A cloze test is an exercise, test, or assessment consisting of a portion of language with certain items, words, or signs removed, where the participant is asked to replace the missing language item. Cloze tests require the ability to understand context and vocabulary in order to identify the correct language or part of speech that belongs in the deleted passages; this exercise is administered for the assessment of native and second language learning and instruction. The word cloze is derived from closure in Gestalt theory; the exercise was first described by W. L. Taylor in 1953. Words may be deleted from the text in question either mechanically or selectively, depending on what aspect it is intended to test for; the methodology is the subject of an extensive academic literature. A language teacher may give the following passage to students: Today, I went to the ________ and bought some milk and eggs. I knew it was going to rain, but I forgot to take my ________, ended up getting wet on the way.
Students would be required to fill in the blanks with words that would best complete the passage. Context in language and content terms is essential in most, if not all, cloze tests; the first blank is preceded by "the". However, a conjunction follows the blank; the words "milk and eggs" are important for deciding which noun to put in the blank. The definition of success in a given cloze test varies, depending on the broader goals behind the exercise. Assessment may depend on whether the exercise is objective or subjective. I saw a man lay his jacket on a puddle for a woman crossing the street. I thought, ______. Given the above passage, students' answers may vary depending on their vocabulary skills and their personal opinions. However, the placement of the blank at the end of the sentence restricts the possible words that may complete the sentence. Romantic, chivalrous or gallant may, for example, occupy the blank, as well as foolish or cheesy. Using those answers, a teacher may ask students to reflect on the opinions drawn from the given cloze.
Recent research using eye-tracking has posited that cloze/gapfill items where a selection of words are given as options may be testing different kinds of reading skills depending on the language abilities of the participants taking the test. Lower ability test takers are suggested to be more to be concentrating on the information contained in the words surrounding the gap, while higher ability test takers are thought to be able to use more global information in their selection of a word to fit the gap. In addition to use in testing, cloze deletion can be used in learning language learning, but learning facts; this may be done manually – for example, by covering sections of a text with paper, or highlighting sections of text with a highlighter covering the line with a colored ruler in the complementary color so the highlighted text disappears. Cloze deletion can be used as part of spaced repetition software, for example the SuperMemo and Anki applications feature semi-automated creation of cloze tests.
Cloze deletion can be applied to a graphic organizer, wherein a diagram, grid, or image is presented and contextual clues must be used to fill in some labels. Communicative competence English language learning and teaching Form letter Mad Libs Hanzeli, Victor E.. "The Effectiveness of Cloze Tests in Measuring the Competence of Students of French in an Academic Setting". The French Review. 50: 865–874. JSTOR 389444. McCray, Gareth. "Investigating the Construct Measured by Banked Gap-fill Items: Evidence from Eye-tracking". Language Testing. Doi:10.1177/0265532216677105
Hermann Ebbinghaus was a German psychologist who pioneered the experimental study of memory, is known for his discovery of the forgetting curve and the spacing effect. He was the first person to describe the learning curve, he was the father of the neo-Kantian philosopher Julius Ebbinghaus. Ebbinghaus was born in Barmen, in the Rhine Province of the Kingdom of Prussia,as the son of a wealthy merchant, Carl Ebbinghaus. Little is known about his infancy except that he was brought up in the Lutheran faith and was a pupil at the town Gymnasium. At the age of 17, he began attending the University of Bonn, where he had planned to study history and philology. However, during his time there he developed an interest in philosophy. In 1870, his studies were interrupted when he served with the Prussian Army in the Franco-Prussian War. Following this short stint in the military, Ebbinghaus finished his dissertation on Eduard von Hartmann's Philosophie des Unbewussten and received his doctorate on August 16, 1873, when he was 23 years old.
During the next three years, he spent time at Berlin. After acquiring his PhD, Ebbinghaus moved around England and France, tutoring students to support himself. In England, he may have taught in two small schools in the south of the country. In London, in a used bookstore, he came across Gustav Fechner's book Elemente der Psychophysik, which spurred him to conduct his famous memory experiments. After beginning his studies at the University of Berlin, he founded the third psychological testing lab in Germany, he began his memory studies here in 1879. In 1885 — the same year that he published his monumental work, Über das Gedächtnis. Untersuchungen zur experimentellen Psychologie published in English under the title Memory: A Contribution to Experimental Psychology — he was made a professor at the University of Berlin, most in recognition of this publication. In 1890, along with Arthur König, he founded the psychological journal Zeitschrift für Physiologie und Psychologie der Sinnesorgane. In 1894, he was passed over for promotion to head of the philosophy department at Berlin, most due to his lack of publications.
Instead, Carl Stumpf received the promotion. As a result of this, Ebbinghaus left to join the University of Breslau, in a chair left open by Theodor Lipps. While in Breslau, he worked on a commission that studied how children's mental ability declined during the school day. While the specifics on how these mental abilities were measured have been lost, the successes achieved by the commission laid the groundwork for future intelligence testing. At Breslau, he again founded a psychological testing laboratory. In 1902, Ebbinghaus published his next piece of writing entitled Die Grundzüge der Psychologie, it continued to be long after his death. In 1904, he moved to Halle, his last published work, Abriss der Psychologie was published six years in 1908. This, continued to be a success, being re-released in eight different editions. Shortly after this publication, on February 26, 1909, Ebbinghaus died from pneumonia at the age of 59. Ebbinghaus was determined to show that higher mental processes could be studied using experimentation, in opposition to the popularly held thought of the time.
To control for most confounding variables, Ebbinghaus wanted to use simple acoustic encoding and maintenance rehearsal for which a list of words could have been used. As learning would be affected by prior knowledge and understanding, he needed something that could be memorized but which had no prior cognitive associations. Formable associations with regular words would interfere with his results, so he used items that would be called "nonsense syllables". A nonsense syllable is a consonant-vowel-consonant combination, where the consonant does not repeat and the syllable does not have prior meaning. BOL and DOT would not be allowed. However, syllables such as DAX, BOK, YAT would all be acceptable. After eliminating the meaning-laden syllables, Ebbinghaus ended up with 2,300 resultant syllables. Once he had created his collection of syllables, he would pull out a number of random syllables from a box and write them down in a notebook. To the regular sound of a metronome, with the same voice inflection, he would read out the syllables, attempt to recall them at the end of the procedure.
One investigation alone required 15,000 recitations. It was determined that humans impose meaning on nonsense syllables to make them more meaningful; the nonsense syllable PED turns out to be less nonsensical than a syllable such as KOJ. It appears that Ebbinghaus recognized this, only referred to the strings of syllables as "nonsense" in that the syllables might be less to have a specific meaning and he should make no attempt to make associations with them for easier retrieval. There are several limitations to his work on memory; the most important one was. This limited the study's generalizability to the population. Although he attempted to regulate his daily routine to maintain more control over his results, his decision to avoid the use of parti
SuperMemo is a learning method and software package developed by SuperMemo World and SuperMemo R&D with Piotr Woźniak in Poland from 1985 to the present. It is based on research into long-term memory, is a practical application of the spaced repetition learning method, proposed for efficient instruction by a number of psychologists as early as in the 1930s. According to the developers of SuperMemo and some other proponents of spaced repetition learning, the process can optimize long-term knowledge acquisition; the method is available as a computer program for Windows, Windows CE, Windows Mobile, iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch, Palm OS, etc. It can be used in a web browser or without a computer; the desktop version of SuperMemo supports incremental reading. The SuperMemo program stores a database of answers constructed by the user; when reviewing information saved in the database, the program uses the SuperMemo algorithm to decide what questions to show the user. The user answers the question and rates their recall - did they answer the question with hesitation, not at all, so on - and their rating is used to calculate how soon they should be shown the question again.
While the exact algorithm varies with the version of SuperMemo, in general, items that are harder to remember show up more frequently. Besides simple text questions and answers, the latest version of SuperMemo supports images, HTML questions and answers; the specific algorithms SuperMemo uses have been published, re-implemented in other programs. Different algorithms have been used. Subsequent versions of the software have further optimized the algorithm; as of June 2016, the latest version of the SuperMemo algorithm is SM-17, released in 2016. The SM-2 algorithm uses the performance on a card to schedule only that card, while SM-3 and newer algorithms use card performance to schedule that card and similar cards; the additional optimizations sometimes yield perverse results – answering "hard" on a card may yield an interval longer than answering "easy" on a card – and are criticized as reducing the robustness of the algorithm, making it more sensitive to variations – non-uniform difficulty of cards, inconsistencies in studying, so forth.
Woźniak disagreed with the criticism, but noted that in practice the other factors affecting study make it not important. Some of the algorithms have been reimplemented in other free programs such as Anki and Emacs Org-mode's Org-drill. See full list of flashcard software; the SM-2 algorithm has proven most popular in other applications, is used in Anki and Mnemosyne, among others. Org-drill implements SM-5 by default, optionally other algorithms such as SM-2. ArticlesTomasz P. Szynalski: Use spaced-repetition software – An introduction to spaced-repetition and SuperMemo Pawel Kowalczyk: Learn English with SuperMemo – How SuperMemo can help learn English Patrick Kenny: Memory Software: SuperMemo – A guide to using SuperMemo to study Japanese
LearnThat Foundation is an American 5013 nonprofit organization that develops and manages an online vocabulary and spelling program along with a free multimedia learners' dictionary, Open Dictionary of English. The foundation was founded in February 2004 under the name eSpindle Learning. In August 2010, the name was changed to LearnThat Foundation, its domain was moved to www. LearnThat.org. The program is branded as LearnThatWord; the organization was launched by parents, English language learners and writers looking for a comprehensive solution to learning English vocabulary and spelling. Its board members include a Microsoft executive and a Senior Research Associate at the Education Development Center's Center for Children and Technology. Premium membership fees range from $9.50 a month to $299 for a 10-year membership. The organization had 5000 members in 2007, it has since grown to over 300,000 members. The program is based on its own dictionary database; the Open Dictionary of English contains audio from around the world, video snippets using the word in context, a large list of user samples and idioms, definitions from various sources, tutoring comments and much more.
The program uses quizzes that are set for each member's learning profile, providing personalized spaced repetition review. In August 2010, the core program was renamed LearnThatWord. Vocabulary tutoring is available to registered users. Spelling tutoring requires a paid upgrade. Performance reports and rewards are premium features as well. LearnThatWord offers classroom features and allows teachers to send words directly to student accounts. All quiz units follow test-study principles to provide adaptive tutoring. Sessions are designed as quizzes; the learner first receives feedback on their input, can explore the word in depth. This enhances results because it optimizes study time for each word; the instant feedback provided in this formative assessment accelerates learning. Words known can be set aside, while those that are not yet learned will enter LearnThatWord's practice cycle. Practice words are reviewed over future sessions until the learner has answered over a sequence of subsequent quizzes.
Additional spaced review features are under development. LearnThatWord offers a range of rewards for study effort. Members can select from a large selection of ready-made goal modules, add their own word lists, or add a list from the word list archive; the goal modules draw on the ODE's 180,000 word database. Large linguistic data sets merged. Among others, LearnThatWord offers a Spelling Bee goal module of close to 30,000 words and an SAT module of over 5,000 words. Detailed frequency datasets from the world's largest English language corpora allow LearnThatWord to present words in a logical order: Members can start with easy, everyday words and advance to harder ones in managed progression. LearnThatWord accepts both US and UK spelling variants as correct. Further localization is under development; the program offers three quiz options. Free vocabulary tutoring is available to all members. To avoid problems associated with multiple choice format. LearnThatWord takes a variety of steps to minimize guessing.
In every session, words are matched with different alternate partners. In addition, the quiz format changes. A word will be tested in word-definitions, definition-words, image-words constellations. Active word entry is an optional last step, available to premium members. Spelling quiz follows the classic spelling test/spelling bee format; the member hears a word, can review the corresponding definition and a usage example. They are required to enter the word into the text entry field. Combo quiz challenges the member to find the word based on definition, usage example and the number of letters in the word. Members can request first letter, last letter, the audio for the word. Entering the word before listening to the audio earns a bonus point for the user. At the start of the 2010/11 school year, LearnThat Foundation started to make free tutoring available to third graders in the U. S. and Canada. This program, known as Vocabulary Junction, was expanded to serve all English learners, during their first three years of learning the language.
Teachers at public and tuition-free schools can request premium licenses for their classrooms by contacting the LearnThatWord support team. The program was awarded a Parents Choice Foundation Award in 2006 as well as a Teachers' Choice Award in 2008; the organization was featured twice as an "innovator company" by the Software and Information Industry Association. Flashcards Spaced repetition Multiple Choice Open Dictionary of English Vocabulary development LearnThat Foundation homepage Foundation Blog Center for Children and Technology OEA Formative Assessment EduTopia Formative Assessment
Memrise is a language platform which uses flashcards as memory aids, but offers user-generated content on a wide range of other subjects. Memrise has official courses in its combinations; the app has over 35 million registered users. Memrise has been profitable since late 2016. Memrise was founded by Ed Cooke, a Grand Master of Memory, Greg Detre, a Princeton neuroscientist specializing in the science of memory and forgetting; the website launched in private beta after winning the Princeton Entrepreneurship Club 2009 TigerLaunch competition. On October 1, 2012, 100 users were allowed to sign up to test a non-beta version of the website called Memrise 1.0. As of May 2013, a Memrise app has been available for download on both Google Play. In July 2010, Memrise was named as one of the winners of the London Mini-Seedcamp competition. In November 2010, the site was named as one of the finalists for the 2010 TechCrunch Europas Start-up of the Year. In March 2011, it was selected as one of the Techstars Boston startups.
In May 2017, Memrise was named as one of Best App winner of the second edition of the Google Play awards. Starting in late February 2019, Memrise has been the subject of much recent criticism due to an announcement that user-created content will be moving to a different web-based platform, it was announced that this new website would not have an app and that users would be unable to access their material offline. In response, the Memrise forums were bombarded with posts criticizing this as a slap in the face to Memrise's users and content-creators; this criticism has followed onto Reddit with many users calling for a migration to rival platforms. In late September 2012, the leaderboard on the website was temporarily suspended due to "extensive cheating". Specific users had been using bots and non-intensive mechanisms, such as celebrity photo memory courses, to achieve atypical scores that were not reflective of actual learning. In response, the administrators established a new leaderboard after revising the scoring loopholes.
Anki ChineseSkill – A similar app intended to teach Mandarin Computer-assisted language learning Duolingo Fluenz Lang-8 Language education Language pedagogy List of flashcard software List of language self-study programs Rosetta Stone Official website iTunes App Store Google Play
OpenCards is a free spaced repetition flashcard program. The software is similar to Anki or Mnemosyne; the flashcards are saved as PowerPoint presentation files and may include text, sounds and LaTeX equations. The learning states are saved in hidden meta-data files in the same directory as the flashcards files. OpenCards implements learning schemes for long-term memorization. OpenCards uses PowerPoint ppt-files as flashcard sets. Thereby, slide-titles are considered as the slide contents as their answers. OpenCards supports a reversed mode in which slide contents are treated as questions and the slide title as their answers, which allows creating image, formula or sound questions. By allowing users to create flashcard files in ppt-format with PowerPoint or LibreOffice, it overcomes the major limitation of other flashcard software, which rely on custom formats and flashcard editors. Internally, OpenCards relies on Apache POI to render slides from ppt-files. OpenCards implements two different learning models.
A box-based short-term learning procedure, called last-minute learning, a more sophisticated long-term memorization model based on the principles of active recall and the forgetting model. The latter is implemented as an improved version of the SuperMemo2 algorithm; the SM2 algorithm had been created for SuperMemo in the late 1980s, but still forms the basis of many spaced repetition software applications. OpenCards's implementation of the algorithm has been modified to allow priorities on cards, to show cards in order of their urgency. OpenCards started as flashcard learning extension for OpenOffice Impress in spring 2008, from which it inherited the first part of its name. In 2008 it won a Bronze award in the OpenOffice.org Community Innovation Program. In 2011, OpenCards was redesigned to work as stand alone software and to support PowerPoint PPT files as the main flashcard set file format. OpenCards implements no synchronization mechanism, but flashcard sets including their learning states can be synced using services like DropBox.
This allows the user to keep their flashcard sets synchronized across multiple computers. Mnemosyne Anki List of flashcard software OpenCards website OpenCards developer resources SM2 Algorithm Jack Wallen. "Use OpenOffice Impress for flash card learning". Ghacks.net. Bernd Schmidt. "OpenCards – Lernkarten in OpenOffice". Tutorials. "Old Method of Memorizing Things with New Tools". Entangled Blog. 23 April 2008. "Learn Flashcards Efficiently". Linux Tipps, Fixes & More. 2 June 2011
Emacs or EMACS is a family of text editors that are characterized by their extensibility. The manual for the most used variant, GNU Emacs, describes it as "the extensible, self-documenting, real-time display editor". Development of the first Emacs began in the mid-1970s, work on its direct descendant, GNU Emacs, continues as of 2019. Emacs has over 10,000 built-in commands and its user interface allows the user to combine these commands into macros to automate work. Implementations of Emacs feature a dialect of the Lisp programming language that provides a deep extension capability, allowing users and developers to write new commands and applications for the editor. Extensions have been written to manage email, outlines, RSS feeds, as well as clones of ELIZA, Conway's Life and Tetris; the original EMACS was written in 1976 by Carl Mikkelsen, David A. Moon and Guy L. Steele Jr. as a set of Editor MACroS for the TECO editor. It was inspired by the ideas of the TECO-macro editors TECMAC and TMACS.
The most popular, most ported, version of Emacs is GNU Emacs, created by Richard Stallman for the GNU Project. XEmacs is a variant that branched from GNU Emacs in 1991. GNU Emacs and XEmacs are for the most part compatible with each other. Emacs is, along with vi, one of the two main contenders in the traditional editor wars of Unix culture. Emacs is among the open source projects still under development. Emacs development began during the 1970s at the MIT AI Lab, whose PDP-6 and PDP-10 computers used the Incompatible Timesharing System operating system that featured a default line editor known as Tape Editor and Corrector. Unlike most modern text editors, TECO used separate modes in which the user would either add text, edit existing text, or display the document. One could not place characters directly into a document by typing them into TECO, but would instead enter a character in the TECO command language telling it to switch to input mode, enter the required characters, during which time the edited text was not displayed on the screen, enter a character to switch the editor back to command mode.
This behavior is similar to that of the program ed. Richard Stallman visited the Stanford AI Lab in 1972 or 1974 and saw the lab's E editor, written by Fred Wright, he was impressed by the editor's intuitive WYSIWYG behavior, which has since become the default behavior of most modern text editors. He returned to MIT where Carl Mikkelsen, a hacker at the AI Lab, had added to TECO a combined display/editing mode called Control-R that allowed the screen display to be updated each time the user entered a keystroke. Stallman reimplemented this mode to run efficiently and added a macro feature to the TECO display-editing mode that allowed the user to redefine any keystroke to run a TECO program. E had another feature: random-access editing. TECO was a page-sequential editor, designed for editing paper tape on the PDP-1 and allowed editing on only one page at a time, in the order of the pages in the file. Instead of adopting E's approach of structuring the file for page-random access on disk, Stallman modified TECO to handle large buffers more efficiently and changed its file-management method to read and write the entire file as a single buffer.
All modern editors use this approach. The new version of TECO became popular at the AI Lab and soon accumulated a large collection of custom macros whose names ended in MAC or MACS, which stood for macro. Two years Guy Steele took on the project of unifying the diverse macros into a single set. Steele and Stallman's finished implementation included facilities for extending and documenting the new macro set; the resulting system was called EMACS, which stood for Editing MACroS or, alternatively, E with MACroS. Stallman picked the name Emacs "because <E> was not in use as an abbreviation on ITS at the time." An apocryphal hacker koan alleges that the program was named after Emack & Bolio's, a popular Cambridge ice cream store. The first operational EMACS system existed in late 1976. Stallman saw a problem in too much customization and de facto forking and set certain conditions for usage, he wrote: "EMACS was distributed on a basis of communal sharing, which means all improvements must be given back to me to be incorporated and distributed."The original Emacs, like TECO, ran only on the PDP-10 running ITS.
Its behavior was sufficiently different from that of TECO that it could be considered a text editor in its own right, it became the standard editing program on ITS. Mike McMahon ported Emacs from ITS to the TOPS-20 operating systems. Other contributors to early versions of Emacs include Kent Pitman, Earl Killian, Eugene Ciccarelli. By 1979, Emacs was the main editor used in its Laboratory for Computer Science. In the following years, programmers wrote a variety of Emacs-like editors for other computer systems; these included EINE and ZWEI, which were written for the Lisp machine by Mike McMahon and Daniel Weinreb, Sine, written by Owen Theodore Anderson. Weinreb's EINE was the first Emacs written in Lisp. In 1978, Bernard Greenberg wrote Multics Emacs entirely in Multics Lisp at Honeywell's Cambridge Information Systems Lab. Multics Emacs was maintained by Richard Soley, who went on to develop the NILE Emacs-like editor for the NIL Project, by Barry Margolin. Many versions of Emacs, including GNU Emacs, would adopt Lisp as an extension language.
James Gosling, who would invent Ne