Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty agencies; these are known as a fire and rescue service, the term used in modern legislation and by government departments. The older terms of fire brigade and fire service survive in informal usage and in the names of a few organisations. England and Wales have local fire services which are each overseen by a fire authority, made up of representatives of local governments. Fire authorities have the power to raise a Council Tax levy for funding, with the remainder coming from the government. Scotland and Northern Ireland have centralised fire services, so their authorities are committees of the devolved parliaments; the total budget for fire services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. Central government maintains national standards and a body of independent advisers through the Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser, created in 2007, while Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services provides direct oversight.
The devolved government in Scotland has HMFSI Scotland. Firefighters in the United Kingdom are allowed to join unions, the main one being the Fire Brigades Union, while chief fire officers are members of the National Fire Chiefs Council, which has some role in national co-ordination; the fire services have undergone significant changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process, propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational procedures in the light of terrorism attacks and threats. See separate article History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom Comprehensive list of recent UK fire and rescue service legislation: Fire services are established and granted their powers under new legislation which has replaced a number of Acts of Parliament dating back more than 60 years, but is still undergoing change. 1938: Fire Brigades Act 1938. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain and made it mandatory for local authorities to arrange an effective fire service.
1947: Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004. 1959: Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act. It was repealed in Wales along with the 1947 Act. 1999: Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of national fire strikes, with much of the discontent caused by the aforementioned report into the fire service conducted by Prof Sir George Bain. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the industrial action still ongoing. Bain's report led to a change in the laws relating to firefighting. 2002: Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004: Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 only applying to England and Wales. 2006: The Regulatory Reform Order 2005 This piece of secondary legislation or statutory instrument replaces several other acts that dealt with fire precautions and fire safety in premises, including the now defunct process of issuing fire certificates.
It came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises: 2006: The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on "Fire and rescue services. Promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation." But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries. There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association, its website outlines future changes, specific projects: "The aim of the Fire Modernisation Programme is to adopt modern work practices within the Fire & Rescue Service to become more efficient and effective, while strengthening the contingency and resilience of the Service to react to incidents. " The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee. In June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report.
Committee report The committee's brief is described on its website: The Communities and Local Government Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure and policy of the Department for Communities and Local Government and its associated bodies. Government response This document, the subsequent government response in September 2006, are important as they outlined progress on the FiReControl, efforts to address diversity and the planned closure of HMFSI in 2007 among many issues. Both documents are interesting as they refer back to Professor Bain's report and the many recommendations it made and continue to put forward the notion that there is an ongoing need to modernise FRSs. For example, where FRSs were inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office. Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Governm
President of the Trades Union Congress
The President of the Trades Union Congress is a prominent but honorary position in British trade unionism. The post of president was elected at the annual Trades Union Congress itself, would serve just for the duration of the congress. Early standing orders stated that preference had to be given to a candidate from the city where the congress was being held. In 1900, the standing orders were changed to state that the presidency would be filled by the person who had chaired the Parliamentary Committee over the previous year; as a result, before 1900, numerous people served as Chair of the Parliamentary Committee without becoming President. The Parliamentary Committee was replaced by the General Council in 1921, the system continued. There were still rare occasions. Margaret Bondfield, elected as Chair in 1923, resigned to accept a government post before becoming President. George Isaacs, elected as Chair in 1944 resigned to accept a government post, was replaced by the vice-president, Ebby Edwards, who had presided over the previous year's congress.
In recent years, the President has once more been elected at the annual congress, but now fills the office for the remainder of the year and presides over the following year's conference. General Secretary of the TUC Details of Past Congresses
UK firefighter dispute 2002–03
The 2002-2003 UK firefighter dispute began when the Fire Brigades Union, voted to take strike action in an attempt to secure a better salary. The FBU demanded a 39 percent increase in pay, which would have brought the average firefighter's wage to around £30,000, it balloted its members for a strike in late 2002 and the industrial action began in November. It was the first nationwide firefighters' strike in the UK since the 1970s; the strike was led by FBU General Secretary Andy Gilchrist. Local authorities recommended a pay increase of 4%, whilst an independent review advised 11%; the FBU rejected both of these requesting 40%. The government argued that this could result in higher wages across the public sector and tax increases; the Independent Review of the Fire Service proposed increasing salaries, on condition that the fire service was reformed, including firefighters being trained as paramedics. The first few weeks of the planned action were postponed; the first period, a two-day strike, began at 18:00 hrs GMT, on Wednesday 13 November and ended at 18:00 on Friday 15 November.
In the event that reconciliation could not be brokered, further industrial action was planned. The armed forces provided emergency cover during the strike, using vintage Green Goddess engines, modern red fire appliances as part of Operation Fresco; the armed forces fielded small breathing apparatus rescue teams and rescue equipment support teams headed by professional firefighters of the RAF and staffed by specially trained members of all three services. Each side placed the responsibility with the other. Many feared that lives would be lost in fires because of a lack of a prompt response by emergency services. There were numerous examples of striking firefighters responding to emergency calls from the picket line and several rescues were made in this way; the first few weeks of the planned action were postponed. The FBU rejected an offer that would amount to 11 percent over two years from a review body headed by Sir George Bain, were unwilling to accept reforms to their working conditions; the FBU was criticised for its initial demand for a 40 percent pay-rise for both firefighters and support workers.
On March 19, 2003, leaders of the FBU and negotiators for the local authority employers reached a provisional agreement based on a three-year pay settlement and an understanding that modernisation measures would be subject to some measure of local negotiation. To the surprise of many observers, this was voted down by local area FBU representatives the following day. On June 12, 2003, the dispute ended with the firefighters accepting a pay deal worth 16 percent over three years linked to changes to working conditions. Tensions were raised again in 2004, when the FBU and local authority employers clashed over whether the deal brokered in 2003 was being honoured. However, this round of negotiations was settled without recourse to industrial action in August of that year. Fire service in the United Kingdom Independent Review of the Fire Service Independent Review of the Fire Service, at FRSOnline Fire Brigades Union UK government "UK resilience" fire strike information "Fire strike on as pay talks fail" BBC News article on original dispute Operation Fresco The Firefighters dispute In-depth BBC News feature Lancet "Deaths during Fire Strike" BBC News article covering the deaths during the strike
University of Birmingham
The University of Birmingham is a public research university located in Edgbaston, United Kingdom. It received its royal charter in 1900 as a successor to Queen's College and Mason Science College, making it the first English civic or'red brick' university to receive its own royal charter, it is a founding member of both the Russell Group of British research universities and the international network of research universities, Universitas 21. The university was ranked 14th in the UK and 79th in the world in the QS World University Rankings for 2019. In 2013, Birmingham was named'University of the Year 2014' in the Times Higher Education awards; the 2017 Global Employability University Ranking places Birmingham at 142nd worldwide and 10th in the UK. Birmingham is ranked 5th in the UK for Graduate Prospects in The Times and The Sunday Times Good University Guide 2018; the student population includes 22,440 undergraduate and 12,395 postgraduate students, the fourth largest in the UK. The annual income of the institution for 2017–18 was £673.8 million of which £134.2 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £663.2 million.
The university is home to the Barber Institute of Fine Arts, housing works by Van Gogh and Monet. Academics and alumni of the university include former British Prime Ministers Neville Chamberlain and Stanley Baldwin, the British composer Sir Edward Elgar and eleven Nobel laureates. Although the earliest beginnings of the university were traced back to the Queen's College, linked to William Sands Cox in his aim of creating a medical school along Christian lines, unlike the London medical schools, further research has now revealed the roots of the Birmingham Medical School in the medical education seminars of Mr John Tomlinson, the first surgeon to the Birmingham Workhouse Infirmary, to the General Hospital; these classes were the first held outside London or south of the Scottish border in the winter of 1767–68. The first clinical teaching was undertaken by medical and surgical apprentices at the General Hospital, opened in 1779; the medical school which grew out of the Birmingham Workhouse Infirmary was founded in 1828 but Cox began teaching in December 1825.
Queen Victoria granted her patronage to the Clinical Hospital in Birmingham and allowed it to be styled "The Queen's Hospital". It was the first provincial teaching hospital in England. In 1843, the medical college became known as Queen's College. In 1870, Sir Josiah Mason, the Birmingham industrialist and philanthropist, who made his fortune in making key rings, pen nibs and electroplating, drew up the Foundation Deed for Mason Science College; the college was founded in 1875. It was this institution that would form the nucleus of the University of Birmingham. In 1882, the Departments of Chemistry and Physiology were transferred to Mason Science College, soon followed by the Departments of Physics and Comparative Anatomy; the transfer of the Medical School to Mason Science College gave considerable impetus to the growing importance of that college and in 1896 a move to incorporate it as a university college was made. As the result of the Mason University College Act 1897 it became incorporated as Mason University College on 1 January 1898, with Joseph Chamberlain becoming the President of its Court of Governors.
It was due to Chamberlain's enthusiasm that the university was granted a royal charter by Queen Victoria on 24 March 1900. The Calthorpe family offered twenty-five acres of land on the Bournbrook side of their estate in July; the Court of Governors received the Birmingham University Act 1900, which put the royal charter into effect on 31 May. Birmingham was therefore arguably the first so-called red brick university, although several other universities claim this title; the transfer of Mason University College to the new University of Birmingham, with Chamberlain as its first chancellor and Sir Oliver Lodge as the first principal, was complete. All that remained of Josiah Mason's legacy was his Mermaid in the sinister chief of the university shield and of his college, the double-headed lion in the dexter, it became the first civic and campus university in England. The University Charter of 1900 included provision for a commerce faculty, as was appropriate for a university itself founded by industrialists and based in a city with enormous business wealth, in effect creating the first Business School in England.
The faculty, the first of its kind in Britain, was founded by Sir William Ashley in 1901, who from 1902 until 1923 served as first Professor of Commerce and Dean of the Faculty. From 1905 to 1908, Edward Elgar held the position of Peyton Professor of Music at the university, he was succeeded by his friend Granville Bantock. The university's own heritage archives are accessible for research through the university's Cadbury Research Library, open to all interested researchers; the Great Hall in the Aston Webb Building was converted into the 1st Southern General Hospital during World War I, with 520 beds and treated 125,000 injured servicemen. In 1939, the Barber Institute of Fine Arts, designed by Robert Atkinson, was opened. In 1956, the first MSc programme in Geotechnical Engineering commenced under the title of "Foundation Engineering", has been run annually at the university since, it was the
Queen's University Belfast
Queen's University Belfast is a public research university in Belfast, Northern Ireland. The university was chartered in 1845, opened in 1849 as "Queen's College, Belfast", it offers academic degrees at various levels and across a broad subject range, with over 300 degree programmes available. Its president and vice-chancellor is Ian Greer; the annual income of the institution for 2017–18 was £369.2 million of which £91.7 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £338.4 million. Queen's is a member of the Russell Group of leading research intensive universities, the Association of Commonwealth Universities, the European University Association, Universities Ireland and Universities UK; the university is associated with one Turing Award laureate. Queen's University Belfast has its roots in the Belfast Academical Institution, founded in 1810 and which remains as the Royal Belfast Academical Institution; the present university was first chartered as "Queen's College, Belfast" in 1845, when it was associated with the founded Queen's College and Queen's College, Galway, as part of the Queen's University of Ireland – founded to encourage higher education for Catholics and Presbyterians, as a counterpart to Trinity College, Dublin an Anglican institution.
Queen's College, opened in 1849. Its main building, the Lanyon Building, was designed by Sir Charles Lanyon. At its opening, it had 195 students; some early students at Queen's University Belfast took University of London examinations. The Irish Universities Act, 1908 dissolved the Royal University of Ireland, which had replaced the Queen's University of Ireland in 1879, created two separate universities: the current National University of Ireland and Queen's University of Belfast; the university was one of only eight United Kingdom universities to hold a parliamentary seat in the House of Commons at Westminster until such representation was abolished in 1950. The university was represented in the Parliament of Northern Ireland from 1920 to 1968, when graduates elected four members. On 20 June 2006, the university announced a £259 million investment programme focusing on facilities and research. One of the outcomes of this investment has been a new university library; the building has been named in honour of Sir Allen McClay, a major benefactor of Queen's University and of the Library.
In June 2010, the university announced the launch of a £7.5m Ansin international research hub with Seagate Technologies. Queen's is one of the largest employers in Northern Ireland, with a total workforce of 3,903, of whom 2,414 were members of academic, academic-related and research staff and 1,489 were administrative employees. In addition to the main campus on the southern fringes of Belfast city centre, the university has two associated university colleges, St Mary's and Stranmillis located in the west and south-west of the city respectively; these colleges offer teacher training for those who wish to pursue teaching careers and a range of degree courses, all of which are centred around a liberal arts core. While the university refers to its main site as a campus, the university's buildings are in fact spread over a number of public streets in South Belfast, principally Malone Road, University Road, University Square and Stranmillis Road, with other departments located further afield. Academic life at Queen's is organised into fifteen schools across three faculties.
The three faculties are the Faculty of Arts, Humanities & Social Sciences, the Faculty of Engineering & Physical Sciences and the Faculty of Medicine, Health & Life Sciences. Each of the schools operates as a primary management unit of the university and the schools are the focus for education and research for their respective subject areas. School of Biological Sciences School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering School of Electronics, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science School of Arts and Languages School of History, Anthropology and Politics School of Law Queen's Management School School of Mathematics and Physics School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences School of Nursing and Midwifery School of Pharmacy School of Natural and Built Environment School of Psychology School of Social Sciences and Social Work Gibson Institute- involved in education and research in the areas of sustainability, rural development, environmental management, food marketing, renewable energy, physical activity and public health Institute for Collaborative Research in the Humanities – established in 2012, supports interdisciplinary research in the Humanities at all levels.
On Feb 18th 2016 BBC Northern Ireland reported. Institute for Global Food Security Institute for the Study of Conflict Transformation and Social Justice Institute of Cognition and Culture- Founded in 2004, this is one of the world's first centres for research in the cognitive science of culture, it has brought together a range of cutting-edge cognitive scientists via a series of visiting fellowships. Institute of Electronics and Information Technology - established in 2003 to commercialise world-class research and expertise in a variety of enabling digital communications technologies at the School of Electronics, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at Queen's University Belfast. Institute of Irish Studies- It was the first of its kind to be established in the world and is one of the lead
Anthony Young, Baron Young of Norwood Green
Anthony Ian Young, Baron Young of Norwood Green is a British politician and Labour Party life peer in the House of Lords. He had been General Secretary of the National Communications Union joint General Secretary Senior Deputy General Secretary of the Communication Workers Union, he served as a Governor of the BBC. In the 2002 Birthday Honours Young was awarded a knighthood, having the honour conferred by The Prince of Wales on 13 December 2002, he was created a life peer on 25 June 2004 taking the title Baron Young of Norwood Green, of Norwood Green in the London Borough of Ealing. In October 2008 he was appointed as Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Skills and Apprenticeships in the Department for Innovation and Skills, being moved to the Department for Business and Skills when it was created in the June 2009 reshuffle, continuing as a Parliamentary Under Secretary of State, but with responsibility for Employment Relations and Postal Affairs until 11 May 2010
Fire Service College
The Fire Service College is responsible for providing leadership and advanced operational training courses for senior fire officers from the United Kingdom and foreign fire authorities. It is located at Moreton-in-Marsh in England; the nearest railway station is Moreton-in-Marsh. It has been owned by Capita since February 2013, having been an executive agency and trading fund of the Department for Communities and Local Government; the College provides the full range of training for firefighters at all levels, including initial training for recruit firefighters. Whilst Scotland has its own Scottish Fire Service College at Gullane near Edinburgh, many Scottish fire officers go to Moreton on the more specialist and senior ranking courses; the College has a wide range of facilities for theoretical education and practical training in firefighting, fire safety and accident and emergency work. Under the Fire Brigades Act 1938, the UK Government set up a training centre at Saltdean near Brighton in 1941, to train National Fire Service personnel.
With the return to local authority control after World War II, the British government decided to standardise the way in which the fire service worked. The college at Saltdean became too small and the Home Office opened the Senior Staff College at Wotton House, Dorking in Surrey in 1949, to train senior officers from all over the country. On 4 June 1966, they decided to do the same for the lower ranks and established the Fire Service College at Moreton; the College was built on a disused RAF wartime airfield about 3 km outside the market town of Moreton-in-Marsh. RAF Moreton-in-Marsh was, as the home station of 21 Operational Training Unit, RAF Bomber Command responsible for the training of aircrew to fly Wellington bombers; the Station flew operations, sent aircraft on the large bomber raids on the German cities of Cologne and Hamburg. The airbase remained operational until the late 1950s; the government used the base to teach fire fighting to military personnel undergoing their National Service.
The Home Office opened the College on the 500-acre site in 1968. The first students whilst having most of the facilities seen today had no proper accommodation and were bunked in large Nissen huts, which housed the RAF personnel when it was an operational airbase; the Staff College at Dorking was closed in 1981 and all training was transferred to Moreton. In April 1992, the College became an executive agency and trading fund under the Fire Service Trading Fund Order 1992. In June 2001, the responsibility for the College transferred from the Home Office to the Department for Transport, Local Government and the Regions and just one year to the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister and to the Department for Communities and Local Government. On 16 May 2009, a fire broke out at one of the workshops in the college, destroying 11 fire engines at a cost of £116,000 each; the blaze was not suspicious. In April 2011 the Government announced it was studying different options for private investment in the College to allow it to achieve its full potential and in March 2012 it was concluded that the best option was full privatisation.
In December 2012 Capita was selected as the preferred bidder and the sale was completed for £10 million on 28 February 2013. Educationally, the college boasts state of the art lecture facilities and specialised areas such as IT suites, a chemistry laboratory and hydraulics laboratory; the tutors are drawn from both the academic world and from officers serving in fire and rescue services around the country. Courses available range from firefighter recruits through junior officer development to senior officer management courses right up to Chief Officer level. To support the educational side, there as a large administration complex and a library of fire related literature. Students come from the UK but several countries such as the Netherlands, Germany and Tobago, Jamaica, Hong Kong, Cyprus, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, UAE and Gibraltar send students on a regular basis. Prior to the current troubles in various parts of the world, students from Iraq and Nigeria were a common sight at the college. Operational training is carried out in several purpose built areas of the college, these include Breathing apparatus complex Industrial complexes Domestic property High rise property Areas for electrical, pool fire and fixed installation training Small-scale versions of petroleum and chemical installations A concrete "ship", the “Sir Henry” A railway, which includes a section of rail with locomotives and carriages of various types, both passenger and freight.
A mock motorway USAR A range of aircraft including helicopters and civil passenger aircraft including a simulated Boeing 747 Fire behaviour unitsTo support the operational training the college has a equipped appliance room with some 25 appliances from different manufacturers including pumps, aerial appliances, rescue tenders, USAR vehicles and hazmats appliances. There is a large workshop to maintain the appliances and all the other operational equipment used; the M96 motorway is a 400-yard stretch of road at the college which imitates in detail a typical UK motorway. It consists of one of the former runways of the airfield; the numbering of the motorway is not consistent with the Great Britain road numbering scheme. The social and domestic facilities include Standard and deluxe accommodation for 600 students Television rooms and loung