A patent is a form of intellectual property. A patent gives its owner the right to exclude others from making, using and importing an invention for a limited period of time twenty years; the patent rights are granted in exchange for an enabling public disclosure of the invention. In most countries patent rights fall under civil law and the patent holder needs to sue someone infringing the patent in order to enforce his or her rights. In some industries patents are an essential form of competitive advantage; the procedure for granting patents, requirements placed on the patentee, the extent of the exclusive rights vary between countries according to national laws and international agreements. However, a granted patent application must include one or more claims that define the invention. A patent may include many claims; these claims must meet relevant patentability requirements, such as novelty and non-obviousness. Under the World Trade Organization's TRIPS Agreement, patents should be available in WTO member states for any invention, in all fields of technology, provided they are new, involve an inventive step, are capable of industrial application.
There are variations on what is patentable subject matter from country to country among WTO member states. TRIPS provides that the term of protection available should be a minimum of twenty years; the word patent originates from the Latin patere, which means "to lay open". It is a shortened version of the term letters patent, an open document or instrument issued by a monarch or government granting exclusive rights to a person, predating the modern patent system. Similar grants included land patents, which were land grants by early state governments in the USA, printing patents, a precursor of modern copyright. In modern usage, the term patent refers to the right granted to anyone who invents something new and non-obvious; some other types of intellectual property rights are called patents in some jurisdictions: industrial design rights are called design patents in the US, plant breeders' rights are sometimes called plant patents, utility models and Gebrauchsmuster are sometimes called petty patents or innovation patents.
The additional qualification utility patent is sometimes used to distinguish the primary meaning from these other types of patents. Particular species of patents for inventions include biological patents, business method patents, chemical patents and software patents. Although there is some evidence that some form of patent rights was recognized in Ancient Greece in the Greek city of Sybaris, the first statutory patent system is regarded to be the Venetian Patent Statute of 1474. Patents were systematically granted in Venice as of 1474, where they issued a decree by which new and inventive devices had to be communicated to the Republic in order to obtain legal protection against potential infringers; the period of protection was 10 years.. As Venetians emigrated, they sought similar patent protection in their new homes; this led to the diffusion of patent systems to other countries. The English patent system evolved from its early medieval origins into the first modern patent system that recognised intellectual property in order to stimulate invention.
By the 16th century, the English Crown would habitually abuse the granting of letters patent for monopolies. After public outcry, King James I of England was forced to revoke all existing monopolies and declare that they were only to be used for "projects of new invention"; this was incorporated into the Statute of Monopolies in which Parliament restricted the Crown's power explicitly so that the King could only issue letters patent to the inventors or introducers of original inventions for a fixed number of years. The Statute became the foundation for developments in patent law in England and elsewhere. Important developments in patent law emerged during the 18th century through a slow process of judicial interpretation of the law. During the reign of Queen Anne, patent applications were required to supply a complete specification of the principles of operation of the invention for public access. Legal battles around the 1796 patent taken out by James Watt for his steam engine, established the principles that patents could be issued for improvements of an existing machine and that ideas or principles without specific practical application could legally be patented.
Influenced by the philosophy of John Locke, the granting of patents began to be viewed as a form of intellectual property right, rather than the obtaining of economic privilege. The English legal system became the foundation for patent law in countries with a common law heritage, including the United States, New Zealand and Australia. In the Thirteen Colonies, inventors could obtain patents through petition to a given colony's legislature. In 1641, Samuel Winslow was granted the first patent in North America by the Massachusetts General Court for a new process for making salt; the modern French patent system was created during the Revolution in 1791. Patents were granted without examination. Patent costs were high. Importation patents protected new devices coming from foreign countries; the patent law was revised in 1844 - patent cost was lowered and importation patents were abolished. The first Patent Act of the U. S. Congress was passed on April 10, 1790, titled "An Act to promote the progress of
Phonograph cylinders are the earliest commercial medium for recording and reproducing sound. Known as "records" in their era of greatest popularity, these hollow cylindrical objects have an audio recording engraved on the outside surface, which can be reproduced when they are played on a mechanical cylinder phonograph. In the 1910s, the competing disc record system triumphed in the marketplace to become the dominant commercial audio medium. On July 18, 1877, Thomas Edison and his team invented the phonograph, his first successful recording and reproduction of intelligible sounds, achieved early in the following December, used a thin sheet of tin foil wrapped around a hand-cranked grooved metal cylinder. Tin foil was not a practical recording medium for either commercial or artistic purposes and the crude hand-cranked phonograph was only marketed as a novelty, to little or no profit. Edison moved on to developing a practical incandescent electric light and the next improvements to sound recording technology were made by others.
Following seven years of research and experimentation at their Volta Laboratory, Charles Sumner Tainter, Alexander Graham Bell and Chichester Bell introduced wax as the recording medium and engraving, rather than indenting, as the recording method. In 1887, their "Graphophone" system was being put to the test of practical use by official reporters of the US Congress, with commercial units being produced by the Dictaphone Corporation. After this system was demonstrated to Edison's representatives, Edison resumed work on the phonograph, he settled on a thicker all-wax cylinder, the surface of which could be shaved down for reuse. Both the Graphophone and Edison's "Perfected Phonograph" were commercialized in 1888. A patent-sharing agreement was signed and the wax-coated cardboard tubes were abandoned in favor of Edison's all-wax cylinders as an interchangeable standard format. Beginning in 1885, prerecorded wax cylinders were marketed; these have professionally made recordings of songs, instrumental music or humorous monologues in their grooves.
At first, the only customers for them were proprietors of nickel-in-the-slot machines—the first juke boxes—installed in arcades and taverns, but within a few years private owners of phonographs were buying them for home use. Each cylinder can be placed on and removed from the mandrel of the machine used to play them. Unlike shorter-playing high-speed cylinders, early cylinder recordings were cut at a speed of about 120 rpm and can play for as long as 3 minutes, they were made of a soft wax formulation and would wear out after they were played a few dozen times. The buyer could use a mechanism which left their surfaces shaved smooth so new recordings could be made on them. Cylinder machines of the late 1880s and the 1890s were sold with recording attachments; the ability to record as well as play back sound was an advantage of cylinder phonographs over the competition from cheaper disc record phonographs which began to be mass-marketed at the end of the 1890s, as the disc system machines can be used only to play back prerecorded sound.
In the earliest stages of phonograph manufacturing various competing incompatible types of cylinder recordings were made. A standard system was decided upon by Edison Records, Columbia Phonograph, other companies in the late 1880s; the standard cylinders are about 4 inches long, 2 1⁄4 inches in diameter, play about 2 minutes of music or other sound. Over the years the type of wax used in cylinders was improved and hardened so that cylinders could be played with good quality over 100 times. In 1902 Edison Records launched a line of improved hard wax cylinders marketed as "Edison Gold Molded Records"; the major development of this line of cylinders is that Edison had developed a process that allowed a mold to be made from a master cylinder which permitted the production of several hundred cylinders to be made from the mold. The process was labeled, "Gold Moulded" because of the gold vapor, given off by gold electrodes used in the process. All cylinders sold had to be recorded live on the softer brown wax which wore out in as few as twenty playings.
Cylinders were reproduced either mechanically or by linking phonographs together with rubber tubes. Although not satisfactory, the result was good enough to be sold. Cylinders were sold in cardboard tubes with cardboard caps on each end, the upper one a removable lid. Like cylindrical containers for hats, they were called "boxes", the word still used by experienced collectors. Within them, the earliest soft wax cylinders came swathed in a separate length of thick cotton batting. Molded hard-wax cylinders were sold in boxes with a cotton lining. Celluloid cylinders were sold in unlined boxes; these protective boxes were kept and used to house the cylinders after purchase. Their general appearance allowed bandleader John Philip Sousa to deride their contents as "canned music", an epithet he borrowed from Mark Twain, but that did not stop Sousa's band from profiting by recording on cylinders; the earliest cylinder boxes have a plain brown paper exterior, sometimes rubber-stamped with the company name.
By the late 1890s, record companies pasted a generic printed label around the outside of the box, sometimes with a penciled catalog number but no other indication of the identity of the recording inside. A slip of paper stating the title and performer was placed inside the box with the cylinder. At first this information was hand-written or typed on each slip, but printed versions became more common once cylinders were sold in large enough quantities to justify the printing set-up cost; the recording itself began with a spoken
Celluloids are a class of compounds created from nitrocellulose and camphor, with added dyes and other agents. Considered the first thermoplastic, it was first created as Parkesine in 1856 and as Xylonite in 1869, before being registered as Celluloid in 1870. Celluloid is molded and shaped, it was first used as an ivory replacement; the main use was in movie and photography film industries, which used only celluloid film stock prior to the adoption of acetate safety film in the 1950s. Celluloid is flammable and expensive to produce and no longer used. Nitrocellulose-based plastics predate celluloid. Collodion, invented in 1848 and used as a wound dressing and an emulsion for photographic plates, is dried to a celluloid-like film; the first celluloid as a bulk material for forming objects was made in 1855 in Birmingham, England, by Alexander Parkes, never able to see his invention reach full fruition, after his firm went bankrupt due to scale-up costs. Parkes patented his discovery as Parkesine in 1862 after realising a solid residue remained after evaporation of the solvent from photographic collodion.
Parkes patented it as a clothing waterproofer for woven fabrics in the same year. Parkes showcased Parkesine at the 1862 International Exhibition in London, where he was awarded a bronze medal for his efforts; the introduction of Parkesine is regarded as the birth of the plastics industry. Parkesine was made from cellulose treated with a solvent, it is called synthetic ivory. The Parkesine company ceased trading in 1868. Pictures of Parkesine are held by the Plastics Historical Society of London. There is a plaque on the wall of the site of the Parkesine Works in London. In the 1860s, an American, John Wesley Hyatt, acquired Parkes's patent and began experimenting with cellulose nitrate with the intention of manufacturing billiard balls, which until that time were made from ivory, he used cloth, ivory dust, shellac, on April 6, 1869, patented a method of covering billiard balls with the addition of collodion. With assistance from Peter Kinnear and other investors, Hyatt formed the Albany Billiard Ball Company in Albany, New York, to manufacture the product.
In 1870, John and his brother Isaiah patented a process of making a "horn-like material" with the inclusion of cellulose nitrate and camphor. Alexander Parkes and Daniel Spill listed camphor during their earlier experiments, calling the resultant mix "xylonite", but it was the Hyatt brothers who recognized the value of camphor and its use as a plasticizer for cellulose nitrate. Isaiah Hyatt dubbed his material "celluloid" in 1872. English inventor Daniel Spill had worked with Parkes and formed the Xylonite Co. to take over Parkes' patents, describing the new plastic products as Xylonite. He took exception to the Hyatts' claims and pursued the brothers in a number of court cases between 1877 and 1884; the judge found in Spill's favour, but it was judged that neither party held an exclusive claim and the true inventor of celluloid/xylonite was Alexander Parkes, due to his mention of camphor in his earlier experiments and patents. The judge ruled all manufacturing of celluloid could continue both in Spill's British Xylonite Company and Hyatts' Celluloid Manufacturing Company.
The name Celluloid began as a trademark of the Celluloid Manufacturing Company, first of Albany, NY, of Newark, New Jersey, which manufactured the celluloids patented by John Wesley Hyatt. Hyatt used pressure to simplify the manufacture of these compounds. Over the years, celluloid became the common use term used for this type of plastic. In 1878 Hyatt was able to patent a process for injection moulding thermoplastics, although it took another fifty years before it could be realised commercially, in years celluloid was used as the base for photographic film. English photographer John Carbutt founded the Keystone Dry Plate Works in 1879 with the intention of producing gelatin dry plates; the Celluloid Manufacturing Company was contracted for this work, done by thinly slicing layers out of celluloid blocks and removing the slice marks with heated pressure plates. After this, the celluloid strips were coated with a photosensitive gelatin emulsion, it is not certain how long it took for Carbutt to standardize his process, but it occurred no than 1888.
A 15-inch-wide sheet of Carbutt's film was used by William Dickson for the early Edison motion picture experiments on a cylinder drum Kinetograph. However, the celluloid film base produced by this means was still considered too stiff for the needs of motion-picture photography. By 1889, more flexible celluloids for photographic film were developed, both Hannibal Goodwin and the Eastman Kodak Company obtained patents for a film product.. This ability to produce photographic images on a flexible material was a crucial step toward making possible the advent of motion pictures. Most movie and photography films prior to the widespread move to acetate films in the 1950s were made of celluloid, its high flammability was legendary since it self-explodes when exposed to temperatures over 150° C in front of a hot movie-projector beam. While celluloid film was standard for 35mm theatrical productions until around 1950, motion-picture film for amateur use, such as 16mm and 8mm film, were on acetate "safety base", at least in the US.
Celluloid was useful for creating cheaper jewellery, jewellery boxes, hair accessories and many items t
Roy Butin was an American recording artist in the early 20th Century, known for his playing of the Harp guitar. He recorded more than a dozen early cylinder and 78rpm records. From at least 1906 to 1916, he performed as one half of The Olivotti Troubadours with Michael Banner. Artists he recorded with included Samuel Siegel, Valentine Abt, W. Eugene Page. Contrary to popular belief, he was not part of the Ossman-Dudley Trio, which featured Vess Ossman on banjo, Audley Dudley on mandolin and George Dudley on harp guitar. Butin recorded 10 records with Victor Records in 1908. Estellita waltz American valor march In Fairyland Sweet memories Manzanillo Artist's valse Evening star Barcarolle Fantasie Polka scherzo Other recordings include: Gavotte Caprice 1909 Sugar Plum 1909 Carnival of Venice 1909 Waltz 1909 Mobile Prance 9/21/1909 Polka Scherzo 9/21/1909 Library of Congress held recordings of Roy Butin Roy Butin public domain records, available to download. Roy Butin at Find a Grave Pamphlet for his recording partner, Valentine Abt
Columbia Records is an American record label owned by Sony Music Entertainment, a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, the North American division of Japanese conglomerate Sony. It was founded in 1887, evolving from the American Graphophone Company, the successor to the Volta Graphophone Company. Columbia is the oldest surviving brand name in the recorded sound business, the second major company to produce records. From 1961 to 1990, Columbia recordings were released outside North America under the name CBS Records to avoid confusion with EMI's Columbia Graphophone Company. Columbia is one of Sony Music's four flagship record labels, alongside former longtime rival RCA Records, as well as Arista Records and Epic Records. Artists who have recorded for Columbia include Harry Styles, AC/DC, Louis Armstrong, Tony Bennett, Beyoncé, Dave Brubeck, The Byrds, Johnny Cash, Mariah Carey, The Chainsmokers, The Clash, Miles Davis, Rosemary Clooney, Neil Diamond, Celine Dion, Bob Dylan, Wind & Fire, Duke Ellington, 50 Cent, Erroll Garner, Benny Goodman, Adelaide Hall, Billy Joel, Janis Joplin, John Mayer, George Michael, Billy Murray, Pink Floyd, Lil Nas X, Frank Sinatra and Garfunkel, Bessie Smith, Bruce Springsteen, Barbra Streisand, Andy Williams, Pharrell Williams, Bill Withers, Paul Whiteman, Joe Zawinul The Columbia Phonograph Company was founded in 1887 by stenographer and New Jersey native Edward D. Easton and a group of investors.
It derived its name from the District of Columbia. At first it had a local monopoly on sales and service of Edison phonographs and phonograph cylinders in Washington, D. C. Maryland, Delaware; as was the custom of some of the regional phonograph companies, Columbia produced many commercial cylinder recordings of its own, its catalogue of musical records in 1891 was 10 pages. Columbia's ties to Edison and the North American Phonograph Company were severed in 1894 with the North American Phonograph Company's breakup. Thereafter it sold only phonographs of its own manufacture. In 1902, Columbia introduced a molded brown wax record, to use up old stock. Columbia introduced black wax records in 1903. According to one source, they continued to mold brown waxes until 1904 with the highest number being 32601, "Heinie", a duet by Arthur Collins and Byron G. Harlan; the molded brown waxes may have been sold to Sears for distribution. Columbia began selling disc records and phonographs in addition to the cylinder system in 1901, preceded only by their "Toy Graphophone" of 1899, which used small, vertically cut records.
For a decade, Columbia competed with both the Edison Phonograph Company cylinders and the Victor Talking Machine Company disc records as one of the top three names in American recorded sound. In order to add prestige to its early catalog of artists, Columbia contracted a number of New York Metropolitan Opera stars to make recordings; these stars included Marcella Sembrich, Lillian Nordica, Antonio Scotti and Edouard de Reszke, but the technical standard of their recordings was not considered to be as high as the results achieved with classical singers during the pre–World War I period by Victor, England's His Master's Voice or Italy's Fonotipia Records. After an abortive attempt in 1904 to manufacture discs with the recording grooves stamped into both sides of each disc—not just one—in 1908 Columbia commenced successful mass production of what they called their "Double-Faced" discs, the 10-inch variety selling for 65 cents apiece; the firm introduced the internal-horn "Grafonola" to compete with the popular "Victrola" sold by the rival Victor Talking Machine Company.
During this era, Columbia used the "Magic Notes" logo—a pair of sixteenth notes in a circle—both in the United States and overseas. Columbia stopped recording and manufacturing wax cylinder records in 1908, after arranging to issue celluloid cylinder records made by the Indestructible Record Company of Albany, New York, as "Columbia Indestructible Records". In July 1912, Columbia decided to concentrate on disc records and stopped manufacturing cylinder phonographs, although they continued selling Indestructible's cylinders under the Columbia name for a year or two more. Columbia was split into one to make records and one to make players. Columbia Phonograph was moved to Connecticut, Ed Easton went with it, it was renamed the Dictaphone Corporation. In late 1922, Columbia went into receivership; the company was bought by its English subsidiary, the Columbia Graphophone Company in 1925 and the label, record numbering system, recording process changed. On February 25, 1925, Columbia began recording with the electric recording process licensed from Western Electric.
"Viva-tonal" records set a benchmark in tone and clarity unequaled on commercial discs during the 78-rpm era. The first electrical recordings were made by Art Gillham, the "Whispering Pianist". In a secret agreement with Victor, electrical technology was kept secret to avoid hurting sales of acoustic records. In 1926, Columbia acquired Okeh Records and its growing stable of jazz and blues artists, including Louis Armstrong and Clarence Williams. Columbia had built a catalog of blues and jazz artists, including Bessie Smith in their 14000-D Race series. Columbia had a successful "Hillbilly" series. In 1928, Paul Whiteman, the nation's most popular orchestra leader, left Victor to record for Columbia. During the same year, Columbia executiv
Albany, New York
Albany is the capital of the U. S. state of New York and the seat of Albany County. Albany is located on the west bank of the Hudson River 10 miles south of its confluence with the Mohawk River and 135 miles north of New York City. Albany is known for its rich history, culture and institutions of higher education. Albany constitutes the economic and cultural core of the Capital District of New York State, which comprises the Albany–Schenectady–Troy, NY Metropolitan Statistical Area, including the nearby cities and suburbs of Troy and Saratoga Springs. With a 2013 Census-estimated population of 1.1 million the Capital District is the third-most populous metropolitan region in the state. As of the 2010 census, the population of Albany was 97,856; the area that became Albany was settled by Dutch colonists who in 1614, built Fort Nassau for fur trading and, in 1624, built Fort Orange. In 1664, the English took over the Dutch settlements, renaming the city as Albany, in honor of the Duke of Albany, the future James II of England and James VII of Scotland.
The city was chartered in 1686 under English rule. It became the capital of New York in 1797 following formation of the United States. Albany is one of the oldest surviving settlements of the original British thirteen colonies, is the longest continuously chartered city in the United States. During the late 18th century and throughout most of the 19th, Albany was a center of trade and transportation; the city lies toward the north end of the navigable Hudson River, was the original eastern terminus of the Erie Canal connecting to the Great Lakes, was home to some of the earliest railroad systems in the world. In the 1920s, a powerful political machine controlled by the Democratic Party arose in Albany. In the latter part of the 20th century, Albany experienced a decline in its population due to urban sprawl and suburbanization. In the early 21st century, Albany has experienced growth in the high-technology industry, with great strides in the nanotechnology sector. Albany is one of the oldest surviving European settlements from the original thirteen colonies and the longest continuously chartered city in the United States.
The Hudson River area was inhabited by Algonquian-speaking Mohican, who called it Pempotowwuthut-Muhhcanneuw, meaning "the fireplace of the Mohican nation." Based to the west along the Mohawk River, the Iroquoian-speaking Mohawk referred to it as Sche-negh-ta-da, or "through the pine woods," referring to the path they took there. The Mohawk were one of the Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, or Haudenosaunee, became strong trading partners with the Dutch and English, it is the Albany area was visited by European fur traders as early as 1540, but the extent and duration of those visits has not been determined. Permanent European claims began when Englishman Henry Hudson, exploring for the Dutch East India Company on the Half Moon, reached the area in 1609, claiming it for the United Netherlands. In 1614, Hendrick Christiaensen built Fort Nassau, a fur-trading post and the first documented European structure in present-day Albany. Commencement of the fur trade provoked hostility from the French colony in Canada and among the natives, all of whom vied to control the trade.
In 1618, a flood ruined the fort on Castle Island. Both forts were named in honor of the Dutch royal House of Orange-Nassau. Fort Orange and the surrounding area were incorporated as the village of Beverwijck in 1652. In these early decades of trade, the Dutch and Mohawk developed relations that reflected differences among their three cultures; when New Netherland was captured by the English in 1664, the name was changed from Beverwijck to Albany in honor of the Duke of Albany. Duke of Albany was a Scottish title given since 1398 to a younger son of the King of Scots; the name is derived from Alba, the Gaelic name for Scotland. The Dutch regained Albany in August 1673 and renamed the city Willemstadt. On November 1, 1683, the Province of New York was split into counties, with Albany County being the largest. At that time the county included all of present New York State north of Dutchess and Ulster Counties in addition to present-day Bennington County, theoretically stretching west to the Pacific Ocean.
Albany was formally chartered as a municipality by provincial Governor Thomas Dongan on July 22, 1686. The Dongan Charter was identical in content to the charter awarded to the city of New York three months earlier. Dongan created Albany as a strip of land 16 miles long. Over the years Albany would lose much of the land to the annex land to the north and south. At this point, Albany had a population of about 500 people. In 1754, representatives of seven British North American colonies met in the Stadt Huys, Albany's city hall, for the Albany Congress. Although it was never adopted by Parliament, it was an important precursor to the United States Constitution; the same year, the fourth in a series of wars dating back to 1689, began.
Samuel Siegel was an American mandolin virtuoso and composer who played mandolin on 29 records for Victor Records, including 9 pieces of his own composition and two that he arranged. Siegel was the first mandolinist to record on Emile Berliner's phonograph disk-records, he was labeled "America's Greatest Mandoline Virtuoso" and "The King of the Mandolin" in the May 1900 Banjo World. Siegel performed both in vaudeville, as well as in concert halls, he had no formal training in music, but saw that the mandolin needed original music, rather than relying on the transcribed violin music. His compositions and arrangements were well known in his day, he was the author of Siegel's Special Mandolin Studies, published by Jos. W Stern and Company, 1901, in which he covered left hand Pizzicato and harmonic duo style. Siegel recorded with Roy Butin in 1908 on four Victor records, the tunes: Southern Fantasy, Estellita Waltz, American Valor March, In Fairyland, he recorded Edison Diamond Disk record Ragtime Echoes in 1918 with Marie Caveny, with her on ukulele, Dance, Mouse Dance, Medley.
Marie and her husband James Frank Caveny lived with Siegel as lodgers in Chicago during the 1910 United State Census. They were lecturers in the Lyceum movement. James Franklin was a cartoonist and Marie sang soprano in their performance. Recorded for Victor records between October 20, 1900 and December 28, 1918; the foxhunters two-step Espagnole waltz Hawthorne club Remembrance of thee Medley of coon songs Ma lady Lou Volunteer patrol American valor march La bonita waltz Romance In olden times Nearer my God to thee Manzanillo An autumn evening A-sa-ma Maritana mazurka Navajo medley La cinquantaine Träumerei Intermezzo The whirlwind march Boston Ideal march Estellita waltz American valor march In Fairyland Medley, with Marie Caveny Dance, with Marie Caveny Ragtime echoes, with Marie Caveny Mouse dance, with Marie Caveny He made records for Columbia Records. La bonita waltz, Samuel Siegel Zenda waltz, Samuel Siegel Hawthorne Club, Samuel Siegel Ivanhoe Intermezzo with Geo. Stehl & Hans Von Wegern Mazurka Brillante He recorded for Edison Records on their Blue Amberol, Gold Moulded, Diamond Disk albums.
Home, sweet home, Samuel Siegel Manzanilo, Samuel Siegel The story teller waltz, Samuel Siegel My Old Kentucky Home, Samuel Siegel Just One Girl, Samuel Siegel An autumn evening, Samuel Siegel and M. Loyd Wolf Evening on the plaza, Samuel Siegel Castilian Echoes, Samuel Siegel and William Smith Waltz, Samuel Siegel and Roy H. Butin Gavotte, Samuel Siegel and Roy H. Butin Waltz, Samuel Siegel and Roy H. Butin Kuu ipo i ka hee pue one medley, Samuel Siegel and Marie Caveny Ragtime Echoes, Samuel Siegel and Marie Caveny He made records marketed by Indestructible Records. Estellita waltz, Samuel Siegel and Roy Butin Southern fantasie, Samuel Siegel and Roy Butin List of mandolinists Works by Samuel Siegel at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Samuel Siegel at Internet Archive Library of Congress record listing digitized recordings in their collection by Siegel Library of Congress record and online stream of Navajo Medley and played by Siegel. Library of Congress record for a recording Siegel made of his arrangement of Nearer My God to Thee.
Mandolin Cafe thread with pictures of a program of music. Cylinder preservation and Digitization Project, University of California, has digitized Siegel public-domain recordings and made available to download. Advertisement for Siegel's mandolin method. Mandotopia page, has links to public domain book of mandolin music, arranged by Siegel. Picture of a recital program cover for Samuel Siegel. Website for a mandolin teacher which contains one page of Siegel's method book. Endorsement by Samuel Siegel of Regal mandolins. Page has details of one of his transcontinental tours. Advertisement for Siegel's music school, the Siegel-Myers School of Music