The incumbent is the current holder of an office or position in relation to an election. For example, in an election for president, the incumbent is the person holding or acting in the office of president before the election, whether seeking re-election or not. In some situations, there may not be an incumbent at time of an election for that office or position, in which case the office or position is regarded as vacant or open. In the United States, an election without an incumbent is referred to as an open seat or open contest; the word "incumbent" is derived from the Latin verb incumbere meaning "to lean or lay upon" with the present participle stem incumbent-, "leaning a variant of encumber, while encumber is derived from the root cumber, most appropriately defined: "To occupy obstructively or inconveniently. In general, an incumbent has a political advantage over challengers at elections. Except when the timing of elections is determined by a constitution or by legislation, the incumbent may have the right to determine the date of an election.
For most political offices, the incumbent has more name recognition due to their previous work in the office. Incumbents have easier access to campaign finance, as well as government resources that can be indirectly used to boost the incumbent’s re-election campaign. In the United States, an election in which an incumbent is not seeking re-election is called an open seat. An open contest is created when the term of office is limited, as in the case of terms of the U. S. president being restricted to two four-year terms, the incumbent is prohibited from recontesting. When newcomers look to fill an open office, voters tend to compare and contrast the candidates' qualifications, positions on political issues, personal characteristics in a straightforward way. Elections featuring an incumbent, on the other hand, are, as Guy Molyneux puts it, "fundamentally a referendum on the incumbent." Voters will first grapple with the record of the incumbent. Only if they decide to "fire" the incumbent do they begin to evaluate whether each of the challengers is an acceptable alternative.
A 2017 study in the British Journal of Political Science argues that the incumbency advantage stems from the fact that voters evaluate the incumbent's ideology individually whereas they assume that any challenger shares his party's ideology. This means. A 2017 study in the Journal of Politics found that incumbents have "a far larger advantage" in on-cycle elections than in off-cycle elections. Political analysts in the United States and United Kingdom have noted the existence of a sophomore surge in which first term representatives see an increase in votes in their first election; this phenomenon is said to bring an advantage of up to 10% for first term representatives, which increases the incumbency advantage. However, there exist scenarios in which the incumbency factor itself leads to the downfall of the incumbent. Popularly known as the anti-incumbency factor, situations of this kind occur when the incumbent has proven himself not worthy of office during his tenure and the challengers demonstrate this to the voters.
An anti-incumbency factor can be responsible for bringing down incumbents who have been in office for many successive terms despite performance indicators because the voters are convinced by the challengers of a need for change. It is argued that the holders of extensively powerful offices are subject to immense pressure which leaves them politically impotent and unable to command enough public confidence for re-election. Nick Panagakis, a pollster, coined what he dubbed the incumbent rule in 1989—that any voter who claims to be undecided towards the end of the election will end up voting for a challenger. In France, the phenomenon is known by the catchphrase "Sortez les sortants", the slogan of the Poujadist movement in the 1956 French legislative election. Sophomore surge Lists of office-holders List of current heads of state and government Outgoing politician Virtual incumbent Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. 1989. Print. De Magalhaes, L.. Incumbency effects in a comparative perspective: Evidence from Brazilian mayoral elections.
Political Analysis, 23, 113-126
Alaipayuthey is the soundtrack album, composed by A. R. Rahman, to the 2000 Indian Tamil film of the same name; the soundtrack album consists of nine tracks in original Tamil and Hindi versions of the albums whereas the Telugu version of the album has seven tracks. The soundtrack of Alaipayuthey was unanimously hailed as a Mani Ratnam film soundtrack turning for rhythmic fusion using modern synthesizers. A film planned with film score, the recording of the songs took place; the soundtrack was well received by the audience and received a number of awards held in the subsequent year. The original soundtrack sold over six lakh cassettes, A. R. Rahman won the Filmfare Award for Best Music Director in 2000; the film score achieved cult status after the release of the film. Director Mani Ratnam wanted A. R. Rahman to compose only the film score. However, by the end of filming, nine songs were recorded; the lyrics of the track "Pachchai Nirame" are based on colours. The track is influenced by the instrumental works of Kitaro.
The song is based on the raga "Kharaharapriya" and brings out the relaxing effect by using the facets of the musical scales. Cinematographer P. C. Sreeram used different color lenses as per the lyrical lines while filming this track; the song uses reverberating effect throughout its length. However, Rahman used light percussion strummed acoustic guitars and layered the acoustic and synthesized versions of the same instrument. Additionally, the track has sounds of flute and percussions. For Pachchai Nirame, Rahman ensured to use the timbres so that the picturisation of the song matches to the tune; the track was filmed at Taj Mahal, lake, forests of Kashmir. The track "Snehithane Snehithane" is an ode by a wife to the husband; the track is based on the Shringaar raag. "Snehithane Snehithane" has a video edit version, with additional opening vocals by Ustaad Rashid Khan. The video edit version was released only as a bonus track on the soundtrack and cassettes of Alaipayuthey and not on Sakhi or Saathiya.
However, the video edit version was used in all the three film versions. "Kaadhal Sadugudu" consists guitar riffs, based on the IndiPop and coming of age genre. The song was regarded as'Beach Song' by Ratnam; the track "September Maadham" is a funky track, loosely based on fast paced R. D. Burman music. "Yaaro Yarodi" is a rustic number. The track was used in the 2008 film The Accidental Husband. "Maangalyam" song consists of nuptial mantras interspersed with lyrics of "Endrendrum Punngai". The rhythm pattern of the song "Endrendrum Punnagai" was inspired by the song "Everybody" by Backstreet Boys; the title track "Alaipayuthey" was composed by the Carnatic music composer Oothukkadu Venkata Subbaiyar, who set it to the raagam'Kaanada'. Rahman added additional beats to the track; the track "Evano Oruvan". Singer Bombay Jayashri recorded for the film score. Rahman made her sing the raag Sindhu Bhairavi for half an hour whose portions were used in a scene when the lead actress was hospitalized in the film.
For the Hindi version of the soundtrack, the songs, "Alaipayuthey" and "Evano Oruvan" were not re-composed. Instead, Rahman composed a Sufi track "Mere Yaar Mila De" and a classical number. Lyricist Gulzar, who wrote all the Hindi version songs, stated, "In Saathiya I wrote'Mere Yaar Mila De', which isn't a typical romantic number though it's a love song." Unlike previous soundtracks recorded by Rahman for Ratnam, the former composed majority of the songs by fusing the classical carnatic music genres into moderns rhythms. Critic based at The Hindu asserted, "A. R. Rahman's numbers are a hit – be it "Pachchai Niramae" zestfully rendered by Hariharan or the melodious "Snegithanae" or "Yaaro Yaarodi". Now they come with added flavour in the form of excellently captured visuals and scenic presentations." However, the song "September Madham" was criticized to obstruct the smooth flow of scenes with music. Methil Renuka of India Today praised the music of the film, calling it'great'. St. Louis International Film Festival, critic Rich Cline called the music colourful.
Based on the 5.1 surround DVD release, James Grey stated, "The soundtrack is heavily dubbed, not the disk's fault, while the music doesn't have particular weight it comes across nicely enough. The music accessible." On penning review for Bollywood Hungama, critic Taran Adarsh stated, "A. R. Rahman's music is easy on the ears; the title track is the pick of the lot, but the item song can be deleted, for it serves as a speed breaker in the goings-on. This song was added to add spice." Critic based at Australian Cine Urban praised the music, "A superb digital sound mix drives the all important soundtrack, fantasy music video clips on the cable music channels in that they are multi-costume and multi-location showpieces, taking us from waterfalls to snowy mountain fields to idyllic shorelines. Duets and full scale wedding routines follow each other as the first half zips along with its charter to set the musical mood." Vijay Ramanan of Planet Bollywood, "A. R. Rahman's music and score, while re-created from the original except for two songs is as usual – fantastic.
Mr. Brown reviewed the music of the film, "The songs-chiefly are the lilting title number. Glamsham pointed, "All in all, all praises to the music composition by A
Marco Antonio Adame Castillo is a Mexican politician, medical doctor, member of the National Action Party. He served as governor of Morelos for the term of 2006—2012. Adame studied medicine and surgery at the Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos and has a master's degree in Administration with a specialty in High Technology from the Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, he collaborated periodically in his home state. He joined the PAN party in 1997, occupying various positions in the State and National Committees, in that same year he was elected a Diputado Federal to the 57th Federal Legislature. In 2000 he was elected to the role of a Senator. On June 27, 2009, the Fiscalía Especial para la Atención de Delitos Electorales accused Governor Marco Adame of transferring MXN $15 million of state funds to electoral purposes in favor of Sergio Álvarez Mata, candidate for mayor of Cuernavaca and Adriana Vieyra Olivares, candidate for deputy, both members of the National Action Party.
On January 11, 2010, the Mexican government's organized crime division SIEDO received an anonymous tip accusing the governor's bodyguards of being linked to the Beltrán-Leyva Cartel. SIEDO has opened an investigation. Marco Antonio was one of ten siblings, two of whom and Edgar, were appointed to public office by Governor Adame Castillo. Roberto Adame Castillo, 58, brother of Marco Antonio, committed suicide by hanging on June 7, 2013, in Cocoyoc, Morelos. On May 16, 2019, the body of Marco Adame's brother, Humberto Adame Castillo, was found in a ditch in Alpuyeca, Xochitepec. Unofficial sources say; the family paid a ransom of MXN $63,000 just. Marco Adame's nephew was robbed while at the funeral on May 17. Three men and two women were arrested in relation to the murder. 2006 Morelos state elections List of Mexican state governors morelos Official website of PAN Profile of Marco Antonio Adame on La Silly Rota Profile of Marco Antonio Adame on Red Politica About Marco Adame Castillo on El Economista