An independent city or independent town is a city or town that does not form part of another general-purpose local government entity. In the Holy Roman Empire, to a degree in its successor states the German Confederation and the German Empire, so-called "free imperial cities" held the legal status of imperial immediacy, according to which they were not subinfeudated to any vassal ruler and were instead subject to the authority of the Emperor alone. Examples included Hamburg, Lübeck, along with others that gained and/or lost the privileges of immediacy over the course of the Empire's history. A number of countries have made their national capitals into separate entities. Examples include: Bucharest, the capital of Romania, is outside the country's system of counties. London, the capital of the United Kingdom and its constituent country England, is administratively Greater London, which consists of the City of London and 32 London boroughs. Greater London is not one of the metropolitan or non-metropolitan counties, which the remainder of England is subdivided into.
London has its own assembly and directly-elected mayor, which exercise local government/devolved powers greater than any other city or place in the UK, apart from the nations/provinces of Wales and Northern Ireland. One of the boroughs, the City of Westminster, is the seat of government as home to the Houses of Parliament, Buckingham Palace and other notable government and religious buildings; the City of London has enjoyed a unique status in British local government since before the signing of Magna Carta. Oslo, the capital of Norway, is an independent city defined both as a county. Tokyo, the capital of Japan, is not a city but one of Japan's 47 prefectures, its official name is Tokyo Metropolis, highlighting its special designation. It consists of 49 municipalities, 23 of which are the wards that once made up the no-longer existing Tokyo City. In countries with a federal structure, the federal capital is separate from other jurisdictions in the country, has a unique system of government. Examples include: Addis Ababa, capital of Ethiopia, has held the designation of chartered city since 1991, when it was separated from the former province of Shewa.
It shares this status with Dire Dawa. Berlin, the capital of Germany, was separated from its historic Province of Brandenburg in 1881, from whence it has been an independent city. In 1920, its size was expanded to its current borders. Brasília, the capital of Brazil, is located in the Federal District—the same was created for the purpose of housing the federal capital city. Brussels, the capital of Belgium, is a separate bilingual region, independent of both Flanders and Wallonia, despite being surrounded by Flanders and sharing a common language with both Wallonia and Flanders. However, the constitution of Belgium recognizes the municipality of the City of Brussels in the region as the capital, despite the entire region being recognized as the capital. Buenos Aires, the capital of Argentina, received the status of "Autonomous City" via a 1994 amendment to the country's constitution. Buenos Aires had been designated as a "Capital District". Canberra, the capital of Australia, is located in the Australian Capital Territory.
Caracas, the capital of Venezuela, is located in a Capital District. Mexico City, the capital of the United Mexican States, is coterminous with the Federal District; the 31 states and the Federal District are collectively called "federal entities". Moscow, the capital of Russia, itself forms a federal city, a capital territory, one of the 83 federal subjects of Russia; the status is equally shared by two other cities—Saint Petersburg and Sevastopol. New Delhi – the capital city of India – and the old city of Delhi together form the National Capital Territory of Delhi. Washington, D. C. the capital of the United States, is not within any of the 50 states. It is co-terminous with the District of Columbia; the two form one entity. Although the District of Columbia was created as a capital territory out of parts of Maryland and Virginia, the portion from Virginia was removed from the Federal District and returned to Virginia in 1846, where it remains as Arlington County. In Taiwan Area under the administrative division system of the Republic of China, some cities are directly administered by the Executive Yuan, some are administered by provinces, some are subordinate to counties.
The centrally-administered and province-administered ones are like independent cities under this definition. In addition to its nine provinces, South Korea has seven province-level "metropolitan cities." By far the largest among these in terms of population is the capital, called a teukbyeol-si, home to more than 20% of the entire population of the country. The remaining six independent cities are called gwangyeok-si whose names are: Busan, Daejeon, Incheon and Ulsan; these independent cities h
Barnet Gate Mill or Arkley Windmill is a grade II* listed tower mill at Barnet Gate in the London Borough of Barnet in Hertfordshire, built in 1823. There is no public access. Barnet Gate Mill was built in 1823. A claim that it was built during the Napoleonic Wars has not been substantiated. Although steam had been added in 1895, it was working by wind until 1918, latterly on two sails; the mill was restored in 1930. A new cap and gallery around the cap being made; the work was done by the Soham millwright. In a further restoration in 1985, the missing pair of sails was replaced. Barnet Gate Mill is a four-storey tower mill with an ogee cap, it has two Common sails carried on a cast iron windshaft. The cap is winded by a fantail; the mill may have started life with two Common sails and two Spring sails carried on a wooden windshaft as the wooden clasp arm Brake Wheel has had to be fitted with packing pieces to enable it to fit the current windshaft, which being of iron is a smaller diameter than a wooden one would be.
The Wallower is of cast iron, carried on a wooden upright shaft. This carries the Great Spur Wheel, of iron with wooden cogs and drove the two pairs of millstones underdrift. A third pair was added. Only one pair of millstones remains today. John Whitehead 1843–1851 Frederick Edwards 1870–1899 Noah Edwards 1896–1918 Windmill World webpage on Barnet Gate mill
Spermacoce remota, the woodland false buttonweed, is a species of plant in the Rubiaceae. It is native to the southeastern United States, West Indies, Central America and South America, it is naturalized in Taiwan, Southeast Asia, India, Sri Lanka, New Guinea and many other oceanic islands. Spermacoce remota is a perennial sub-shrub up to 70 cm tall. Stems are either square in cross-section. Leaves are lanceolate, up to 5 cm long. Flowers are white, in a clump at the top of the stem; this herb is a common ground for oviposition such as those of Anartia fatima. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants Spermacoce remota Nature Love You, Spermacoce remota Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants, Spermacoce remota Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk,Spermacoce remota Encyclopedia of Life Spermacoce remota Landscape Plants for South Florida Spermacoce remota