United States. Since 1932, the majority of its voters have only supported a Republican candidate in a Presidential election three times, all during national Republican landslides–Dwight Eisenhower over native son Adlai Stevenson II in 1952 and 1956, Richard Nixon over George McGovern in 1972. Since the closest a Republican has come to carrying the county was in 1984, when Ronald Reagan won 48.4 percent of the county's vote.
The 1970 Illinois Constitution allows the party controlling the state legislature to redraw voting districts. The Democrats won complete control of state government in 2003. S. House of Repre
Annawan is an incorporated town in Henry County, United States. The population was 878 at the 2010 census. Annawan is located at 41°23′50″N 89°54′32″W. According to the 2010 census, Annawan has a total area of all land; as of the census of 2000, there were 868 people, 354 households, 238 families residing in the village. The population density was 1,273.6 people per square mile. There were 373 housing units at an average density of 547.3/sq mi. The racial makeup of the village was 99.88% White, 0.12% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.15% of the population. There were 354 households out of which 32.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.5% were married couples living together, 6.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.5% were non-families. 30.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.07. In the town, the population was spread out with 27.3% under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 25.1% from 25 to 44, 21.5% from 45 to 64, 19.6% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.1 males. The median income for a household in the town was $38,571, the median income for a family was $46,563. Males had a median income of $37,237 versus $20,673 for females; the per capita income for the town was $15,839. About 9.0% of families and 9.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.0% of those under age 18 and 2.8% of those age 65 or over. Daniel Morton built the first log cabin. Gilbert Morton was the first child born here that year to his wife Sarah; the following year a schoolhouse was built on the Morton property. The land the Mortons found was a swampy marsh to the north with higher ground to the south. Mud Creek meandered through the area and Green River paralleled the current Interstate 80 to the north. In 1850, a survey of the right-of-way for the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad was made through Henry County; the selected route passed through the area inhabited by the Mortons and a few fellow pioneer families.
In 1853, when the railroad was complete, Charles Atkinson and James Grant, owners of the land adjoining the railroad, plotted the town of Annawan. The town of Annawan, which some say was named after a Winnebago Indian Chief, was born. At the turn of the twentieth century, a new channel of Green River was developed, drainage ditches were completed and tile installed; this allowed the marsh north of Annawan to become productive farmland. With the completion of Interstate 80 through Henry County in the 1960s, Annawan began to grow at a steady pace, with various services such as restaurants and gas stations appearing along the interstate. By the dawn of the 21st century, several projects were planned in Annawan; the North Meadow subdivision was completed in the early 2000s as a community for retirees with a community center at the center of the development. A new interstate side hotel was completed just off Canal Street adjacent to Interstate 80. Midway through the decade plans. Today, Annawan remains a productive community that supports a variety of different businesses that serve Henry County and Interstate 80 travelers.
As of 2013, the North Meadow retirement community development has been discontinued, the subdivision remains one of the newer housing developments in town. The library and the town offices have made their home in the former North Meadow community center; the aforementioned ethanol plant, Patriot Renewable Fuels, opened in 2007, providing Annawan with around 100 jobs. Annawan supports one hotel, three gas stations, 5 restaurants/taverns, a grocery store, a gift shop, to name a few different services available in the community. From 2000 to 2012, retail sales in Annawan have increased 123%. In addition, 48 businesses were open in Annawan in 2009. On November 27, 2013, ground was broken for a new 5 million gallon biodiesel plant to be built adjacent to the existing ethanol plant in eastern Annawan. F. H. Slater, James Bice, S. C. Carpenter, W. S. Knowlton, Elmer Fitzkee, John Lamont, J. P. Paine, Dr. W. H. Webster, Dr. Robert White, Seth Moo, C. H. Mason, O. W. Nowell, George Dow, Hugh White, Dr. J. M. Young, Edward Doubler, Charles Verdick, Robert Pont, Arthur Quaife, Raymond Bollengier, Henry Nowers, Wilbur Hodgett, Dennis DeSplinter, Kennard Franks, Scott Smith, Tim Wise Nearby Annawan is Johnson Sauk Trail Park, which includes a 60-acre lake with a maximum depth of 21 feet, a small pond.
The park is just 5 minutes south on Illinois 78. It has a camper store and a campground. Annawan is home to Howes Park, which hosts the Annawan-Wethersfield Titans baseball team; the park offers Youth soccer, Grades K through 5. About a mile west of Annawan is Mud Creek, which serves as the midpoint for the Carol M. Guthrie 5 Kilometer run. Annawan claims to be a village. Village of Annawan, Illinois Annawan - Henry County Tourism Bureau Annawan Public Schools - Regional Office of Education serving Bureau and Stark Counties Annawan Profile - Illinois Department of Commerce and Economic Opportunity
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
Stephenson County, Illinois
Stephenson County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 United States Census, it had a population of 47,711, its county seat is Freeport. Stephenson County is included in the Freeport, IL Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Rockford-Freeport-Rochelle, IL Combined Statistical Area; the land that became Stephenson County was first settled by William Waddams in 1832, who founded Waddams Grove. By 1837, population was sufficient to form Stephenson County, taking land from Jo Daviess and Winnebago counties; the county was named for an official of the Illinois Territory. According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 565 square miles, of which 565 square miles is land and 0.5 square miles is water. In recent years the average temperatures in the county seat of Freeport, have ranged from a low of 9 °F in January to a high of 82 °F in July, although a record low of −29 °F was recorded in January 2009 and a record high of 101 °F was recorded in July 1988.
Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.33 inches in January to 4.46 inches in June. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 47,711 people, 19,845 households, 13,015 families residing in the county; the population density was 84.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 22,081 housing units at an average density of 39.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 86.5% white, 9.0% black or African American, 0.6% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 1.2% from other races, 2.5% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.9% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 46.6% were German, 12.5% were Irish, 10.0% were English, 8.0% were American. Of the 19,845 households, 28.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.3% were married couples living together, 11.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.4% were non-families, 29.7% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.90.
The median age was 43.1 years. The median income for a household in the county was $43,304 and the median income for a family was $54,224. Males had a median income of $41,672 versus $29,510 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,608. About 12.3% of families and 14.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.1% of those under age 18 and 7.3% of those age 65 or over. There are five public high schools and one private high Schools in the county: Public high schools Freeport High 1,254 Lena-Winslow High 299 Dakota High 254 Pearl City High 150 Orangeville High 142Private high school Aquin Catholic High 93 Freeport Dakota Lake Summerset List of counties in Illinois List of Illinois county name etymologies National Register of Historic Places listings in Stephenson County, Illinois Stephenson County Benjamin Stephenson House Restoration Project Stephenson County Historical Society & Museum Freeport/Stephenson County Convention and Visitors Bureau Illinois Ancestors Stephenson Tombstone Project Genealogy Trails for Stephenson County Illinois High School Association – School Enrollments