The Arkansas River is a major tributary of the Mississippi River. It flows to the east and southeast as it traverses the U. S. states of Colorado, Kansas and Arkansas. The river's source basin lies in the western United States in Colorado the Arkansas River Valley, where the headwaters derive from the snowpack in the Sawatch and Mosquito mountain ranges, it flows east into the Midwest via Kansas, into the South through Oklahoma and Arkansas. At 1,469 miles, it is the sixth-longest river in the United States, the second-longest tributary in the Mississippi–Missouri system, the 45th longest river in the world, its origin is in the Rocky Mountains in Lake County, near Leadville. In 1859, placer gold discovered in the Leadville area brought thousands seeking to strike it rich, but the recovered placer gold was exhausted; the Arkansas River's mouth is at Napoleon and its drainage basin covers nearly 170,000 sq mi. In terms of volume, the river is much smaller than the Missouri and Ohio Rivers, with a mean discharge of about 40,000 cubic feet per second.
The Arkansas from its headwaters to the 100th meridian west formed part of the U. S.-Mexico border from the Adams–Onís Treaty until the Texas Annexation or Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Name pronunciation varies by region. Many people in western states, including Kansas and parts of Colorado, pronounce it ar-KAN-zəs, People in Oklahoma, parts of Colorado, the majority of the remaining United States pronounce it AR-kən-saw, how the Arkansas state is always pronounced according to a state law passed in 1881; the path of the Arkansas River has changed over time. Sediments from the river found in a palaeochannel next to Nolan, a site in the Tensas Basin, show that part of the river's meander belt flowed through up to 5200 BP. Whilst it was thought that this relict channel was active at the same time as another relict of Mississippi River's meander belt, it has been shown that this channel of the Arkansas was inactive 400 years before the Mississippi channel was active; the Arkansas has three distinct sections in its long path through central North America.
At its headwaters beginning near Leadville, the Arkansas runs as a steep fast-flowing mountain river through the Rockies in its narrow valley, dropping 4,600 feet in 120 miles. This section supports extensive whitewater rafting, including The Numbers, Brown's Canyon, the Royal Gorge. At Cañon City, the Arkansas River valley widens and flattens markedly. Just west of Pueblo, the river enters the Great Plains. Through the rest of Colorado and much of Oklahoma, it is a typical Great Plains riverway, with wide, shallow banks subject to seasonal flooding and periods of dwindling flow. Tributaries include the Salt Fork Arkansas River. In eastern Oklahoma the river begins to widen further into a more contained consistent channel. To maintain more reliable flow rates, a series of large reservoir lakes have been built on the Arkansas and its intersecting tributaries including the Canadian, Neosho and Poteau rivers; these locks and dams allow the river to be navigable by barges and large river craft downriver of Muskogee, where the McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System joins in with the Verdigris River.
Into western Arkansas, the river path works between the encroaching Boston and Ouachita Mountains, including many isolated, flat-topped mesas, buttes, or monadnocks such as Mount Nebo, Petit Jean Mountain, Mount Magazine, the highest point in the state. The river valley expands as it encounters much flatter land beginning just west of Little Rock, Arkansas, it continues eastward across the plains and forests of eastern Arkansas until it flows into the Mississippi River. Water flow in the Arkansas River has dropped from 248 cubic feet per second average from 1944-1963 to 53 cubic feet per second average from 1984–2003 because of the pumping of groundwater for irrigation in eastern Colorado and western Kansas. Important cities along the Arkansas River include Colorado; the I-40 bridge disaster of May 2002 took place on I-40's crossing of Kerr Reservoir on the Arkansas River near Webbers Falls, Oklahoma. Since 1902, Kansas has claimed Colorado takes too much of the river's water, resulting in a number of lawsuits before the U.
S. Supreme Court that continue to this day under the name of Kansas v. Colorado; the problems over the possession and use of Arkansas River water by Colorado and Kansas led to the creation of an interstate compact or agreement between the two states. While Congress approved the Arkansas River Compact in 1949, the compact did not stop further disputes by the two states over water rights to the river; the Kansas-Oklahoma Arkansas River Basin Compact was created in 1965 to promote mutual consideration and equity over water use in the basin shared by those states. It led to the Kansas-Oklahoma Arkansas River Commission, charged with administering the compact and reducing pollution; the compact was approved and implemented by both states in 1970, has been in force since then. The McClellan–Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System begins at the Tulsa Port of Catoosa on the Verdigris River, enters the Arkansas River near Muskogee, runs via an extensive lock and dam system to the Mississippi River. Through Oklahoma and Arkansas, dams which artificially deepen and widen the river to sustain comme
Arkansas State Capitol
The Arkansas State Capitol called the Capitol Building, is the home of the Arkansas General Assembly, the seat of the Arkansas state government that sits atop Capitol Hill at the eastern end of the Capitol Mall in Little Rock, Arkansas. In 1899, the St. Louis architect George R. Mann visited the governor of Arkansas Daniel W. Jones, presented his drawings of his winning competition design from 1896 for the Montana State Capitol, which had not yet been built in their state capital of Helena, they were hung on the walls of the old Capitol to generate interest in a new building. The drawings' attractiveness eased the passage of the appropriation bills for the new building, drew attention to the architect. In 1899, Mann was selected as architect by a seven-member commission that included future governor George W. Donaghey. Donaghey opposed Mann's selection and advocated a national design competition, but the majority of the commission voted for Mann. After Donaghey was elected governor in 1908, he forced Mann off the project and selected Cass Gilbert to finish the Capitol.
Construction took 16 years, from 1899 to 1915. The Capitol was built on the site of the state penitentiary and prisoners helped construct the building, they lived in a dormitory, left on the Capitol grounds while construction was taking place. The Capitol foundations were aligned incorrectly by their original builder, future Governor George Donaghey, he centered the building on the centerline of Fifth Street, but he aligned the building north-south using the still-standing penitentiary walls as a guide without recognizing that Fifth Street was not aligned east-west. Therefore, the structure is in a north-south manner from end-to-end, which does not fit the grid street pattern of Little Rock's downtown; this led to a slight S-curve in the formal entrance walkway between the foot of Capitol Avenue and the front steps of the Capitol. As a smaller scale replica of the United States Capitol in Washington, D. C. the State Capitol has been used as a filming location. In 1990, the Arkansas Capitol grounds were featured extensively in external and internal photography for the action film Stone Cold starring Brian Bosworth.
It was used in the background as sixth President John Quincy Adams walked around the outside in the early 1840s in the film Amistad about a famous mutiny aboard a captured slave ship and the prisoners U. S. Supreme Court case to gain their freedom; the exterior of the Capitol is made of limestone, quarried in Batesville, Arkansas. Though it was stipulated a total cost for the envisioned capitol would not to exceed $1 million, total construction cost was $2.2 million. The front entrance doors are made of bronze, which are 10 feet tall, four inches thick and were purchased from Tiffany & Company in New York for $10,000; the cupola/dome is covered in 24 karat gold leaf. The government was located in the Old State House; the structure used Yule marble. The Arkansas State Capitol grounds has multiple monuments and memorials representing various parts of the state's past and present, they include the Monument to Confederate Soldiers, Liberty Bell replica and Granite Boulders, Confederate War Prisoners Memorial, Law Enforcement Officers Memorial, Vietnam Veterans Memorial, Arkansas Medal of Honor Memorial, Memorial Fountain, Monument to Confederate Women, "Little Rock Nine" Civil Rights Memorial.
List of tallest buildings in Little Rock List of state and territorial capitols in the United States GovernmentOfficial website General information Geographic data related to Arkansas State Capitol at OpenStreetMap Arkansas State Capitol at the Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States. With over six million residents, it is the 18th-most populous state of the Union; the largest urban areas are St. Louis, Kansas City and Columbia; the state is the 21st-most extensive in area. In the South are the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber and recreation; the Missouri River, after which the state is named, flows through the center of the state into the Mississippi River, which makes up Missouri's eastern border. Humans have inhabited the land now known as Missouri for at least 12,000 years; the Mississippian culture built mounds, before declining in the 14th century. When European explorers arrived in the 17th century they encountered the Osage and Missouria nations; the French established Louisiana, a part of New France, founded Ste. Genevieve in 1735 and St. Louis in 1764. After a brief period of Spanish rule, the United States acquired the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Americans from the Upland South, including enslaved African Americans, rushed into the new Missouri Territory.
Missouri was admitted as a slave state as part of the Missouri Compromise. Many from Virginia and Tennessee settled in the Boonslick area of Mid-Missouri. Soon after, heavy German immigration formed the Missouri Rhineland. Missouri played a central role in the westward expansion of the United States, as memorialized by the Gateway Arch; the Pony Express, Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, California Trail all began in Missouri. As a border state, Missouri's role in the American Civil War was complex and there were many conflicts within. After the war, both Greater St. Louis and the Kansas City metropolitan area became centers of industrialization and business. Today, the state is divided into the independent city of St. Louis. Missouri's culture blends elements from Southern United States; the musical styles of ragtime, Kansas City jazz, St. Louis Blues developed in Missouri; the well-known Kansas City-style barbecue, lesser-known St. Louis-style barbecue, can be found across the state and beyond. Missouri is a major center of beer brewing.
Missouri wine is produced in Ozarks. Missouri's alcohol laws are among the most permissive in the United States. Outside of the state's major cities, popular tourist destinations include the Lake of the Ozarks, Table Rock Lake, Branson. Well-known Missourians include U. S. President Harry S. Truman, Mark Twain, Walt Disney, Chuck Berry, Nelly; some of the largest companies based in the state include Cerner, Express Scripts, Emerson Electric, Edward Jones, H&R Block, Wells Fargo Advisors, O'Reilly Auto Parts. Missouri has been called the "Mother of the West" and the "Cave State"; the state is named for the Missouri River, named after the indigenous Missouri Indians, a Siouan-language tribe. It is said that they were called the ouemessourita, meaning "those who have dugout canoes", by the Miami-Illinois language speakers; this appears to be folk etymology—the Illinois spoke an Algonquian language and the closest approximation that can be made in that of their close neighbors, the Ojibwe, is "You Ought to Go Downriver & Visit Those People."
This would be an odd occurrence, as the French who first explored and attempted to settle the Mississippi River got their translations during that time accurate giving things French names that were exact translations of the native tongue. Assuming Missouri were deriving from the Siouan language, it would translate as "It connects to the side of it," in reference to the river itself; this is not likely either, as this would be coming out as "Maya Sunni" Most though, the name Missouri comes from Chiwere, a Siouan language spoken by people who resided in the modern day states of Wisconsin, South Dakota, Missouri & Nebraska. The name "Missouri" has several different pronunciations among its present-day natives, the two most common being and. Further pronunciations exist in Missouri or elsewhere in the United States, involving the realization of the first syllable as either or. Any combination of these phonetic realizations may be observed coming from speakers of American English; the linguistic history was treated definitively by Donald M. Lance, who acknowledged that the question is sociologically complex, but that no pronunciation could be declared "correct", nor could any be defined as native or outsider, rural or urban, southern or northern, educated or otherwise.
Politicians employ multiple pronunciations during a single speech, to appeal to a greater number of listeners. Informal respellings of the state's name, such as "Missour-ee" or "Missour-uh", are used informally to phonetically distinguish pronunciations. There is no official state nickname. However, Missouri's unofficial nickname is the "Show Me State"; this phrase has several origins. One is popularly ascribed to a speech by Congressman Willard Vandiver in 1899, who declared that "I come from a state that raises corn and cotton and Democrats, frothy eloquence neither convinces nor satisfies me. I'm from Missouri, you have got to show me." This is in keeping with the saying "I'm from Missouri" which means "I'm skeptical of the matter and not convinced." However, according to researchers, the phrase "show me" was in use
Arkansas's congressional districts
The U. S. state of Arkansas has four United States congressional districts. The state has had as many as seven districts; the 6th existed from 1893–1963. The 7th existed from 1903-1953. List of members of the Arkansas United States House delegation, their terms, their district boundaries, the districts' political ratings according to the CPVI; the delegation has a total of all Republicans. Table of United States congressional district boundary maps in the State of Arkansas, presented chronologically. All redistricting events that took place in Arkansas between 1973 and 2013 are shown. Arkansas Territory's at-large congressional district, obsolete since statehood Arkansas's at-large congressional district Arkansas's 5th congressional district, obsolete since the 1960 census Arkansas's 6th congressional district, obsolete since the 1960 census Arkansas's 7th congressional district, obsolete since the 1950 census List of United States congressional districts
Arkansas is a state in the southern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2018. Its name is of Siouan derivation from the language of the Osage denoting their related kin, the Quapaw Indians; the state's diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozark and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U. S. Interior Highlands, to the densely forested land in the south known as the Arkansas Timberlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River and the Arkansas Delta. Arkansas is the 33rd most populous of the 50 United States; the capital and most populous city is Little Rock, located in the central portion of the state, a hub for transportation, business and government. The northwestern corner of the state, such as the Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers Metropolitan Area and Fort Smith metropolitan area, is a population and economic center; the largest city in the state's eastern part is Jonesboro. The largest city in the state's southeastern part is Pine Bluff.
The Territory of Arkansas was admitted to the Union as the 25th state on June 15, 1836. In 1861, Arkansas withdrew from the United States and joined the Confederate States of America during the Civil War. On returning to the Union in 1868, the state continued to suffer due to its earlier reliance on slavery and the plantation economy, causing the state to fall behind economically and socially. White rural interests continued to dominate the state's politics until the civil rights movement. Arkansas began to diversify its economy following World War II and relies on its service industry, poultry, tourism and rice; the culture of Arkansas is observable in museums, novels, television shows and athletic venues across the state. People such as politician and educational advocate William Fulbright; the name Arkansas was applied to the Arkansas River and derives from a French term, the plural term for Quapaws, a Dhegiha Siouan-speaking Native American people who settled in Arkansas around the 13th century.
This comes from an Algonquian term, /akansa/, for the Quapaws, is also the root term for Kansas. The name has been spelled in a variety of fashions. In 1881, the pronunciation of Arkansas with the final "s" being silent was made official by an act of the state legislature after a dispute arose between Arkansas's two U. S. senators as one favored the pronunciation as AR-kən-saw while the other favored ar-KAN-zəs. In 2007, the state legislature passed a non-binding resolution declaring that the possessive form of the state's name is Arkansas's, followed by the state government. Arkansas borders Louisiana to the south, Texas to the southwest, Oklahoma to the west, Missouri to the north, Tennessee and Mississippi to the east; the United States Census Bureau classifies Arkansas as a southern state, sub-categorized among the West South Central States. The Mississippi River forms most of Arkansas's eastern border, except in Clay and Greene, counties where the St. Francis River forms the western boundary of the Missouri Bootheel, in many places where the channel of the Mississippi has meandered from its original 1836 course.
Arkansas can be split into two halves, the highlands in the northwest half and the lowlands of the southeastern half. The highlands are part of the Southern Interior Highlands, including The Ozarks and the Ouachita Mountains; the southern lowlands include the Arkansas Delta. This dual split can yield to general regions named northwest, northeast, southeast, or central Arkansas; these directionally named regions are broad and not defined along county lines. Arkansas has seven distinct natural regions: the Ozark Mountains, Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas River Valley, Gulf Coastal Plain, Crowley's Ridge, the Arkansas Delta, with Central Arkansas sometimes included as a blend of multiple regions; the southeastern part of Arkansas along the Mississippi Alluvial Plain is sometimes called the Arkansas Delta. This region is a flat landscape of rich alluvial soils formed by repeated flooding of the adjacent Mississippi. Farther away from the river, in the southeast portion of the state, the Grand Prairie consists of a more undulating landscape.
Both are fertile agricultural areas. The Delta region is bisected by a geological formation known as Crowley's Ridge. A narrow band of rolling hills, Crowley's Ridge rises from 250 to 500 feet above the surrounding alluvial plain and underlies many of the major towns of eastern Arkansas. Northwest Arkansas is part of the Ozark Plateau including the Ozark Mountains, to the south are the Ouachita Mountains, these regions are divided by the Arkansas River; these mountain ranges are part of the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains; the highest point in the state is Mount Magazine in the Ouachita Mountains, which rises to 2,753 feet above sea level. Arkansas has many rivers and reservoirs within or along its borders. Major tributaries of the Mississippi River include the Arkansas River, the White River, the St. Francis River; the Arkansas is fed by the Mulberry River and the Fou
The Arkansas Razorbacks known as the Hogs, are the mascots of college sports teams at the University of Arkansas in Fayetteville, Arkansas. The University of Arkansas student body voted to change the name of the school mascot in 1910 to the Arkansas Razorbacks after a hard fought battle against LSU in which they were said to play like a "wild band of Razorback hogs" by former coach Hugo Bezdek; the Arkansas Razorbacks are the only major sports team in the US with a porcine nickname, though the Texas A&M–Kingsville Javelinas play in Division II. The University of Arkansas fields 19 total varsity teams in 13 sports, competes in the NCAA Division I and is a member of the Southeastern Conference. After classes were first held at the university, a contest was held on campus to select school colors. Cardinal was selected over a shade of moderate purple; the first Arkansas football team was formed that same year and was known as the "Arkansas Cardinals". Sometime around the year 2000, the color black began making its way onto Razorback merchandise and some team uniforms.
Indeed, for some time, the Collegiate Licensing Company touted the university's colors as red and black instead of cardinal red and white. While this has been corrected, many manufacturers of UA related merchandise still make product according to the red and black color scheme. Arkansas merchandise sold at the highest levels in school history during the 2012–13 academic year when royalties through CLC ranked 10th best in the nation. In 1909, the football team finished a 7–0 season, allowing only 18 points on defense and scoring 186 points on offense. College Football Hall of Fame coach Hugo Bezdek proclaimed his team played "like a wild band of razorback hogs"; the name proved so popular. The tradition of calling the hogs, "Woo, Pig! Sooie" was added in the 1920s. In 1957, Frank Broyles was hired as the head football coach and served in that position for 19 years. Broyles' team was awarded the 1964 National Championship by the Football Writers Association of America and the Helms Athletic Foundation.
At the time, The AP and UPI both awarded the designation before bowl games, gave the award to Alabama. However, Alabama lost their bowl game to Texas; the FWAA and HAF both awarded their national championship designations to Arkansas, the only team to go undefeated through bowl games that year. Both the University of Arkansas and the University of Alabama claimed national championships for the year 1964. In 1969, Broyles' team was ranked #2 and played the #1-ranked Texas Longhorns, coached by Darrell Royal, in Fayetteville; the game, known as "The Big Shootout" is the most notable football game in Razorback history. President Richard Nixon was in attendance; the Razorbacks led 14–0 until the 4th quarter. Texas scored 15 unanswered points and won the national championship 15–14. After Broyles left coaching and became Athletic Director, he hired Lou Holtz to take over his former position. Holtz served as the head football coach from 1977 through the 1983 season. Under him, the Razorbacks lost a national championship in the Sugar Bowl against Alabama and beat the Oklahoma Sooners in the Orange Bowl, ending their national championship hopes.
On 1971, the women's athletic department was formed. On January 1, 2008, the men's and women's athletic departments merged along with a new athletic director; the basketball team rose to prominence in the 1970s now under the coaching of Eddie Sutton and with future NBA star Sidney Moncrief along with Marvin Delph and Ron Brewer, three similarly-sized Arkansas bred guards, known as "The Triplets". The team made a Final Four appearance under him, finishing 3rd by defeating Notre Dame on a last second shot in the now defunct consolation game. In the 1980s, the football team was now coached by Ken Hatfield, established itself as a powerful running team; the Razorbacks went to the Cotton Bowl Classic twice. Hatfield's teams established excellent regular season records, but had difficulty winning bowl games. In 1990, Broyles led the Razorbacks out of the Southwest Conference and into the Southeastern Conference, setting off a major realignment in college football. In 1995, the Arkansas Razorbacks won its first SEC Western Division Title in football.
In 1994, Nolan Richardson's basketball Razorbacks won the NCAA Tournament. His basketball teams challenged for the SEC and national championships during the 1990s, making three trips to the Final Four and two to the championship game while compiling a record of 389–169 in his 17 years as the head basketball coach. On December 10, 1997, Houston Nutt was hired as head football coach for the Razorbacks to replace Danny Ford, head coach since 1993, the 1998 season was his first full season. Sought after as a Little Rock Central quarterback, Nutt had been the last recruit to sign under Broyles, but transferred to Oklahoma State University once when he did not fit Holtz's offensive plans. Soon after Houston Dale Nutt's timely departure, Razorback fans rejoiced as Atlanta Falcons Coach Bobby Petrino called the team, he led the team to a BCS game in 2010 and the school's third 11 win season with a Top 5 season ranking in the 2011 season with a heavy passing attack. On April 1, 2012 Bobby Petrino drove his motorcycle into a ditch with a passenger aboard.
He was fired. AD Jeff Long introduced John L. Smith as the interim coach for the 2012 season i
Oklahoma is a state in the South Central region of the United States, bordered by Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, Texas on the south, New Mexico on the west, Colorado on the northwest. It is the 28th-most populous of the fifty United States; the state's name is derived from the Choctaw words okla and humma, meaning "red people". It is known informally by its nickname, "The Sooner State", in reference to the non-Native settlers who staked their claims on land before the official opening date of lands in the western Oklahoma Territory or before the Indian Appropriations Act of 1889, which increased European-American settlement in the eastern Indian Territory. Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory were merged into the State of Oklahoma when it became the 46th state to enter the union on November 16, 1907, its residents are known as Oklahomans, its capital and largest city is Oklahoma City. A major producer of natural gas and agricultural products, Oklahoma relies on an economic base of aviation, telecommunications, biotechnology.
Both Oklahoma City and Tulsa serve as Oklahoma's primary economic anchors, with nearly two thirds of Oklahomans living within their metropolitan statistical areas. With ancient mountain ranges, prairie and eastern forests, most of Oklahoma lies in the Great Plains, Cross Timbers, the U. S. Interior Highlands, a region prone to severe weather. More than 25 Native American languages are spoken in Oklahoma, ranking third behind Alaska and California. Oklahoma is on a confluence of three major American cultural regions and served as a route for cattle drives, a destination for Southern settlers, a government-sanctioned territory for Native Americans; the name Oklahoma comes from the Choctaw phrase okla humma meaning red people. Choctaw Nation Chief Allen Wright suggested the name in 1866 during treaty negotiations with the federal government on the use of Indian Territory, in which he envisioned an all-Indian state controlled by the United States Superintendent of Indian Affairs. Equivalent to the English word Indian, okla humma was a phrase in the Choctaw language that described Native American people as a whole.
Oklahoma became the de facto name for Oklahoma Territory, it was approved in 1890, two years after the area was opened to white settlers. The name of the state is Pawnee: Uukuhuúwa, Cayuga: Gahnawiyoˀgeh. In the Chickasaw language, the state is known as Oklahomma', in Arapaho as bo'oobe'. Oklahoma is the 20th-largest state in the United States, covering an area of 69,899 square miles, with 68,595 square miles of land and 1,304 square miles of water, it lies in the Great Plains near the geographical center of the 48 contiguous states. It is bounded on the east by Arkansas and Missouri, on the north by Kansas, on the northwest by Colorado, on the far west by New Mexico, on the south and near-west by Texas. Much of its border with Texas lies along a failed continental rift; the geologic figure defines the placement of the Red River. The Oklahoma panhandle's Western edge is out of alignment with its Texas border; the Oklahoma/New Mexico border is 2.1 miles to 2.2 miles east of the Texas line. The border between Texas and New Mexico was set first as a result of a survey by Spain in 1819.
It was set along the 103rd meridian. In the 1890s, when Oklahoma was formally surveyed using more accurate surveying equipment and techniques, it was discovered the Texas line was not set along the 103rd meridian. Surveying techniques were not as accurate in 1819, the actual 103rd meridian was 2.2 miles to the east. It was much easier to leave the mistake than for Texas to cede land to New Mexico to correct the surveying error; the placement of the Oklahoma/New Mexico border represents the true 103rd meridian. Cimarron County in Oklahoma's panhandle is the only county in the United States that touches four other states: New Mexico, Texas and Kansas. Oklahoma is between the Great Plains and the Ozark Plateau in the Gulf of Mexico watershed sloping from the high plains of its western boundary to the low wetlands of its southeastern boundary, its highest and lowest points follow this trend, with its highest peak, Black Mesa, at 4,973 feet above sea level, situated near its far northwest corner in the Oklahoma Panhandle.
The state's lowest point is on the Little River near its far southeastern boundary near the town of Idabel, which dips to 289 feet above sea level. Among the most geographically diverse states, Oklahoma is one of four to harbor more than 10 distinct ecological regions, with 11 in its borders—more per square mile than in any other state, its western and eastern halves, are marked by extreme differences in geographical diversity: Eastern Oklahoma touches eight ecological regions and its western half contains three. Although having fewer ecological regions Western Oklahoma contains many relic species. Oklahoma has four primary mountain ranges: the Ouachita Mountains, the Arbuckle Mountains, the Wichita Mountains, the Ozark Mountains. Contained within the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the Ozark and Ouachita Mountains are the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachians. A portion of the Flint Hills stretches into north-central Oklahoma, near the state's eastern border, The Oklahoma Tourism & Recreation Department regards Cavanal Hill as the world's tallest hill.
The semi-arid high