The Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills is a non-ministerial department of the UK government, reporting to Parliament. Ofsted is responsible for inspecting a range of educational institutions, including state schools and some independent schools, it inspects childcare and fostering agencies and initial teacher training, regulates a range of early years and children’s social care services. The Chief Inspector is appointed by an Order-in-Council and thus becomes an office holder under the Crown. Amanda Spielman has been HMCI since 2017. In 1833, Parliament agreed an annual grant to the National Society for Promoting Religious Education and the British and Foreign School Society, which provided Church of England and non-denominational elementary schools for poor children. To monitor the effectiveness of the grant, two inspectors of schools were appointed in 1837, Seymour Tremenheere and the Rev. John Allen. Dr. James Kay-Shuttleworth secretary of the Privy Council education committee, ensured that the inspectors were appointed by Order-in-Council to guard their independence.
The grant and inspection system was extended in 1847 to Roman Catholic elementary schools established by the Catholic Poor School Committee. Inspectors were organised on denominational lines, with the churches having a say in the choice of inspectors, until 1876, when inspectors were re-organised by area. After the Education Act 1902, inspections were expanded to state-funded secondary schools along similar lines. Over time, more inspections were carried out by inspectors based in local education authorities, with HMI focussing on reporting to the Secretary of State on education conditions across the country; the government of John Major, concerned about variable local inspection regimes, decided to introduce a national scheme of inspections though a reconstituted HMI, which became known as the Office for Standards in Education. Under the Education Act 1992, HMI would supervise the inspection of each state-funded school in the country, would publish its reports for the benefit of schools and government instead of reporting to the Secretary of State.
In September 2001, Her Majesty's Chief Inspector of Schools in England became responsible for registration and inspection of day care and childminding in England, the position was renamed Her Majesty's Chief Inspector of Education, Children's Services and Skills. This was done by 150 local authorities, based on their implementation by 1992 of the Daycare Standards provisions of the 1989 Children Act. Schedule 11 of the Education and Inspections Act 2006 changed the way in which Ofsted works without changing the provision. Since 2006 the structure of Ofsted has derived elements from business models, with a Chair, an executive board, regional officers, a formal annual report to Parliament in the light of concerns about schools, local authority children's services. In April 2007 the former Office for Standards in Education merged with the Adult Learning Inspectorate to provide an inspection service that includes all post-16 government funded education. At the same time it took on responsibility for the registration and inspection of social care services for children, the welfare inspection of independent and maintained boarding schools from the Commission for Social Care Inspection.
The services Ofsted inspects or regulates now include: local services, child day care, children's centres, children's social care, CAFCASS, state schools, independent schools and teacher training providers and learning and skills providers in England. It monitors the work of the Independent Schools Inspectorate. HMI are empowered and required to provide independent advice to the United Kingdom government and parliament on matters of policy and to publish an annual report to parliament on the quality of educational provision in England. Ofsted distributes its functions amongst its offices in London, Nottingham, Cambridge and Bristol. Ofsted only covers England; the current Chief Inspector is Amanda Spielman, appointed in January 2017 replacing Sir Michael Wilshaw. Ofsted directly employs Her Majesty's Inspectors; as of July 2009 there were 443 HMIs, of whom 82 were engaged in management, 245 in the inspection of schools, the rest in inspection of other areas for which Ofsted in responsible. All HMIs inspecting schools have teaching experience.
Most school inspections were carried out by Additional Inspectors employed by external companies known as Regional Inspection Service Providers. As of July 2009 there were 1,948 AIs. Although Ofsted claims that most of these have teaching experience, in 2012 it was forced to admit that it had done no quality control checks on these inspectors, that many of them – including lead inspectors – were not qualified teachers and many had no experience of working with children. A further scandal surrounded headteachers dismissed following poor OFSTED reports being hired as inspectors. In 2015, 40% of additional inspectors who wanted to continue working for OFSTED were not re-hired after a contractual change. Although OFSTED insisted that this was part of a quality control process and'should not be seen as an admi
Department for Education
The Department for Education is a department of Her Majesty's Government responsible for child protection, education and wider skills in England. A Department for Education existed between 1992, when the Department of Education and Science was renamed, 1995 when it was merged with the Department for Employment to become the Department for Education and Employment; the DfE was formed on 12 May 2010 by the incoming Cameron ministry, taking on the responsibilities and resources of the Department for Children and Families. In June 2012 the Department for Education committed a breach of the UK's Data Protection Act due to a security flaw on its website which made email addresses and comments of people responding to consultation documents available for download. In July 2016, the Department took over responsibilities for higher and further education and for apprenticeship from the dissolved Department for Business and Skills. Committee of the Privy Council on Education, 1839–1899 Education Department, 1856–1899 Board of Education, 1899–1944 Ministry of Education, 1944–1964 Department of Education and Science, 1964–1992 Department for Education, 1992–1995 Department for Education and Employment, 1995–2001 Department for Education and Skills, 2001–2007 Department for Children and Families, 2007–2010 The department is led by the Secretary of State for Education.
The Permanent Secretary is Jonathan Slater. DfE is responsible for education, children’s services and further education policy and wider skills in England, equalities; the predecessor department employed the equivalent of 2,695 staff as of April 2008 and as at June 2016, DfE had reduced its workforce to the equivalent of 2,301 staff. In 2015-16, the DfE has a budget of £58.2bn, which includes £53.6bn resource spending and £4.6bn of capital investments. The Department for Education's ministers are as follows: The management board is made up of: Permanent Secretary - Jonathan Slater Director-General, Social Care and Equalities - Indra Morris Director-General, Education Standards - Paul Kett Director-General and Funding - Andrew McCully Director-General and Further Education - Philippa Lloyd Chief Financial and Operating Officer, Insight and Transformation - Howard Orme Chief Executive, Education & Skills Funding Agency - Eileen MilnerNon-executive board members: Marion Plant OBE; the Education Funding Agency was responsible for distributing funding for state education in England for 3-19 year olds, as well as managing the estates of schools, colleges and the Skills Funding Agency was responsible for funding skills training for further education in England and running the National Apprenticeship Service and the National Careers Service.
The EFA was formed on 1 April 2012 by bringing together the functions of two non-departmental public bodies, the Young People's Learning Agency and Partnerships for Schools. The SFA was formed on 1 April 2010, following the closure of the Skills Council. Eileen Milner is the agency's Chief Executive; the National College for Teaching and Leadership is responsible for administering the training of new and existing teachers in England, as well as the regulation of the teaching profession and offers headteachers, school leaders and senior children's services leaders opportunities for professional development. It was established on 1 April 2013, when the Teaching Agency merged with the National College for School Leadership; the National College for Teaching and Leadership was replaced by the Department for Education and Teaching Regulation Agency in April 2018. The Standards and Testing Agency is responsible for developing and delivering all statutory assessments for school pupils in England, it was formed on 1 October 2011 and took over the functions of the Qualifications and Curriculum Development Agency.
The STA is regulated by Ofqual. The DfE is supported by 10 public bodies: Education and children's policy is devolved elsewhere in the UK; the department's main devolved counterparts are as follows: Scotland Scottish Government – Learning and Justice DirectoratesNorthern Ireland Department of Education Office of the First Minister and deputy First Minister Wales Welsh Government – Department for Education and Skills The Department for Education released a new National Curriculum for schools in England for September 2014, which included'Computing'. Following Michael Gove's speech in 2012, the subject of Information Communication Technology has been disapplied and replaced by Computing. With the new curriculum, materials have been written by commercial companies, to support non-specialist teachers, for example,'100 Computing Lessons' by Scholastic; the Computing at Schools organisation has created a'Network of Teaching Excellence'to support schools with the new curriculum. In 2015, the Department announced a major restructuring of the
For the usage of the phrase "by inspection" in mathematics, see List of mathematical jargon#Proof techniques. An inspection is, most formal evaluation exercise. In engineering activities inspection involves the measurements and gauges applied to certain characteristics in regard to an object or activity; the results are compared to specified requirements and standards for determining whether the item or activity is in line with these targets with a Standard Inspection Procedure in place to ensure consistent checking. Inspections are non-destructive. Inspections may be a visual inspection or involve sensing technologies such as ultrasonic testing, accomplished with a direct physical presence or remotely such as a remote visual inspection, manually or automatically such as an automated optical inspection. Non-contact optical measurement and Photogrammetry have become common NDT methods for inspection of manufactured components and design optimisation. A 2007 Scottish Government review of scrutiny of public services defined inspection of public services as "... periodic, targeted scrutiny of specific services, to check whether they are meeting national and local performance standards and professional requirements, the needs of service users."
A surprise inspection tends to have different results than an announced inspection. Leaders wanting to know how others in their organization perform can drop in without warning, to see directly what happens. If an inspection is made known in advance, it can give people a chance to cover up or to fix mistakes; this could lead to inaccurate findings. A surprise inspection, gives inspectors a better picture of the typical state of the inspected object or process than an announced inspection, it enhances external confidence in the inspection process. See section 4.12 of the Crear report. Quality related in-process inspection/verification is an essential part of quality control in manufacturing. Inspection in manufacturing includes measuring, testing, or gauging one or more characteristics of a product or process and comparing the results with specified requirements to determine whether is the requirements are met for each characteristic. Common examples of inspection by measurement or gauging include using a caliper or micrometer to determine if a dimension of a manufactured part is within the dimensional tolerance specified in a drawing for that part, is thus acceptable for use.
Design for Inspection is a concept that should complement and work in collaboration with Design for Manufacturability and Design for Assembly to reduce product manufacturing cost and increase manufacturing practicality. Photogrammetry is a modern way of visual inspection, delivering high accuracy and traceability for various industries; the portable 3D system is a versatile optical coordinate measuring machine with a wide range of capabilities. Accurate point measurements can be taken with inspection carried out directly to CAD models, geometry or drawings. Most fire equipment needs to be inspected to make sure in the event of a fire, every effort has been taken to make sure it doesn't get out of control. Extinguishers are to be inspected every month by law and inspected by a servicing company at least once a year. Fire extinguishers can be heavy, so it's a good idea to practice picking up and holding an extinguisher to get an idea of the weight and feel. In international trade several destination countries require pre-shipment inspection.
The importer instructs the shipper. The inspector makes pictures and a report to certify that the goods that are being shipped and produced are in accordance with the accompanying documents. Commodity inspection is other term, used between buyers and sellers; the scope of work for commodity inspection depends to the buyers. Some buyers hire the inspection agencies only for pre-shipment inspections i.e. visual quality, packing and loading inspections and some others request for higher level inspections and ask inspection agencies to attend in the vendor shops and inspect commodities during manufacturing processes. Inspection is done based on an agreed inspection and test plan. In government and politics, an inspection is the act of a monitoring authority administering an official review of various criteria that are deemed by the authority to be related to the inspection. Inspections are used for the purpose of determining; the inspector examines the talks with involved individuals. A report and evaluation follows such visits.
The Food Safety Inspection Service is charged with ensuring that all meat and egg products in the United States are safe to consume and labeled. The Meat Inspection Act of 1906 authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to order meat inspections and condemn any found unfit for human consumption; the United Nations Monitoring and Inspection Commission is a regulatory body that inspects for weapons of mass destruction. The Scottish Commission for the Regulation of Care inspects care services in Scotland. A vehicle inspection, e.g. an annual inspection, is a necessary inspection required on vehicles to conform with laws regarding safety, emissions, or both. It consists of an examination of a vehicle's components done by a certified mechanic. Vehicles pass a pre-warranty inspection, if, only if, a mechanic provide evidence for the proper working condition of the vehicle systems specified in the type of inspection. A mechanical inspection is undertaken to ensure the safety or reliability o
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Independent school (United Kingdom)
In the United Kingdom, independent schools are fee-paying private schools, governed by an elected board of governors and independent of many of the regulations and conditions that apply to state-funded schools. For example, pupils do not have to follow the National Curriculum. Many of the older and more exclusive schools catering for the 13–18 age-range in England and Wales are known as public schools as defined by the Public Schools Act 1868, the term "public" being derived from the fact that they were open to pupils regardless of where they lived or their religion. Prep schools educate younger children up to the age of 13 to "prepare" them for entry to the public schools and other independent schools; some former grammar schools converted to an independent fee-paying model following the 1965 Circular 10/65 which marked the end of their state funding. There are around 2,500 independent schools in the UK, which educate around 615,000 children, some 7 per cent of all British children and 18 per cent of pupils over the age of 16.
In addition to charging tuition fees, many benefit from gifts, charitable endowments and charitable status. Many of these schools are members of the Independent Schools Council. In 2017, the average cost for private schooling was £14,102 for day school and £32,259 for boarding school; some independent schools are old, such as The King's School, The King's School, Rochester, St Peter's School, Sherborne School, Warwick School, The King's School, Ely and St Albans School. These schools were under their complete dominion. However, it was during the late 14th & early 15th centuries that the first schools, independent of the church, were founded. Winchester & Oswestry were the first of their kind and paved the way for the establishment of the modern "Public school"; these were established for male scholars from poor or disadvantaged backgrounds. For instance, the Queen's Scholarships founded at Westminster in 1560, are for "the sons of decay'd gentlemen"; the transformation of free charitable foundations into institutions which sometimes charge fees came about readily: the foundation would only afford minimal facilities, so that further fees might be charged to lodge and otherwise maintain the scholars, to the private profit of the trustees or headmaster.
Facilities provided by the charitable foundation for a few scholars could profitably be extended to further paying pupils. After a time, such fees would eclipse the original charitable income, the original endowment would become a minor part of the capital benefactions enjoyed by the school. In 2009 senior boarding schools were charging fees of nearly £ 30,000 per annum. However, a majority of the independent schools today are still registered as a charity, bursary is available to students on a means test basis. Christ's Hospital in Horsham is an example. A large proportion of its students are funded by its charitable foundation or by various benefactors; the educational reforms of the 19th century were important under first Thomas Arnold at Rugby, Butler and Kennedy at Shrewsbury, the former emphasising team spirit and muscular Christianity and the latter the importance of scholarship and competitive examinations. Edward Thring of Uppingham School introduced major reforms, focusing on the importance of the individual and competition, as well as the need for a "total curriculum" with academia, music and drama being central to education.
Most public schools developed during the 18th and 19th centuries, came to play an important role in the development of the Victorian social elite. Under a number of forward-looking headmasters leading public schools created a curriculum based on classics and physical activity for boys and young men of the upper and upper middle classes, they were schools for the gentlemanly elite of Victorian politics, armed forces and colonial government. Successful businessmen would send their sons to a public school as a mark of participation in the elite. Much of the discipline was in the hands of senior pupils, not just a means to reduce staffing costs, but was seen as vital preparation for those pupils' roles in public or military service. More heads of public schools have been emphasising that senior pupils now play a much reduced role in disciplining. To an extent, the public school system influenced the school systems of the British Empire, recognisably "public" schools can be found in many Commonwealth countries.
Until 1975 there had been a group of 179 academically selective schools drawing on both private and state funding, the direct grant grammar schools. The Direct Grant Grammar Schools Regulations 1975 required these schools to choose between full state funding as comprehensive schools and full independence; as a result, 119 of these schools became independent. Pupil numbers at independent schools fell during the mid-1970s recession. At the same time participation at all secondary schools grew so that the share of the independent sector fell from a little under 8 per cent in 1964 to reach a low of 5.7 per cent in 1978. Both these trends were reversed during the 1980s, the share of the indepe
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the