Alaska State Troopers
The Alaska State Troopers the Division of Alaska State Troopers, is the state police agency of the U. S. state of Alaska. It is a division of the Alaska Department of Public Safety; the Alaska State Troopers is a full-service law enforcement agency which handles both traffic and criminal law enforcement. The Alaska State Troopers is involved in apprehending fugitives as part of the Alaska Fugitive Task Force, an inter-agency collaborative of Alaska police departments that cooperates with police agencies throughout the United States and less with Interpol in apprehending wanted men and women. Unlike many lower-48 states, Alaska troopers are both state troopers and game/wildlife enforcement officers; because Alaska has no counties, therefore no county police or sheriffs, in its constitution, the troopers handle civil papers and mental health custody orders and serve as police throughout all of rural Alaska. Alaska does have boroughs, which have some similarities but with lesser powers of lower-48 U.
S. counties, but only the North Slope Borough police functions to a lower-48 county police agency and thus relieves AST of a need to be the primary police agency in this particular region. Alaska troopers are the most geographically extended peace officers aside from federal officers in the USA, they have little, if any local backup. This includes the only metropolitan police agency in Alaska, the Anchorage Police Department with 500 officers; the remaining officers are the over 300 Alaska troopers and smaller municipal agencies which have around 50 in towns like the state capital of Juneau or the second largest town in the state, Fairbanks. The remaining officers serve in small agencies with anywhere from one to ten officers on average; the DPS is headed by a Commissioner appointed by the Governor. This person is a civilian administrator, though a career law enforcement officer and administrator; the Commissioner, if a sworn officer upon being appointed as such, may be appointed a "Special Alaska State Trooper" to maintain police powers.
The Alaska State Troopers and Alaska Wildlife Troopers are headed by ranking officers with the rank of Colonel. The Alaska State Troopers trace their heritage back more than a century. Before the founding of the Troopers, law enforcement in Alaska was performed by a succession of federal agencies: first the United States Army the United States Navy and Revenue Cutter Service, the U. S. Customs Service, the United States Marshals Service after a civil government was formed in 1884; the need for law enforcement became critical in the late 19th century as gold was discovered in Alaska. Gold rush towns had crime rates per capita that dwarfed those of modern U. S. cities. Prostitution, murder, robbery, kidnapping, aggravated assault, claim jumping incidents were rampant. Frightened citizens cabled Washington for help; as a result, scores of deputy U. S. Marshals were deployed to Alaska; some cities and towns began to charter police departments in the early 20th century. Deputy marshals continued to be the main force of law in rural Alaska until the advent of the Troopers and many early-era officers of the agency were former deputy U.
S. Marshals. There was no Alaska-wide police force until 1941, when the Territorial Legislature created the Alaska Highway Patrol. Territorial patrolmen only patrolled the main highways of Alaska and did not visit remote areas or regions, they were not police officers per se. They were deputized as special deputy U. S. Marshals to fill this void in jurisdiction; the legislature refused to make them police officers until the agency was changed to Territorial Police and additional personnel were hired from the ranks of the U. S. Marshals; the new agency became the Alaska Territorial Police in 1953 after a number of titles. Other titles were the Alaska State Police after statehood in 1959, the Alaska State Troopers in 1967. In a unique pilot program, AK Troopers drove ambulances as patrol vehicles in the 1960s, serving as both ambulance and law enforcement service to remote areas; the Alaska Peace Officer Memorial chronicles the many brave Deputy U. S. Marshals; the Division of Alaska State Troopers personnel are the general police arm of the agency.
They are charged with statewide law enforcement, prevention of crime and apprehension of offenders, service of civil and criminal process, prisoner transportation, central communications, search and rescue. They perform traditional duties most associative with state police in lower-48 states; the trooper division is divided into five lettered detachments, corresponding to geographic regions of the state, for general policing. The division contains several bureaus: Alaska Bureau of Investigation, Alaska State Fire Marshal Office, Alaska Bureau of Alcohol and Drug Enforcement, Alaska Bureau of Highway Patrol, Alaska Bureau of Judicial Services; the detachments are charged with division responsibilities within their geographic areas. The bureaus are responsible for the statewide discharge of their specific duties and overall responsibilities. Both detachments and bureaus are responsible for ensuring efforts are made towards meeting the division's core missions as it relates to their respective enforcement programs, public education, fiscal planning, implementation.
The Highway Patrol Bureau funct
Aleutian Islands Campaign
The Aleutian Islands Campaign was a military campaign conducted by the United States and Japan in the Aleutian Islands, part of the Territory of Alaska, in the American theater and the Pacific theater of World War II starting on 3 June 1942. A small Japanese force occupied the islands of Attu and Kiska, where the remoteness of the islands and the challenges of weather and terrain delayed a larger U. S.-Canadian force sent to eject them for nearly a year. The islands' strategic value was their ability to control Pacific transportation routes, why U. S. General Billy Mitchell stated to the U. S. Congress in 1935, "I believe that in the future. I think it is the most important strategic place in the world." The Japanese reasoned that control of the Aleutians would prevent a possible U. S. attack across the Northern Pacific. The U. S. feared that the islands would be used as bases from which to carry out a full-scale aerial attack on cities and ports in the U. S. West Coast. A battle to reclaim Attu was launched on May 11, 1943, completed following a final Japanese banzai charge on May 29.
On August 15, 1943, an invasion force landed on Kiska in the wake of a sustained three-week barrage, only to discover that the Japanese had withdrawn from the island on July 29. The campaign is known as the "Forgotten Battle", due to its being overshadowed by the simultaneous Guadalcanal Campaign. Military historians believe it was a diversionary or feint attack during the Battle of Midway, meant to draw out the U. S. Pacific Fleet from Midway Atoll, as it was launched under the same commander, Isoroku Yamamoto. However, historians Jonathan Parshall and Anthony Tully have argued against this interpretation, stating that the Japanese invaded the Aleutians to protect their northern flank, did not intend it as a diversion. Before Japan entered World War II, its Navy had gathered extensive information about the Aleutians, but it had no up-to-date information regarding military developments on the islands. Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto provided the Japanese Northern Area Fleet, commanded by Vice-Admiral Boshiro Hosogaya, with a force of two non-fleet aircraft carriers, five cruisers, twelve destroyers, six submarines, four troop transports, along with supporting auxiliary ships.
With that force, Hosogaya was first to launch an air attack against Dutch Harbor follow with an amphibious attack upon the island of Adak, 480 miles to the west. Hosogaya was instructed to destroy whatever American forces and facilities were found on Adak—the Japanese did not know the island was undefended. Hosogaya's troops were to return to their ships and become a reserve for two additional landings: the first on Kiska, 240 miles west of Adak, the other on the Aleutians' westernmost island, Attu, 180 miles west from Kiska; because United States Naval Intelligence had broken the Japanese naval codes, Admiral Chester Nimitz had learned by May 21 of Yamamoto's plans, including the Aleutian diversion, the strength of both Yamamoto's and Hosogaya's fleets, that Hosogaya would open the fight on June 1 or shortly thereafter. As of June 1, 1942, United States military strength in Alaska stood at 45,000 men, with about 13,000 at Cold Bay on the tip of the Alaskan Peninsula and at two Aleutian bases: the naval facility at Dutch Harbor on Unalaska Island, 200 miles west of Cold Bay, the built Fort Glenn Army Airfield 70 miles west of the naval station on Umnak Island.
Army strength, less air force personnel, at those three bases totaled no more than 2,300, composed of infantry and antiaircraft artillery troops, a large construction engineer contingent, used in the construction of bases. The Army Air Force's Eleventh Air Force consisted of 10 B-17 Flying Fortress heavy bombers and 34 B-18 Bolo medium bombers at Elmendorf Airfield, 95 P-40 Warhawk fighters divided between Fort Randall AAF at Cold Bay and Fort Glenn AAF on Umnak; the naval commander was Rear Admiral Robert A. Theobald, commanding Task Force 8 afloat, who as Commander North Pacific Force reported to Admiral Nimitz in Hawaii. Task Force 8 consisted of five cruisers, thirteen destroyers, three tankers, six submarines, as well as naval aviation elements of Fleet Air Wing Four; when the first signs of a possible Japanese attack on the Aleutians were known, the Eleventh Air Force was ordered to send out reconnaissance aircraft to locate the Japanese fleet reported heading toward Dutch Harbor and attack it with bombers, concentrating on sinking Hosogaya's two aircraft carriers.
Once the enemy planes were removed, Naval Task Force 8 would destroy it. On the afternoon of 2 June, a naval patrol plane spotted the approaching Japanese fleet, reporting its location as 800 miles southwest of Dutch Harbor. Eleventh Air Force was placed on full alert. Shortly thereafter bad weather set in, no further sightings of the fleet were made that day. Prior to the attack on Dutch Harbor, the Army's 4th Infantry Regiment, under command of Percy E. LeStourgeon, were established at Fort Richardson. Col. LeStourgeon had designed a layout of base facilities—such as isolation of weapons and munitions depots—so as to protect against enemy attack. According to Japanese intelligence, the nearest field for land-based American aircraft was at Fort Morrow AAF on Kodiak, more than 600 miles away, Dutch Harbor was a sitting duck for the strong Japanese fleet, carrying out a coordinated operation with a fleet, to capture Midway Island. Making use of weather cover, the Japanese first raided the naval base at Dutch Harbor on June 3, 1942.
The striking force was composed of Nakajima B5N2 "Kate" torpedo bombers from the carriers Junyō and Ryūjō. Howe
Agriculture in Alaska
Agriculture in Alaska faces many challenges due to the climate, the short growing season, poor soils. However, the exceptionally long days of summer enable some vegetables to attain world record sizes; the state of Alaska contains some 500 farms, covering about 830,000 acres in 2015 to the northeast of the state's largest city, Anchorage, in the Matanuska Valley. The farms produce greenhouse and nursery crops, as well as hay, dairy produce and livestock including cattle, reindeer and yak. Cereals in the state include barley and oats. Other livestock include chickens and sheep. By value, the top livestock commodities in 2015 were milk and beef in that order; the exceptionally long summer days enable some vegetables to attain world record sizes, including a carrot of 19 pounds, a rutabaga of 76 pounds, a cabbage of 127 pounds. Alaskan soil conditions range from loamy with all ranges in between. In many parts of Alaska, the soil is acidic, could improve with the introduction of lime or wood ash; the biomes range from tundra, rich in underlying peat moss to taiga, boreal forest, temperate rain forest.
Because Alaska was once dominated by glaciers, much of the underlying subsurface is glacial till and sand. The official state soil is the Tanana series, shallow, well drained, moderately permeable, derived from limestone weathering, it is a coarse loam, cryoturbated to a depth of up to 72 inches. Climate of Alaska University of Alaska Fairbanks Cooperative Extension Service gardening pages Alaska Permaculture State of Alaska Division of Agriculture Interior Soil Testing Program Alaska Farmers Markets
John Angus McPhee is an American writer considered one of the pioneers of creative nonfiction. He is a four-time finalist for the Pulitzer Prize in the category General Nonfiction, he won that award on the fourth occasion in 1999 for Annals of the Former World. In 2008, he received the George Polk Career Award for his "indelible mark on American journalism during his nearly half-century career". Since 1974, McPhee has been the Ferris Professor of Journalism at Princeton University. McPhee has lived in Princeton, New Jersey, for most of his life, he was born in Princeton, the son of the Princeton University athletic department's physician, Dr. Harry McPhee, he was educated at Princeton High School spent a postgraduate year at Deerfield Academy, before graduating from Princeton University in 1953, spending a year at Magdalene College, University of Cambridge. While at Princeton, McPhee went to New York once or twice a week to appear as the juvenile panelist on the radio and television quiz program Twenty Questions.
One of his roommates at Princeton was 1951 Heisman Trophy winner Dick Kazmaier. Twice married, McPhee is the father of four daughters: the novelists Jenny McPhee and Martha McPhee, photographer Laura McPhee, architecture historian Sarah McPhee. McPhee's writing career began at Time magazine, led to a long association with the weekly magazine The New Yorker from 1963 to the present. Many of his twenty-nine books include material written for this latter periodical. Unlike Tom Wolfe and Hunter Thompson, who helped kick-start the "new journalism" of the 1960s, McPhee produced a gentler, more literary style of writing that more incorporated techniques from fiction. McPhee avoided the streams of consciousness styles of Wolfe and Thompson, but used detailed description of characters and appetite for details to make his writing lively and personal when it focuses on obscure or difficult topics, he is regarded by fellow writers for the quality and diversity of his literary output. Reflecting his personal interests, McPhee's subjects are eclectic.
He has written pieces on lifting body development, the psyche and experience of a nuclear engineer, a New Jersey wilderness area, the United States Merchant Marine, farmers' markets, the movement of coal across America, the shifting flow of the Mississippi River, geology, as well as a short book on the subject of oranges. One of his most read books, Coming into the Country, is about the Alaskan wilderness. McPhee has profiled a number of famous people, including conservationist David Brower in Encounters with the Archdruid, the young Bill Bradley, whom McPhee followed during Bradley's four-year basketball career at Princeton University. McPhee is a renowned nonfiction writing instructor at Princeton University, having taught generations of aspiring undergraduate writers. McPhee teaches his writing seminar every year in the spring semester. Many of McPhee's students have achieved their own distinction for writing: David Remnick, Pulitzer Prize-winning author and current editor-in-chief of The New Yorker Richard Stengel, former managing editor of Time magazine Jim Kelly, former managing editor of Time magazine Robert Wright, former senior editor at The New Republic and columnist for Time and the New York Times, author of award-winning books Eric Schlosser, author of Fast Food Nation and other books Richard Preston, author of The Hot Zone and other books about infectious disease epidemics and bioterrorism Peter Hessler, contributor to The New Yorker and author of three books about China Timothy Ferriss and author of New York Times bestsellers The 4-Hour Workweek and The 4-Hour Body Joel Achenbach, writer for the Washington Post and author of seven books Jennifer Weiner, best-selling author of Good In Bed, In Her Shoes, other novels McPhee has received many literary honors, including the Award in Literature from the American Academy of Arts and Letters, the 1999 Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction, awarded for Annals of the Former World.
In 1978 McPhee received a LittD from Bates College, in 2009 he received an honorary Doctorate of Letters from Yale University, in 2012 he received an honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters from Amherst College. Pulitzer Prize for Annals of the Former World Award in Literature from the American Academy of Arts and Letters finalist, National Book Award for The Curve of Binding Energy nominated, National Book Award for Encounters with the Archdruid Wallace Stegner Award for "sustained contribution to the cultural identity of the West through literature, history, lore, or an understanding of the West". National Book Critics Circle Award Ivan Sandrof Lifetime Achievement Award McPhee, John. "The Orange Trapper: compulsions are hard to explain". The Sporting Scene; the New Yorker. 89: 30–34. Weltzein, O. Alan and Susan N. Maher. Coming into McPhee Country: John McPhee and the Art of Literary Criticism. ISBN 978-0-87480-746-2. Publisher's official web site Peter Hessler. "John McPhee, The Art of Nonfiction No. 3".
The Paris Review. John McPhee interviewed on WPRB Princeton 103.3 FM's Discourse on YouTube
Spanish expeditions to the Pacific Northwest
Spanish claims to Alaska and the West Coast of North America date to the papal bull of 1493, the Treaty of Tordesillas. In 1513, this claim was reinforced by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa, the first European to sight the Pacific Ocean, when he claimed all lands adjoining this ocean for the Spanish Crown. Spain only started to colonize the claimed territory north of present-day Mexico in the 18th century, when it settled the northern coast of Las Californias. Starting in the mid-18th century, Spain's claim began to be challenged in the form of British and Russian fur trading and colonization. King Charles III of Spain and his successors sent a number of expeditions from New Spain to present-day Canada and Alaska between 1774 and 1793, to counter the threat of Russian and British colonizers and to strengthen the Spanish claim. During this period of history it was important for a nation's claims to be backed up by exploration and the "first European discovery" of particular places; the first voyage was that of Juan José Pérez Hernández of the frigate Santiago.
Although intending to reach Alaska, the expedition turned back at Haida Gwaii. Pérez and his crew of 86 were the first known Europeans to visit the Pacific Northwest. In 1775 a second voyage of ninety men led by Lieutenant Bruno de Heceta aboard the Santiago, set sail from San Blas, Nayarit on March 16, 1775 with orders to make clear Spanish claims for the entire Northwestern Pacific Coast. Accompanying Heceta was the schooner Sonora, alias Felicidad under the command of Juan Manuel de Ayala; the 36-foot long Sonora and its crew complement of 16 were to perform coastal reconnaissance and mapping, could make landfall in places the larger Santiago was unable to approach on its previous voyage. Ayala took command of the packet boat San Carlos, alias Toysón de Oro sailing with the expedition, after its initial commander, Miguel Manrique, took ill soon after leaving San Blas. Heceta gave Bodega y Quadra command of the Sonora. Francisco Antonio Mourelle served as Bodega y Quadra's pilot and the two forged a strong and enduring friendship.
The three vessels sailed together as far as Monterey Bay in Alta California. Ayala's mission was to explore the Golden Gate strait while Heceta and Bodega y Quadra continued north. Ayala and the crew of the San Carlos became the first Europeans known to enter San Francisco Bay; the Santiago and Sonora continued sailing north together as far as Point Grenville, named Punta de los Martires by Heceta in response to an attack by the local Quinault Indians. The vessels parted company on the evening of July 29, 1775. Scurvy had so weakened the crew of the Santiago. On the way south he discovered the mouth of the Columbia River between present day Oregon and Washington. Juan Pérez, serving as Heceta's pilot, died during the voyage south. Bodega y Quadra, in the Sonora, moved up the coast according to the expedition's orders reaching the latitude 59° north on August 15, entering Sitka Sound near the present-day town of Sitka, Alaska. During the return voyage south Bodega y Quadra discovered and explored a portion of Bucareli Bay on the west side of Prince of Wales Island.
During Bodega y Quadra's voyage numerous "acts of sovereignty" were performed. Many place names were given, including Puerto de Bucareli, Puerto de los Remedios, Mount San Jacinto, renamed Mount Edgecumbe by British explorer James Cook three years later. A third voyage took place in 1779 under the command of Ignacio de Arteaga with two armed corvettes: the Favorita under Arteaga, the Princesa under Bodega y Quadra. With Arteaga on the Favorita was second officer Fernando Quiros y Miranda, surgeon Juan Garcia, pilot Jose Camacho, second pilot Juan Pantoja y Arriaga. With Bodega y Quadra on the Princesa was second officer Francisco Antonio Mourelle, surgeon Mariano Nunez Esquivel, pilot Jose Canizares, second pilot Juan Bautista Aguirre; the expedition's objective was to evaluate the Russian penetration of Alaska, search for a Northwest Passage, capture James Cook if they found him in Spanish waters. Spain had learned about Cook's 1778 explorations along the coast of the Pacific Northwest. In June 1779, during the expedition of Arteaga and Bodega y Quadra, Spain entered the American Revolutionary War as an ally of France, precipitating a parallel Anglo-Spanish War, which continued until the 1783 Treaty of Paris.
Arteaga and Bodega y Quadra did not find Cook, killed in Hawaii in February 1779. During the voyage Arteaga and Bodega y Quadra surveyed Bucareli Bay headed north to Port Etches on Hinchinbrook Island, they entered Prince William Sound and reached a latitude of 61°, the most northern point obtained by the Spanish explorations of Alaska. They explored Cook Inlet, the Kenai Peninsula, where a possession ceremony was performed on August 2, in what today is called Port Chatham. Due to various sicknesses among the crew Arteaga returned to California without finding the Russians. Throughout the voyage, the crews of both vessels endured many hardships, including food shortages and scurvy. On September 8, the ships headed south for the return trip to San Blas. Although the Spanish were secretive about their exploring voyages and the discoveries made, the 1779 voyage of Arteaga and Bodega y Quadra became known. La Perouse obtained a copy of their map, published in 1798. Mourelle's journal was published in London in 1798 by Daines Barrington.
After these three exploration voyages to Alaska
Outline of Alaska
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the U. S. state of Alaska: Alaska – most extensive, westernmost, second newest, least densely populated of the 50 states of the United States of America. Alaska occupies the westernmost extent of the Americas, bordering British Columbia and the Yukon, is detached from the other 49 states; the summit of Denali at 6194 meters is the highest point of North America. Names Common name: Alaska Pronunciation: Official name: State of Alaska Abbreviations and name codes Postal symbol: AK ISO 3166-2 code: US-AK Internet second-level domain:.ak.us Nicknames Great Land Land of the Midnight Sun The Last Frontier Seward's Folly Seward's Ice Box, Polaria and Johnson's Polar Bear Garden were satirical names coined by members of the U. S. Congress during debate over the Alaska Purchase Adjectivals Alaska Alaskan Demonym: Alaskan Geography of Alaska Alaska is: a U. S. state, a federal state of the United States of America Location: westernmost North America Northern and Western Hemisphere Americas North America Anglo America Northern America United States of America Alaska Time Zone Population of Alaska: 710,231 Area of Alaska: Atlas of Alaska Places in Alaska Historic places in Alaska Ghost towns in Alaska National Historic Landmarks in Alaska National Register of Historic Places listings in Alaska Bridges on the National Register of Historic Places in Alaska National Natural Landmarks in Alaska National parks in Alaska – see List of areas in the United States National Park System.
Denali National Park and Preserve Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Katmai National Park and Preserve Kenai Fjords National Park Kobuk Valley National Park Lake Clark National Park and Preserve Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve State parks in Alaska Climate of Alaska Protected areas in Alaska State forests of Alaska Superfund sites in Alaska Wildlife of Alaska Fauna of Alaska Birds of Alaska Mammals of Alaska List of reservoirs and dams of Alaska Trans-Alaska Pipeline System Islands of Alaska Lakes of Alaska Mountains of Alaska Mountain peaks of Alaska Highest mountain peaks of Alaska Volcanic craters in Alaska Rivers of Alaska Waterfalls in Alaska Alaska Interior Alaska North Slope Alaska Panhandle Arctic Alaska Kenai Peninsula Matanuska-Susitna Valley Seward Peninsula Southcentral Alaska Southwest Alaska Alaska Peninsula Tanana Valley The Bush Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta Boroughs and census areas of the state of Alaska Municipalities in Alaska Cities in Alaska State capital of Alaska: Juneau Largest city in Alaska: Anchorage City nicknames in Alaska Native tribal entities Towns in Alaska List of boroughs in Alaska Aleutians East Borough Anchorage Borough Bristol Bay Borough Fairbanks North Star Borough Haines Borough Juneau Kenai Peninsula Borough Ketchikan Gateway Borough Kodiak Island Borough Lake and Peninsula Borough Matanuska-Susitna Borough North Slope Borough Northwest Arctic Borough Sitka Borough Skagway Borough Unorganized Borough Wrangell Yakutat City and Borough Demographics of Alaska Alaska locations by per capita income Politics of Alaska Form of government: U.
S. state government United States congressional delegations from Alaska Alaska State Capitol Elections in Alaska Electoral reform in Alaska Legal status of Alaska Political party strength in Alaska Political scandals Alaska political corruption probe Government of Alaska Governor of Alaska Lieutenant Governor of Alaska State departments Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development Alaska Department of Corrections Alaska Department of Health and Social Services Alaska Division of Juvenile Justice Alaska Permanent Fund Alaska Volcano Observatory Alaska Department of Education & Early Development Alaska Department of Fish and Game Alaska Department of Natural Resources Alaska Department of Transportation & Public Facilities Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission Alaska State Medical Board Alaska State Pension Investment Board Alaska Legislature Upper house: Alaska Senate Lower house: Alaska House of Representatives Alaska Legislative Council List of Alaska State Legislatures Courts of Alaska Alaska Court System Supreme Court of Alaska United States District Court for the District of Alaska List of United States federal courthouses in Alaska Cannabis in Alaska Capital punishment in Alaska: none.
Alaska abolished the death penalty prior to statehood, eight men were executed by the earlier territorial government and earlier "Miner's Courts" executed a number of men in the 19th century. See Capital punishment in the United States. Constitution of Alaska Crime in Alaska Gun laws in Alaska Law enforcement in Alaska Law enforcement agencies in Alaska Alaska State Troopers Penal system in Alaska Alaska Department of Corrections Prisons in Alaska Same-sex marriage in Alaska Alaska National Guard Alaska Air National Guard Alaska Army National Guard Alaska State Defense Force Assembly of the City and Borough of Juneau, Alaska History of Alaska Prehistory of Alaska History of slavery in Alaska Russian Alaska, 1741 – 1867 Great Northern Expedition, 1733 – 1743 Spanish expeditions to Alaska, 1744 – 1791 U. S. Department of Alaska, 1867 – 1884 Alaska Purchase, treaty signed on March 30, 1867 Gold mining in Alaska Klondike Gold Rush, 1896 – 1899 Alaska boundary dispute, 1896 – 1903 District of Alaska, 1884 – 1912 Hay-Herbert Treaty, arbitration committee resolution occurred October 20, 1903 Ter
Alaska is a U. S. state in the northwest extremity of North America, just across the Bering Strait from Asia. The Canadian province of British Columbia and territory of Yukon border the state to the east and southeast, its most extreme western part is Attu Island, it has a maritime border with Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas—southern parts of the Arctic Ocean; the Pacific Ocean lies to southwest. It is the largest U. S. state by the seventh largest subnational division in the world. In addition, it is the most sparsely populated of the 50 United States. Half of Alaska's residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaska's economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, oil industries, resources which it has in abundance. Military bases and tourism are a significant part of the economy; the United States purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30, 1867, for 7.2 million U. S. dollars at two cents per acre. The area went through several administrative changes before becoming organized as a territory on May 11, 1912.
It was admitted as the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3, 1959. The name "Alaska" was introduced in the Russian colonial period when it was used to refer to the Alaska Peninsula, it was derived from an Aleut-language idiom. It means object to which the action of the sea is directed. Alaska is the northernmost and westernmost state in the United States and has the most easterly longitude in the United States because the Aleutian Islands extend into the Eastern Hemisphere. Alaska is the only non-contiguous U. S. state on continental North America. It is technically part of the continental U. S. but is sometimes not included in colloquial use. S. called "the Lower 48". The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system; the state is bordered by Yukon and British Columbia in Canada, to the east, the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean to the south and southwest, the Bering Sea, Bering Strait, Chukchi Sea to the west and the Arctic Ocean to the north.
Alaska's territorial waters touch Russia's territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island and Alaskan Little Diomede Island are only 3 miles apart. Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U. S. states combined. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by total area at 663,268 square miles, over twice the size of Texas, the next largest state. Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign countries. Counting territorial waters, Alaska is larger than the combined area of the next three largest states: Texas and Montana, it is larger than the combined area of the 22 smallest U. S. states. There are no defined borders demarcating the various regions of Alaska, but there are six accepted regions: The most populous region of Alaska, containing Anchorage, the Matanuska-Susitna Valley and the Kenai Peninsula. Rural unpopulated areas south of the Alaska Range and west of the Wrangell Mountains fall within the definition of South Central, as do the Prince William Sound area and the communities of Cordova and Valdez.
Referred to as the Panhandle or Inside Passage, this is the region of Alaska closest to the rest of the United States. As such, this was where most of the initial non-indigenous settlement occurred in the years following the Alaska Purchase; the region is dominated by the Alexander Archipelago as well as the Tongass National Forest, the largest national forest in the United States. It contains the state capital Juneau, the former capital Sitka, Ketchikan, at one time Alaska's largest city; the Alaska Marine Highway provides a vital surface transportation link throughout the area, as only three communities enjoy direct connections to the contiguous North American road system. Designated in 1963; the Interior is the largest region of Alaska. Fairbanks is the only large city in the region. Denali National Park and Preserve is located here. Denali is the highest mountain in North America. Southwest Alaska is a sparsely inhabited region stretching some 500 miles inland from the Bering Sea. Most of the population lives along the coast.
Kodiak Island is located in Southwest. The massive Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, one of the largest river deltas in the world, is here. Portions of the Alaska Peninsula are considered part of Southwest, with the remaining portions included with the Aleutian Islands; the North Slope is tundra peppered with small villages. The area is known for its massive reserves of crude oil, contains both the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska and the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field; the city of Utqiagvik known as Barrow, is the northernmost city in the United States and is located here. The Northwest Arctic area, anchored by Kotzebue and containing the Kobuk River valley, is regarded as being part of this region. However, the respective Inupiat of the No