Linux is a Unix-like computer operating system assembled under the model of free and open-source software development and distribution. The defining component of Linux is the Linux kernel, an operating system kernel first released on September 17,1991 by Linus Torvalds, the Free Software Foundation uses the name GNU/Linux to describe the operating system, which has led to some controversy. Linux was originally developed for computers based on the Intel x86 architecture. Because of the dominance of Android on smartphones, Linux has the largest installed base of all operating systems. Linux is the operating system on servers and other big iron systems such as mainframe computers. It is used by around 2. 3% of desktop computers, the Chromebook, which runs on Chrome OS, dominates the US K–12 education market and represents nearly 20% of the sub-$300 notebook sales in the US. Linux runs on embedded systems – devices whose operating system is built into the firmware and is highly tailored to the system.
This includes TiVo and similar DVR devices, network routers, facility automation controls, many smartphones and tablet computers run Android and other Linux derivatives. The development of Linux is one of the most prominent examples of free, the underlying source code may be used and distributed—commercially or non-commercially—by anyone under the terms of its respective licenses, such as the GNU General Public License. Typically, Linux is packaged in a known as a Linux distribution for both desktop and server use. Distributions intended to run on servers may omit all graphical environments from the standard install, because Linux is freely redistributable, anyone may create a distribution for any intended use. The Unix operating system was conceived and implemented in 1969 at AT&Ts Bell Laboratories in the United States by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, Douglas McIlroy, first released in 1971, Unix was written entirely in assembly language, as was common practice at the time. Later, in a key pioneering approach in 1973, it was rewritten in the C programming language by Dennis Ritchie, the availability of a high-level language implementation of Unix made its porting to different computer platforms easier.
Due to an earlier antitrust case forbidding it from entering the computer business, as a result, Unix grew quickly and became widely adopted by academic institutions and businesses. In 1984, AT&T divested itself of Bell Labs, freed of the legal obligation requiring free licensing, the GNU Project, started in 1983 by Richard Stallman, has the goal of creating a complete Unix-compatible software system composed entirely of free software. Later, in 1985, Stallman started the Free Software Foundation, by the early 1990s, many of the programs required in an operating system were completed, although low-level elements such as device drivers and the kernel were stalled and incomplete. Linus Torvalds has stated that if the GNU kernel had been available at the time, although not released until 1992 due to legal complications, development of 386BSD, from which NetBSD, OpenBSD and FreeBSD descended, predated that of Linux. Torvalds has stated that if 386BSD had been available at the time, although the complete source code of MINIX was freely available, the licensing terms prevented it from being free software until the licensing changed in April 2000
Android (operating system)
Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google, based on the Linux kernel and designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. In addition to devices, Google has further developed Android TV for televisions, Android Auto for cars. Variants of Android are used on notebooks, game consoles, digital cameras, beginning with the first commercial Android device in September 2008, the operating system has gone through multiple major releases, with the current version being 7.0 Nougat, released in August 2016. Android applications can be downloaded from the Google Play store, which features over 2.7 million apps as of February 2017, Android has been the best-selling OS on tablets since 2013, and runs on the vast majority of smartphones. In September 2015, Android had 1.4 billion monthly active users, Android is popular with technology companies that require a ready-made, low-cost and customizable operating system for high-tech devices. The success of Android has made it a target for patent, Android Inc.
was founded in Palo Alto, California in October 2003 by Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears, and Chris White. Rubin described the Android project as tremendous potential in developing smarter mobile devices that are aware of its owners location. The early intentions of the company were to develop an operating system for digital cameras. Despite the past accomplishments of the founders and early employees, Android Inc. operated secretly and that same year, Rubin ran out of money. Steve Perlman, a friend of Rubin, brought him $10,000 in cash in an envelope. In July 2005, Google acquired Android Inc. for at least $50 million and its key employees, including Rubin and White, joined Google as part of the acquisition. Not much was known about Android at the time, with Rubin having only stated that they were making software for mobile phones, at Google, the team led by Rubin developed a mobile device platform powered by the Linux kernel. Google marketed the platform to handset makers and carriers on the promise of providing a flexible, upgradeable system, Google had lined up a series of hardware components and software partners and signaled to carriers that it was open to various degrees of cooperation.
Speculation about Googles intention to enter the communications market continued to build through December 2006. In September 2007, InformationWeek covered an Evalueserve study reporting that Google had filed several patent applications in the area of mobile telephony, the first commercially available smartphone running Android was the HTC Dream, known as T-Mobile G1, announced on September 23,2008. Since 2008, Android has seen numerous updates which have improved the operating system, adding new features. Each major release is named in order after a dessert or sugary treat, with the first few Android versions being called Cupcake, Eclair. In 2010, Google launched its Nexus series of devices, a lineup in which Google partnered with different device manufacturers to produce new devices and introduce new Android versions
Google TV was a smart TV platform from Google co-developed by Intel and Logitech that was launched in October 2010 with official devices initially made by Sony and Logitech. Google TVs first generation devices were all based on x86 architecture processors and were created and commercialized by Sony, the second generation of devices are all based on ARM architecture processors and with additional partners including LG, Samsung and Hisense. In 2013, more second generation Google TV-supported devices were announced by new partners, including Hisense, Netgear, TCL, while a small subset of Google TV devices will be upgraded to the Android TV platform, the majority will not. In June 2014, the Google TV SDK was pulled, ending any future development for existing devices. Google TV leveraged many of Google’s existing products, Google TV’s operating system, a customized version of Android, provided the underlying foundation, allowing developers to create applications that extended the system’s functionality.
Google’s Chrome browser provided a gateway to the Internet, allowing consumers to browse web sites, consumers could access HBO, CNBC, and content from other providers through the Chrome browser. Android and Apple smartphones and tablet computers could be used as controls for Google TV. Google TV products shipped with wireless remote controls with a full QWERTY keypad, an update in November 2011 allowed access to Google Play and enabled search to find content from live TV, YouTube, HBO GO, and more. Xyologic has compiled a list of the early Google TV apps with the largest number of installations, as of November 2012, the most installed apps are Napster, Pandora Radio and CNBC. The Google TV platform was provided by Google to OEMs for incorporation into their consumer products, the first generation of consumer devices were produced by Logitech and Sony. The second generation of devices were produced by Sony, LG, Hisense, NetGear. The third generation of devices was announced by LG at 2013 International CES.
Cable providers as well as content providers have been slow to warm to Google TV, NBC, ABC, Fox, CBS and Hulu have blocked Google TV enabled devices from accessing their web content since Google TVs launch. As of November 22,2010, Google TV devices are blocked from accessing any programs offered by Viacom’s subsidiaries, of the cable and satellite providers, only Dish Network, had embraced Google TV and promoted it by offering customers a discount on the Logitech Revue. In January 2014, Google filed a UDRP case against the owner of domain names androidtv. com, the domain names were owned Exo Level, Inc. and were registered with GoDaddy in November 2006. In March 2014, Google’s case was denied,2010 March – Media outlets reported that the Google TV project was underway, although the partnering companies did not confirm their involvement in the venture until later. 2010 May 20 – The Google TV project was announced at the 2010 Google I/O conference on May 20. The company indicated that the new systems developed by Sony and Logitech would be powered by Intel Atom based CE4100 consumer electronics system-on-chip and it stated that a fully optimized viewer experience would be available through the Dish Network, although the platform would operate through any provider
Tablets often come equipped with sensors, including digital cameras, a microphone, and an accelerometer so images on screens are always displayed upright. The touchscreen display uses the recognition of finger or stylus gestures to replace the mouse, tablets are typically larger than smartphones or personal digital assistants with screens 7 inches or larger, measured diagonally. However much of a tablets functionality resembles that of a modern smartphone, tablets can be classified according to the presence and physical appearance of keyboards. Slates and booklets do not have a keyboard, and usually accept text. Hybrids, and 2-in-1s do have physical keyboards, yet they make use of virtual keyboards. Some 2-in-1s have processors and operating systems like a full laptop, most tablets can use separate keyboards connected using Bluetooth. The format was conceptualized in the century and prototyped and developed in the last two decades of that century. In April 2010, Apple released the iPad, the first mass-market tablet to achieve widespread popularity, thereafter in the 2010s, tablets rapidly rose in ubiquity and became a large product category used for both personal and workplace applications.
The tablet computer and its operating system began with the development of pen computing. Throughout the 20th century devices with these characteristics have been imagined and created whether as blueprints, prototypes, a device more powerful than todays tablets appeared briefly in Jerry Pournelle and Larry Nivens The Mote in Gods Eye. Adults could use a Dynabook, but the audience was children. In 1992, Atari showed developers the Stylus, renamed ST-Pad, the ST-Pad was based on the TOS/GEM Atari ST Platform and prototyped early handwriting recognition. Shiraz Shivjis company Momentus demonstrated in the time a failed x86 MS-DOS based Pen Computer with its own GUI. In 1994, the European Union initiated the NewsPad project, inspired by Clarke, Acorn Computers developed and delivered an ARM-based touch screen tablet computer for this program, branding it the NewsPad, the project ended in 1997. During the November 2000 COMDEX, Microsoft used the term Tablet PC to describe a prototype handheld device they were demonstrating, all three products were based on extended versions of the MS-DOS operating system.
In 1992, IBM announced and shipped to developers the 2521 ThinkPad, based on PenPoint was AT&Ts EO Personal Communicator from 1993, which ran on AT&Ts own hardware, including their own AT&T Hobbit CPU. Apple Computer launched the Apple Newton personal digital assistant in 1993 and it utilised Apples own new Newton OS, initially running on hardware manufactured by Motorola and incorporating an ARM CPU, that Apple had specifically co-developed with Acorn Computers. The operating system and platform design were licensed to Sharp and Digital Ocean, in 1996, Inc. released the first of the Palm OS based PalmPilot touch and stylus based PDA, the touch based devices initially incorporating a Motorola Dragonball CPU
The Linux kernel is a monolithic Unix-like computer operating system kernel. The Android operating system for computers and smartwatches is based atop the Linux kernel. While the adoption on desktop computers is low, Linux-based operating systems dominate nearly every segment of computing. As of November 2016, all but two of the worlds 500 most powerful supercomputers run Linux, Linux rapidly attracted developers and users who adopted it as the kernel for other free software projects, notably the GNU Operating System. The Linux kernel has received contributions from nearly 12,000 programmers from more than 1,200 companies, the Linux kernel API, the application programming interface through which user programs interact with the kernel, is meant to be very stable and to not break userspace programs. As part of the functionality, device drivers control the hardware. However, the interface between the kernel and loadable kernel modules, unlike in many other kernels and operating systems, is not meant to be stable by design.
The Linux kernel, developed by contributors worldwide, is a prominent example of free, day-to-day development discussions take place on the Linux kernel mailing list. The Linux kernel is released under the GNU General Public License version 2, in April 1991, Linus Torvalds, at the time a 21-year-old computer science student at the University of Helsinki, started working on some simple ideas for an operating system. He started with a task switcher in Intel 80386 assembly language, on 25 August 1991, Torvalds posted the following to comp. os. minix, a newsgroup on Usenet, Im doing a operating system for 386 AT clones. This has been brewing since April, and is starting to get ready, id like any feedback on things people like/dislike in minix, as my OS resembles it somewhat. Ive currently ported bash and gcc, and things seem to work and this implies that Ill get something practical within a few months Yes - its free of any minix code, and it has a multi-threaded fs. It is NOT portable, and it never will support anything other than AT-harddisks, as thats all I have.
Its mostly in C, but most people wouldnt call what I write C and it uses every conceivable feature of the 386 I could find, as it was a project to teach me about the 386. As already mentioned, it uses a MMU, for both paging and segmentation and its the segmentation that makes it REALLY386 dependent. Some of my C-files are almost as much assembler as C, unlike minix, I happen to LIKE interrupts, so interrupts are handled without trying to hide the reason behind them. After that, many people contributed code to the project, early on, the MINIX community contributed code and ideas to the Linux kernel. At the time, the GNU Project had created many of the components required for an operating system
Dalvik is a discontinued process virtual machine in Googles Android operating system that executes applications written for Android. Dalvik is open-source software, originally written by Dan Bornstein, who named it after the village of Dalvík in Eyjafjörður. The compact Dalvik Executable format is designed for systems that are constrained in terms of memory, the successor of Dalvik is Android Runtime, which uses the same bytecode and. dex files, with the succession aiming at performance improvements transparent to the end users. Unlike Java VMs, which are machines, the Dalvik VM uses a register-based architecture that requires fewer, typically more complex. Dalvik programs are written in Java using the Android application programming interface, compiled to Java bytecode, a tool called dx is used to convert Java. class files into the. dex format. Multiple classes are included in a single. dex file, duplicate strings and other constants used in multiple class files are included only once in the. dex output to conserve space.
Java bytecode is converted into an instruction set used by the Dalvik VM. An uncompressed. dex file is typically a few percent smaller in size than a compressed Java archive derived from the same. class files, the Dalvik executables may be modified again when installed onto a mobile device. Being optimized for low memory requirements, Dalvik has some characteristics that differentiate it from other standard VMs. The constant pool has been modified to use only 32-bit indices to simplify the interpreter, standard Java bytecode executes 8-bit stack instructions. Local variables must be copied to or from the stack by separate instructions. Dalvik instead uses its own 16-bit instruction set that works directly on local variables, the local variable is commonly picked by a 4-bit virtual register field. This lowers Dalviks instruction count and raises its interpreter speed, according to Google, the design of Dalvik permits a device to run multiple instances of the VM efficiently. While Dalvik interprets the rest of applications bytecode, native execution of those short bytecode segments, the relative merits of stack machines versus register-based approaches are a subject of ongoing debate.
This difference is of importance to VM interpreters, for which opcode dispatch tends to be expensive, in 2012, academic benchmarks confirmed the factor of 3 between HotSpot and Dalvik on the same Android board, noting that Dalvik code was not smaller than Hotspot. Furthermore, as of March 2014, benchmarks performed on an Android device still show up to a factor 100 between native applications and a Dalvik application on the same Android device. Upon running benchmarks using the early interpreter of 2009, both Java Native Interface and native code showed an order of magnitude speedup, Dalvik is published under the terms of the Apache License 2.0. Oracle and some dispute this
Android TV is a smart TV platform developed by Google. Based on the Android, it creates an interactive television experience through a 10-foot user interface and it was initially announced on June 25,2014, at Google I/O2014 as a successor to Googles earlier attempt at a smart TV platform, which was Google TV. Android TV can be built both into TVs and into stand-alone digital media players, users have access to the Google Play Store to download Android apps, including media streaming services Netflix and Hulu, as well as games. The platform emphasizes voice search to find content or to answer queries. The TV interface is divided vertically into three sections, recommendations on top, media apps in the middle, and games on the bottom, the interface can be navigated using a game controller, remote control, or the Android TV mobile app. Android TV supports Google Cast, the technology behind Googles media player Chromecast that allows a device to be used to select. Google has partnered with Sony and Philips to offer the platform in TVs, version 2 of Shield Android TV was announced at CES2017 with Google Assistant in a future update.
Google and Asus co-developed the first device to employ Android TV, Razer released media player with a focus on gaming. Android TV allows consumers to use an HDTV set to music, watch video originating from Internet services or a local network. Android TV can be paired with Bluetooth gaming controllers to interact with the system interface / applications, as well as, Android TV includes all features and streaming capabilities of the Chromecast device. The branding was changed because NVIDIA did not want to appear to be competing with eighth generation consoles, unlike the Nexus Player and the Forge TV, the Shield Android TV has a higher price point of US$200. A primary selling point of the device is the Tegra X1 chipset which is far more powerful than that of any previous Android TV device. The set-top box has 3 GB of RAM,16 GB of internal storage, USB3.0 ports, gigabit Ethernet, the device ships with a Wi-Fi Direct NVIDIA-branded game controller. Other features include integration with NVIDIA GameStream and GeForce NOW, as with previous NVIDIA Shield branded devices, a small selection of NVIDIA-exclusive Android-ported AAA video games are optimised for the Tegra X1 chipset.
The ADT-1 Developer Kit was released by Google before any commercial Android TV devices were released, the hardware was given to some Google I/O2014 attendees and mailed to other developers. The device uses a Tegra 4 chipset and has 16 GB of flash memory. The Google Nexus Player was the first consumer Android TV device, releasing first in the US on November 3,2014 and it supports 1080p, but not 4K.0 port. The Freebox Player Mini is offered by French ISP Free, and is a 4K capable Android TV set-top-box, the Forge TV, by Razer, was announced at CES on January 6,2015
Mascots are used as fictional, representative spokespeople for consumer products, such as the rabbit used in advertising and marketing for the General Mills brand of breakfast cereal, Trix. In the world of sports, mascots are used for merchandising. Team mascots are often confused with team nicknames, while the two can be interchangeable, they are not always the same. For example, the teams of the Auburn University are nicknamed the Auburn Tigers. Costumed mascots are commonplace, and are used as goodwill ambassadors in the community for their team, company. It was originally sporting organisations that first thought of using animals as a form of mascot to bring entertainment and excitement for their spectators, before mascots were fictional icons or people in suits. Animals were mostly used in order to bring a different feel to the game. The event that prompted these changes was the invention of the Muppets in the late 1960s, the puppets offered something different to what everyone was used too.
It allowed to people to not only have visual enjoyment but allowed them to interact physically with the mascots, marketers quickly realized the great potential in three-dimensional mascot and took on board the Muppet-like idea. This change encouraged other companies to start creating their own mascots, resulting in mascots being a necessity amongst not only the sporting industry, the word mascot originates from the French term mascotte which means lucky charm. This was used to describe anything that brought luck to a household, the word was first recorded in 1867 and popularised by a French composer Edmond Audran who wrote the opera La Mascotte, performed in December 1880. But didnt enter into the English language until the year after in 1881, before this, the terms were familiar to the people of France as a slang word used by gamblers. The term is a derivative of the word masco meaning sorceress or witch, before the 19th century, the word mascot was associated with inanimate objects that would be commonly seen such as a lock of hair or a figurehead on a sailing ship.
But from on until the present day, the term was seen to be associated with good luck animals. Often the choice of mascot reflects a desired quality, an example of this is the fighting spirit. In the United States, controversy surrounds some mascot choices, especially those using human likenesses, Mascots based on Native American tribes are particularly contentious, as many argue that they constitute offensive exploitations of an oppressed culture. However several Indian tribes have come out in support of keeping the names. For example, the Utah Utes and the Central Michigan Chippewas are sanctioned by local tribes, the Florida State Seminoles are supported by the Seminole Tribe of Florida in their use of Osceola and Renegade as symbols
Open Handset Alliance
The Open Handset Alliance is a consortium of 84 firms to develop open standards for mobile devices. Member firms include Google, HTC, Dell, Motorola, Texas Instruments, Samsung Electronics, LG Electronics, T-Mobile, Sprint Corporation and Wind River Systems. The OHA was established on 5 November 2007, led by Google with 34 members, including mobile handset makers, application developers, some mobile carriers and chip makers. As part of its efforts to promote a unified Android platform, at the same time as the announcement of the formation of the Open Handset Alliance on November 5,2007, the OHA unveiled Android, an open-source mobile phone platform based on the Linux kernel. An early look at the SDK was released to developers on 12 November 2007, the first commercially available phone running Android was the HTC Dream. It was approved by the Federal Communications Commission on 18 August 2008, and became available on 22 October
Android version history
The version history of the Android mobile operating system began with the release of the Android alpha in November 5,2007. The first commercial version, Android 1.0, was released in September 2008, Android is continually developed by Google and the Open Handset Alliance, and it has seen a number of updates to its base operating system since the initial release. Versions 1.0 and 1.1 were not released under specific code names, each is in alphabetical order, with the most recent major version being Android 7.0 Nougat, released in August 2016. A version of Android KitKat exclusive to Android Wear devices was released on June 25,2014, the development of Android started in 2003 by Android, Inc. which was purchased by Google in 2005. There were at least two internal releases of the software inside Google and the OHA before the version was released. The code names Astro Boy and Bender were used internally for some pre-1.0 milestones, dan Morrill created some of the first mascot logos, but the current Android logo was designed by Irina Blok.
The project manager, Ryan Gibson, conceived the confectionery-themed naming scheme that has used for the majority of the public releases. The beta was released on November 5,2007, while the development kit was released on November 12,2007. The main hardware platform for Android is the ARM architecture, with x86, unofficial Android-x86 project used to provide support for the x86 and MIPS architectures ahead of the official support. Since 2012, Android devices with Intel processors began to appear, including phones, while gaining support for 64-bit platforms, Android was first made to run on 64-bit x86 and on ARM64. Since Android 5.0 Lollipop, 64-bit variants of all platforms are supported in addition to the 32-bit variants. Requirements for the amount of RAM for devices running Android 5.1 range from 512 MB of RAM for normal-density screens. Android 4.4 requires a 32-bit ARMv7, MIPS or x86 architecture processor, Android supports OpenGL ES1.1,2.0,3.0,3.2 and as of latest major version Vulkan.
Some applications may require a certain version of the OpenGL ES