The Americas comprise the totality of the continents of North and South America. Together, they comprise the New World. Along with their associated islands, they cover 8% of Earth's total surface area and 28.4% of its land area. The topography is dominated by the American Cordillera, a long chain of mountains that runs the length of the west coast; the flatter eastern side of the Americas is dominated by large river basins, such as the Amazon, St. Lawrence River / Great Lakes basin, La Plata. Since the Americas extend 14,000 km from north to south, the climate and ecology vary from the arctic tundra of Northern Canada and Alaska, to the tropical rain forests in Central America and South America. Humans first settled the Americas from Asia between 17,000 years ago. A second migration of Na-Dene speakers followed from Asia; the subsequent migration of the Inuit into the neoarctic around 3500 BCE completed what is regarded as the settlement by the indigenous peoples of the Americas. The first known European settlement in the Americas was by the Norse explorer Leif Erikson.
However, the colonization never became permanent and was abandoned. The Spanish voyages of Christopher Columbus from 1492 to 1502 resulted in permanent contact with European powers, which led to the Columbian exchange and inaugurated a period of exploration and colonization whose effects and consequences persist to the present. Diseases introduced from Europe and West Africa devastated the indigenous peoples, the European powers colonized the Americas. Mass emigration from Europe, including large numbers of indentured servants, importation of African slaves replaced the indigenous peoples. Decolonization of the Americas began with the American Revolution in the 1770s and ended with the Spanish–American War in the late 1890s. All of the population of the Americas resides in independent countries; the Americas are home to over a billion inhabitants, two-thirds of which reside in the United States, Brazil, or Mexico. It is home to eight megacities: New York City, Mexico City, São Paulo, Los Angeles, Buenos Aires, Rio de Janeiro, Bogotá, Lima.
The name America was first recorded in 1507. Christie's auction house says a two-dimensional globe created by Martin Waldseemüller was the earliest recorded use of the term; the name was used in the Cosmographiae Introductio written by Matthias Ringmann, in reference to South America. It was applied to both North and South America by Gerardus Mercator in 1538. America derives from the Latin version of Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci's first name; the feminine form America accorded with the feminine names of Asia and Europa. In modern English and South America are considered separate continents, taken together are called America or the Americas in the plural; when conceived as a unitary continent, the form is the continent of America in the singular. However, without a clarifying context, singular America in English refers to the United States of America. In the English-speaking world, the term America used to refer to a single continent until the 1950s: According to historians Kären Wigen and Martin W. Lewis, While it might seem surprising to find North and South America still joined into a single continent in a book published in the United States in 1937, such a notion remained common until World War II.
By the 1950s, however all American geographers had come to insist that the visually distinct landmasses of North and South America deserved separate designations. This shift did not seem to happen in Romance-speaking countries, where America is still considered a continent encompassing the North America and South America subcontinents, as well as Central America; the first inhabitants migrated into the Americas from Asia. Habitation sites are known in Alaska and the Yukon from at least 20,000 years ago, with suggested ages of up to 40,000 years. Beyond that, the specifics of the Paleo-Indian migration to and throughout the Americas, including the dates and routes traveled, are subject to ongoing research and discussion. Widespread habitation of the Americas occurred during the late glacial maximum, from 16,000 to 13,000 years ago; the traditional theory has been that these early migrants moved into the Beringia land bridge between eastern Siberia and present-day Alaska around 40,000–17,000 years ago, when sea levels were lowered during the Quaternary glaciation.
These people are believed to have followed herds of now-extinct pleistocene megafauna along ice-free corridors that stretched between the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets. Another route proposed is that, either on foot or using primitive boats, they migrated down the Pacific coast to South America. Evidence of the latter would since have been covered by a sea level rise of hundreds of meters following the last ice age. Both routes may have
The Carnival of Brazil is an annual Brazilian festival held between the Friday afternoon before Ash Wednesday and Ash Wednesday at noon, which marks the beginning of Lent, the forty-day period before Easter. During Lent, Roman Catholics and some other Christians traditionally abstained from the consumption of meat and poultry, hence the term "carnival", from carnelevare, "to remove meat."Rhythm and costumes vary from one region of Brazil to another. In the southeastern cities of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Vitória, huge organized parades are led by samba schools; those official parades are meant to be watched by the public, while minor parades allowing public participation can be found in other cities, like Belo Horizonte in the southeastern region. The northeastern cities of Recife, Olinda and Porto Seguro have organized groups parading through streets, public interacts directly with them; this carnival is influenced by African-Brazilian culture. It is a six-day party where crowds follow the trios elétricos through the city streets and singing.
In northeast, Olinda carnival features unique characteristics influenced by local folklore and cultural manifestations, such as Frevo and Maracatu. The typical genres of music of Brazilian carnival are, in the Southeast Region in general cities of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo: the samba-enredo, the samba de bloco, the samba de embalo and the marchinha. Carnival has become an event of huge proportions. Except for industrial production, retail establishments such as malls, carnival-related businesses, the country unifies for a week and festivities are intense and night in coastal cities. Rio de Janeiro's carnival alone drew 4.9 million people with 400,000 being foreigners. This cultural manifestation is an extension of Afro-Brazilian culture, though could be traced to the Portuguese Age of Discoveries when their caravels passed through Madeira, a territory which celebrated emphatically its carnival season, where they were loaded with goods but people and their ludic and cultural expressions. In the late 18th century, the "cordões" combined with the "dança do coco" were introduced in Rio de Janeiro.
These were pageant groups that paraded through city avenues dancing. Today they are known as Carnaval blocos, consisting of a group of people who dress in costumes or special T-shirts with themes and/or logos. Blocos are associated with particular neighbourhoods, they became the "fathers" of what everyone today knows as the famous and internationally renowned samba-schools in Brazil. Samba-schools are the cultural epicenter of the Brazilian carnival, in terms of the "parading style"; the first registered samba-school was called "Deixa-falar", but disappeared and the first official samba-school contest happened in 1929, with only three groups, "Oswaldo Cruz" group won the competition, with a samba written by Heitor dos Prazeres. GRES Estação Primeira de Mangueira Samba-School, represented by Cartola, Estácio de Sá samba School, represented by Ismael Silva, were the other 2 contestants. "Oswaldo Cruz" became, Portela Samba School, the greatest winner of Rio's Carnival with 21 Titles. Although many Brazilians tend now to favor other forms of national music culture to that of Rio's samba schools, the carnival of Rio de Janeiro remains the national festival par excellence, the samba of Rio de Janeiro continues to be an agent of national unification.
Carnaval blocos known as Blocos de Rua occur in nearly every neighborhood throughout the city and metropolitan areas, but the most famous are the ones in Copacabana, Leblon, Jardim Botânico, in downtown Rio. Organizers compose their own music themes that are added to the performance and singing of classic "marchinhas" and samba popular songs. "Cordão do bola preta", that goes through the heart of Rio's historical center, "Suvaco do Cristo", near the Botanical Garden, are some of the most famous groups. Monobloco has become so famous that it plays all year round at small concerts; the formalized samba schools are large groups of performers, financed by respected organizations, who work year-round in preparation for Carnival. Samba Schools perform in the Sambadrome, which runs four entire nights and is overseen by LIESA, they are part of an official competition, divided into seven divisions, in which a single school is declared the winner, according to ten judging categories that include costume, flow and band music quality and performance.
Some samba schools hold street parties in their neighborhoods, through which they parade along with their followers. All performers at the Sambadrome have to wear a costume; some honored members of the school or community may receive one for free, but most will have to pay for their own. Tourists can have the same experience on the
The creation of art in the geographic area now known as Brazil begins with the earliest records of its human habitation. The original inhabitants of the land, pre-Columbian Indian peoples, produced various forms of art; this area was given the modern name of Brazil. Brazilian art is most used as an umbrella term for art created in this region post Portuguese colonization; the oldest known art in Brazil is the cave paintings in Serra da Capivara National Park in the state of Piauí, dating back to c. 13,000 BC. More recent examples have been found in Minas Gerais and Goiás, showing geometric patterns and animal forms. One of the most sophisticated kinds of Pre-Columbian artifact found in Brazil is the sophisticated Marajoara pottery, from cultures flourishing on Marajó Island and around the region of Santarém, decorated with painting and complex human and animal reliefs. Statuettes and cult objects, such as the small carved-stone amulets called muiraquitãs belong to these cultures; the Mina and Periperi cultures, from Maranhão and Bahia, produced interesting though simpler pottery and statuettes.
In the beginning of the 21st century, the ancient Indian traditions of body painting, cult statuettes, feather art are still being cultivated by the remaining Indian peoples. The first Western artists active in Brazil were Roman Catholic priests who came from Portugal to “civilize” the Indians. Jesuits assumed an important role in this process, with their many missionary establishments called "Reductions" teaching religion through art in the form of sacred plays, music and painting. José de Anchieta was the first important playwright. Basílio da Gama and Gregório de Mattos were the first secular poets. All of them worked under the influence of the Baroque, the dominant style in Brazil until the early 19th century. Through the 17th and 18th centuries Baroque art flourished with increasing richness and craftsmanship in Bahia and Pernambuco along the coast and in some inland regions, reaching the highest levels of originality in Minas Gerais, where a gold rush nurtured a rich and cultured local society.
In Minas lived the greatest artists of Brazilian Baroque: painter Manuel da Costa Ataíde and sculptor-architect Aleijadinho. Minas was the birthplace of a proto-Neoclassical school of music and literature, with composers Lobo de Mesquita and Francisco Gomes da Rocha, poets Tomás Antônio Gonzaga and Cláudio Manuel da Costa. One single event in the 19th century sowed the seeds for a complete renewal in Brazilian visual arts: the arrival of the French Artistic Mission in 1816, which reinforced the Neoclassical style seen in Brazil only in timid attempts. Joachim Lebreton, its leader, proposed the creation of an Academy of Fine Arts restructured as the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts; the Academy was the most important center for the visual arts through nearly the whole of the 19th century. It imposed a new concept of artistic education and was the basis for a revolution in Brazilian painting, architecture, graphic arts, crafts. A few decades under the personal patronage of Emperor Pedro II, engaged in an ambitious national project of modernization, the Academy reached its golden age, fostering the emergence of the first generation of Romantic painters.
Victor Meirelles and Pedro Américo, among others, produced lasting visual symbols of national identity. It must be said that in Brazil Romanticism in painting took a peculiar shape, not showing the overwhelming dramaticism, violence, or interest in death and the bizarre seen in the European version, because of its academic and palatial nature all excesses were eschewed. Meanwhile, literature too evolved towards a romantic-nationalist school with the works of Casimiro de Abreu and Manuel Antônio de Almeida. Around 1850, a transition began, centered upon Álvares de Azevedo, influenced by the poetry of Lord Byron; this second generation of Romantics was obsessed with morbidness and death, soon after, social commentary could be found in literature, both features not seen in the visual arts. Antônio Castro Alves wrote of the horrors of slavery, the persecuted Indians were rescued through art by poets and novelists like Antônio Gonçalves Dias and José de Alencar; these trends combined in one of the most important accomplishments of the Romantic era in Brazil: the establishment of a Brazilian national identity based on Indian ancestry and the rich natural environment of the country.
In music, the 19th century produced only two composers of outstanding talent: neoclassical sacred composer José Maurício Nunes Garcia, for a while music director to the court, Romantic operist Carlos Gomes, the first Brazilian musician to win international acclaim. In the late 19th century, Brazilian art became acquainted with Realism. Descriptions of nature and of the people of Brazil's varied regions as well as psychological romances proliferated with João Simões Lopes Neto, Aluísio Azevedo, Euclides da Cunha, above all, Machado de Assis, while Almeida Junior, Pedro Weingärtner, Oscar Pereira da Silva, other Realist painters depicted folk types and the distinctive colors and light of Brazilian landscape; the beginning of the 20th century saw a struggle between modernist trends. The Week of Modern Art festival, held in São Paulo in 1922, was received with fiery criticism by conservative s
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere in the Southern Hemisphere, with a small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. It may be considered a subcontinent of the Americas, how it is viewed in the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking regions of the Americas; the reference to South America instead of other regions has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics. It is bordered on the west on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean, it includes twelve sovereign states, a part of France, a non-sovereign area. In addition to this, the ABC islands of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and Tobago, Panama may be considered part of South America. South America has an area of 17,840,000 square kilometers, its population as of 2016 has been estimated at more than 420 million. South America ranks fourth in fifth in population. Brazil is by far the most populous South American country, with more than half of the continent's population, followed by Colombia, Argentina and Peru. In recent decades Brazil has concentrated half of the region's GDP and has become a first regional power.
Most of the population lives near the continent's western or eastern coasts while the interior and the far south are sparsely populated. The geography of western South America is dominated by the Andes mountains. Most of the continent lies in the tropics; the continent's cultural and ethnic outlook has its origin with the interaction of indigenous peoples with European conquerors and immigrants and, more locally, with African slaves. Given a long history of colonialism, the overwhelming majority of South Americans speak Portuguese or Spanish, societies and states reflect Western traditions. South America occupies the southern portion of the Americas; the continent is delimited on the northwest by the Darién watershed along the Colombia–Panama border, although some may consider the border instead to be the Panama Canal. Geopolitically and geographically all of Panama – including the segment east of the Panama Canal in the isthmus – is included in North America alone and among the countries of Central America.
All of mainland South America sits on the South American Plate. South America is home to Angel Falls in Venezuela. South America's major mineral resources are gold, copper, iron ore and petroleum; these resources found in South America have brought high income to its countries in times of war or of rapid economic growth by industrialized countries elsewhere. However, the concentration in producing one major export commodity has hindered the development of diversified economies; the fluctuation in the price of commodities in the international markets has led to major highs and lows in the economies of South American states causing extreme political instability. This is leading to efforts to diversify production to drive away from staying as economies dedicated to one major export. South America is one of the most biodiverse continents on earth. South America is home to many interesting and unique species of animals including the llama, piranha, vicuña, tapir; the Amazon rainforests possess high biodiversity, containing a major proportion of the Earth's species.
Brazil is the largest country in South America, encompassing around half of the continent's land area and population. The remaining countries and territories are divided among three regions: The Andean States, the Guianas and the Southern Cone. Traditionally, South America includes some of the nearby islands. Aruba, Curaçao, Trinidad and the federal dependencies of Venezuela sit on the northerly South American continental shelf and are considered part of the continent. Geo-politically, the island states and overseas territories of the Caribbean are grouped as a part or subregion of North America, since they are more distant on the Caribbean Plate though San Andres and Providencia are politically part of Colombia and Aves Island is controlled by Venezuela. Other islands that are included with South America are the Galápagos Islands that belong to Ecuador and Easter Island, Robinson Crusoe Island, Chiloé and Tierra del Fuego. In the Atlantic, Brazil owns Fernando de Noronha and Martim Vaz, the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, while the Falkland Islands are governed by the United Kingdom, whose sovereignty over the islands is disputed by Argentina.
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands may be associate
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite to link devices worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of private, academic and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies; the Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web, electronic mail and file sharing. Some publications no longer capitalize "internet"; the origins of the Internet date back to research commissioned by the federal government of the United States in the 1960s to build robust, fault-tolerant communication with computer networks. The primary precursor network, the ARPANET served as a backbone for interconnection of regional academic and military networks in the 1980s; the funding of the National Science Foundation Network as a new backbone in the 1980s, as well as private funding for other commercial extensions, led to worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies, the merger of many networks.
The linking of commercial networks and enterprises by the early 1990s marked the beginning of the transition to the modern Internet, generated a sustained exponential growth as generations of institutional and mobile computers were connected to the network. Although the Internet was used by academia since the 1980s, commercialization incorporated its services and technologies into every aspect of modern life. Most traditional communication media, including telephony, television, paper mail and newspapers are reshaped, redefined, or bypassed by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as email, Internet telephony, Internet television, online music, digital newspapers, video streaming websites. Newspaper and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging, web feeds and online news aggregators; the Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of personal interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, social networking. Online shopping has grown exponentially both for major retailers and small businesses and entrepreneurs, as it enables firms to extend their "brick and mortar" presence to serve a larger market or sell goods and services online.
Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries. The Internet has no single centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage; the overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address space and the Domain Name System, are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force, a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise. In November 2006, the Internet was included on USA Today's list of New Seven Wonders; when the term Internet is used to refer to the specific global system of interconnected Internet Protocol networks, the word is a proper noun that should be written with an initial capital letter.
In common use and the media, it is erroneously not capitalized, viz. the internet. Some guides specify that the word should be capitalized when used as a noun, but not capitalized when used as an adjective; the Internet is often referred to as the Net, as a short form of network. As early as 1849, the word internetted was used uncapitalized as an adjective, meaning interconnected or interwoven; the designers of early computer networks used internet both as a noun and as a verb in shorthand form of internetwork or internetworking, meaning interconnecting computer networks. The terms Internet and World Wide Web are used interchangeably in everyday speech. However, the World Wide Web or the Web is only one of a large number of Internet services; the Web is a collection of interconnected documents and other web resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. As another point of comparison, Hypertext Transfer Protocol, or HTTP, is the language used on the Web for information transfer, yet it is just one of many languages or protocols that can be used for communication on the Internet.
The term Interweb is a portmanteau of Internet and World Wide Web used sarcastically to parody a technically unsavvy user. Research into packet switching, one of the fundamental Internet technologies, started in the early 1960s in the work of Paul Baran and Donald Davies. Packet-switched networks such as the NPL network, ARPANET, the Merit Network, CYCLADES, Telenet were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s; the ARPANET project led to the development of protocols for internetworking, by which multiple separate networks could be joined into a network of networks. ARPANET development began with two network nodes which were interconnected between the Network Measurement Center at the University of California, Los Angeles Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science directed by Leonard Kleinrock, the NLS system at SRI International by Douglas Engelbart in Menlo Park, California, on 29 October 1969; the third site was the Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics Center at the University of California, Santa Barbara, followed by the University of
Buddhism in Brazil
With nearly 250,000 Buddhists, Brazil is home to the third largest Buddhist population in the Americas, after the United States and Canada. Buddhism in Brazil consists of practitioners from various Buddhist schools. A number of Buddhist organisations and groups are active in Brazil, with nearly 150 temples spread across the states. Buddhism was introduced to Brazil due to the immigration of Japanese in the early 20th century. Thus, Japanese schools and sects of Buddhism, such as Soto Zen, Nichiren Honmon Butsuryu Shu, Jodo Shinshu and Soka Gakkai have a strong presence in Brazil. Despite being the most expressive in Brazil, these schools face a number of challenges which limit their influence and outreach. One of those challenges is the mismatch of goals and expectations between the more traditional, Japanese-born people and the native Brazilians alongside those of Japanese descent. Although the Japanese contributed to the introduction of Buddhism to Brazil, adherence to Buddhism is not widespread among descendants of Japanese immigrants, who were converted to Roman Catholicism.
Those who practice and identify with Buddhism tend to display a wide variety of stances regarding their relationships to the ethnicity and the religious tradition. To various degrees most of them attempt to meld with local Brazilian culture according to their personal preferences. Most such schools are attempting to reach out to Brazilians not of Japanese descent, however facing considerable internal resistance in the process. Other Japanese traditions present in Brazil include Shingon, Nichiren-shū and Nichiren Shōshū schools, albeit in somewhat modest numbers. Recent years saw a growth of interest in the practice Zen variants from Korea and Vietnam in Brazil; the Theravada tradition's presence in Brazil was started by those who created the Brazil Buddhist Society. It was presented with a generalist non-sectarian approach to Buddhism, it evolved into a more Theravada-aligned society drawing teachings from the Pāli Canon of the Tripitaka and to other teachings and practices of the Theravada tradition.
Since the 1970s it has maintained simple installations built with voluntary work which have hosted visiting monks from Sri Lanka and other Theravada countries. In 1989, the Nalanda Buddhist Centre was established, it maintains affiliated groups in Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, São Paulo and Curitiba, has invited a large number of international teachers through the years. All four major schools of Vajrayana Buddhism, Gelug and Kagyu schools, maintain active centers in Brazil. Chagdud Tulku Rinpoche relocated the headquarters of his international organization to Três Coroas in Rio Grande do Sul State where he spent the last few years of his life; the 14th Dalai Lama visited Brazil in 2006. The Chinese Chan school and Mahayana Buddhism is centered on the city of Cotia's Zu Lai Temple and its companion Buddhist University in São Paulo State, both of which were opened in 2003; the temple, near the city of São Paulo, is the largest temple in Latin America, was built using funds raised from American Buddhist organisations and donors.
The Fo Guang Shan Temple in the city of Olinda, in the northeastern state of Pernambuco belongs to the Mahayana tradition. The Vietnamese Zen school of Thich Nhat Hanh maintains temples and sangha in the cities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Although Brazil remains a Christian country, Buddhism has a growing presence in Brazil. There is considerable online activity and dialogue amongst Brazilian Buddhists, with a number of websites and online groups; the activities of Buddhist groups are however a bit restricted due to the linguistic geography of Brazil - since it is a non-Spanish speaking country in Latin America. This limits the cross-boundary activities typical of the Buddhist organisations active in other countries; the State government of Espírito Santo has implemented a special training programme for military police to attend zen courses at the Mosteiro Zen Morro da Vargem. Moreira da Rocha, Cristina. Zen Buddhism in Brazil: Japanese or Brazilian?, Journal of Global Buddhism 1, 31-55 Moreira da Rocha, Cristina.
Zen in Brazil: The Quest for Cosmopolitan Modernity, Honolulu: University of Hawaiʻi Press Dharmanet BR One of the main Brazilian Buddhism websites Official Brazilian HBS site - Honmon Butsuryu Shu is a Nichiren Buddhism school that has significant Brazilian presence Official Brazilian NKT site Chagdud Gonpa Brazil - a network of Nyingma centers in Brazil Brazil Buddhist Society Nalanda Brazilian Theravada Buddhist Community Official BSGI site - Brazilian representant of the Soka Gakkai International Zu Lai Temple - of the Chinese Chan tradition, located in Cotia, São Paulo Busshinji Temple - Head temple of Soto Zen sect for South America Buddhactivity Dharma Centres database Centres in Brazil practicing in the tradition of Thich Nhat Hanh
Afro-Brazilians are Brazilians who have African ancestry. The term does not have widespread use in Brazil, where social constructs and classifications have been based on appearance. Many members of another group of people, multiracial Brazilians or pardos have a range of degree of African ancestry. Preto and pardo are among five color categories used by the Brazilian Census, along with branco and indígena. In 2010, 7.6% of the Brazilian population, some 15 million people, identified as preto, while 43% identified as pardo. Pretos tend to be predominantly African in ancestry, while pardos tend to have a lesser percentage of African ancestry. On average pardos are predominantly European, with Native American ancestries. Since the early 21st century, Brazilian government agencies such as the Special Secretariat for Policies to Promote Racial Equality and the Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada, have considered combining the categories preto and pardo, as a single category called negro, because both groups show socioeconomic indications of discrimination.
They suggest doing. This decision has caused much controversy because there is no consensus about it in Brazilian society. Brazilians use the American-style phrase "African Brazilian" as a term of ethnic identity and never in informal discourse: the IBGE's July 1998 PME shows that, of Black Brazilians, only about 10% identify as being of "African origin". In the July 1998 PME, the categories Afro-Brasileiro and Africano Brasileiro were not chosen at all. In the 1976 National Household Sample, none of these terms was used once. Brazilian geneticist Sérgio Pena has criticised American scholar Edward Telles for lumping pretos and pardos in the same category. According to him, "the autosomal genetic analysis that we have performed in non-related individuals from Rio de Janeiro shows that it does not make any sense to put pretos and pardos in the same category"; as many pardos are of European ancestry, Pena questioned studying them together with pretos, who are of African ancestry. For example, an autosomal genetic study of students in a school in the poor periphery of Rio de Janeiro found that the pardos among the students were found to be on average more than 80% European in ancestry.
Before testing, the students identified as 1/3 1/3 African and 1/3 Native American. According to Edward Telles, three different systems related to "racial classification" along the White-Black continuum are used in Brazil; the first is the Census System, which distinguishes three categories: branco and preto. The second is the popular social system that uses many different categories, including the ambiguous term moreno; the third is the Black movement, which distinguishes only two categories, summing up pardos and pretos as negros, putting all others as "whites". More the term afrodescendente has been adopted for use, but it is restricted to formal discourse, such as governmental or academic discussions, being viewed by some as a cultural imposition from the "politically correct speech" common in the United States; the first system referred by Telles is that of the Brazilian Institute of Statistics. In the Census, respondents may identify their ethnicity or color from five categories: branca, preta, amarela or indígena.
The term parda needs further explanation. In that census, people were asked for their "colour or race"; these slashes were summed up in the category pardo. In practice this means answers such as pardo, mulato, caboclo etc. all indicating mixed race. In the following censuses, pardo was added as a category on its own, included Amerindians; the latter were defined as a separate category only in 1991. It is a term for people of color who are lighter than blacks, does not imply a black-white mixture, as there are some indigenous persons. Telles' second system is that of popular classification. Two IBGE surveys made more than 20 years apart (the 1976 National Household Sample Survey and the July 1998 Monthly Employment Survey have been analyzed to assess how Brazilians think of themselves in racial terms; the IBGE thought. Data Folha has conducted research on this subject; the results of these surveys seem to coincide in some fundamental aspects. First, a great number of racial terms are in use in Brazil, indicating a flexibility in thinking about the topic.
The 1976 PNAD found that people responded with a total of 136 different terms to the question about race. However, most of these terms are used by small numbers of people. Telles notes that 95% of the population used one of 6 different terms for people of color and at le