Benicia is a waterside city in Solano County, located in the North Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area. It served as the state capital for nearly thirteen months from 1853 to 1854; the population was 26,997 at the 2010 census. The city is located along the north bank of the Carquinez Strait. Benicia is just east of Vallejo and across the strait from Martinez. Elizabeth Patterson has served as Mayor of Benicia since 2007; the town is divided into four areas: the East Side, the West Side and the industrial park. Most of the town's older homes are on the west sides. Southampton contains single-family housing developments and condominiums, most of which were built between 1970 and 2000; the East Side includes the Benicia Arsenal, a former United States Army armory, bought by the city and is now used for a variety of purposes, most notably as live-work spaces for artists. The Arsenal is home to several historic landmark buildings such as The Clock Tower, the Camel Barn, the Jefferson Street Mansion.
The industrial park lies to the northeast of the residential areas of the city, includes the Valero oil refinery. The Benicia State Recreation Area is on the far west edge of the city; the main retail area in Benicia is First Street, which attracts out-of-town antique and boutique shoppers and those seeking small-town, historic charm. In 1987 Benicia was selected to participate in the California Main Street Program. Connections to Benicia include Interstate 680 from Martinez to the south and Cordelia Junction to the north, Interstate 780, Columbus Parkway, other local roads from Vallejo to the west. Amtrak runs past the city north towards Sacramento, but the nearest train station lies in Martinez across the Carquinez Strait. Railroad tracks carrying Amtrak and Union Pacific Railroad lines cross the strait alongside the Benicia–Martinez Bridge; the City of Benicia was founded on May 19, 1847, by Dr. Robert Semple, Thomas O. Larkin, Comandante General Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo, on land sold to them by General Vallejo in December 1846.
It was named for Francisca Benicia Carillo de Vallejo. The General intended that the city be named "Francisca" after his wife, but this name was dropped when the former city of "Yerba Buena" changed its name to "San Francisco". So Sra. Vallejo's second given name was used instead. In his memoirs, William Tecumseh Sherman contended that Benicia was "the best natural site for a commercial city" in the region. Benicia was the third site selected to serve as the California state capital, its newly constructed city hall was California's capitol from February 11, 1853, to February 25, 1854. Soon after the legislature was moved to the courthouse in Sacramento, which has remained the state capital since; the restored capitol is part of the Benicia Capitol State Historic Park, is the only building remaining of the state's early capitols, which were in San Jose and Vallejo. Benicia was the county seat of Solano County until 1858, when, moved to Fairfield; the original campus of Mills College was founded in Benicia in 1852 as the Young Ladies Seminary, was the first women's college west of the Rockies.
Before moving to Oakland in 1871, it was located on West I Street, just north of First Street. On June 5, 1889, the legendary prize fight between James J. Corbett and Joe Choynski was held on a barge off the coast of Benicia; the match lasted 28 rounds, is now commemorated by a plaque near Southampton Bay. From 1860-1861, Benicia was indirectly involved in the Pony Express; when riders missed their connection with a steamer in Sacramento, they would continue on to Benicia and cross over to Martinez via the ferry. One of the earliest companies in California, the Pacific Mail Steamship Company, established a major shipyard in Benicia in the 19th century; the prolific shipbuilder Matthew Turner, formed the Matthew Turner Shipyard at Benicia in 1883. Benicia became an important wheat shipping site, it was the site of the United States Army's Benicia Arsenal. In 1879, the Central Pacific Railroad rerouted the Sacramento-Oakland portion of its transcontinental line, establishing a major railroad ferry across the Carquinez Strait from Benicia to Port Costa.
The world's largest ferry, the Solano joined by the larger Contra Costa, carried entire trains across the Carquinez Strait from Benicia to Port Costa, from whence they continued on to the Oakland Pier. In 1901, the world's first long-distance powerline crossing over Carquinez Strait was built. After California's wheat output dropped in the early 20th Century and after the Southern Pacific constructed a railroad bridge at Martinez in 1930 to replace the ferry crossing, Benicia declined until the economic boom of World War II, which doubled the population to about 7,000 residents. A major fire on March 22, 1945, destroyed a half-block of businesses, including the nearly-century-old “old brewery”, the Solano Hotel, with flames threatening the old state capitol, now used as city hall. A roof fire was extinguished and the structure was not badly damaged. Losses were estimated at $125,000. Two developments in the early 1960s would change Benicia: The closing of the Benicia Arsenal in 1960–64, the completion of the Benicia–Martinez Bridge in 1962.
The closing of the Arsenal removed Benicia's traditional economic base, but allowed city leaders to create an industrial park on Arsenal land which provided more revenue for the city than the Army had. The completion of the Benicia-Martinez Bridge made it possible for the city
2008–12 California budget crisis
The U. S. state of California had a budget crisis in which it faced a shortfall of at least $11.2 billion, projected to top $40 billion over the 2009–2010 fiscal years. On September 23, 2008, about 3 months after its due date, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed the 2008–2009 budget. Worsening financial conditions since 2003 left the state with a large shortfall. A two-thirds vote is required to pass a budget, in both the original budget negotiations and in the attempt to revise the budget no political party by itself had enough votes to pass a budget; the majority Democrats fought to minimize cuts to programs, while most of the minority Republicans refused to accept any tax increase. The original budget was put together by Democrats and some Republicans using spending cuts, internal borrowing, accounting maneuvers. In November 2008, Schwarzenegger proposed spending reductions including the following measures concerning state employees: One furlough day per month, equivalent to a reduction in pay of about 5 percent.
Elimination of the Columbus Day and Lincoln's Birthday holidays. Employees who must work on holidays would receive holiday credit for use, as opposed to receiving time-and-a-half pay. Employees would more be able to work four ten-hour days per week. Overtime pay rules would be changed so that leave time would no longer be considered as part of time worked. In December 2008, Schwarzenegger ordered mandatory furloughs of two days per month for state employees, as well as "layoffs and other efficiencies" to achieve savings in the General Fund of up to 10%. Labor organizations filed lawsuits and took other actions in an attempt to stop the furloughs of state workers. On Jan. 29, 2009, a Superior Court Judge ruled that Schwarzenegger had emergency furlough power, on February the 3rd District Court of Appeal in Sacramento said the appeal to the decision came too late and was incomplete, so judges were unable to determine if a halt to state furloughs is justified. As part of the furlough, various state offices were closed on the 1st and 3rd Fridays of every month from February 1, 2009 through June 30, 2010, estimated to save the State $1.3 billion.
By February 2009 California State Controller John Chiang delayed $3.5 billion in state payments for at least 30 days because the state was experiencing cash flow difficulties. The state legislature passed a budget in February 2009 that depended on the voters approving tax extensions and money redirection into the general fund, which in May the voters did not approve. Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger proposed $16 billion in cuts and borrowing money from local governments. In the legislature, the Republicans agreed to lower the income of state employees, but the Democrats resisted these proposals and suggested increasing fees to be paid by smokers and oil wells. Neither party agreed to borrowing money from local governments. On April 1, 2009, the state sales and use tax was temporarily increased by one percentage point; the state had been selling bank-guaranteed short-term notes to get cash, but in June 2009 its credit rating was lowered. When the state asked for a federal guarantee of the notes, the Obama administration said it had no legal authority to back state notes and that the state should solve its own problems.
On July 1, 2009, Schwarzenegger ordered state workers to take a third furlough day each month. On July 2, 2009, the state government began issuing IOUs to meet its short term financial obligations. Five days Bank of America, Wells Fargo, JP Morgan Chase announced that they would stop accepting IOUs by July 10. Fitch Ratings dropped California's bond rating from A-minus to BBB. On July 24, 2009, the state government passed a budget that included $15 billion in service cuts, including $8.1 billion in education cuts. Eliminated from the final plan included proposals to borrow money from city and county governments and to drill for oil off the coast of Santa Barbara. Chiang announced in August 2009 that the IOU program would end the next month and that California would pay off 327,000 IOUs worth $2 billion; the budget crisis led to many layoffs at state universities in California. In order to curb the budget shortfalls, the California Board of Regents voted on a 32% raise in all tuition costs for state universities.
This led to the 2009 California college tuition hike protests. With the passage of Proposition 30 in 2012 and a improving economy, for the first time in many years, California Governor Jerry Brown's proposed budget plan for 2013 listed a small surplus. A major source of the deficit was a decline in state revenues from more than $100 billion in 2007 to about $85 billion in 2008—mostly due to declines in personal income taxes, corporate taxes and other taxes. News reports and commentators have cited the state's various legislative supermajority requirements as a contributing factor to the state budget crisis; the state has a long history of supermajority requirements with a 1933 state ballot measure mandating a two-thirds supermajority to pass the state budget and California Proposition 13 mandating another two-thirds supermajority to pass tax increases. The National Conference of State Legislatures notes that, as of 2008, only 9 states required a supermajority to pass the state budget and of those 9, only 3 required a two-thirds supermajority instead of the three-fifths supermajority to pass the state budget.
The NCSL notes that, as of 2008, 15 states required a supermajority to raise taxes and that California was among the 10 of those 15 that require more than a three-fifths supermajority. Proponents of ending the state's supermajority requirements note that "Since 1980, the California State
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States. The Columbia River delineates much of Oregon's northern boundary with Washington, while the Snake River delineates much of its eastern boundary with Idaho; the parallel 42 ° north delineates the southern boundary with Nevada. Oregon is one of only four states of the continental United States to have a coastline on the Pacific Ocean. Oregon was inhabited by many indigenous tribes before Western traders and settlers arrived. An autonomous government was formed in the Oregon Country in 1843 before the Oregon Territory was created in 1848. Oregon became the 33rd state on February 14, 1859. Today, at 98,000 square miles, Oregon is the ninth largest and, with a population of 4 million, 27th most populous U. S. state. The capital, Salem, is the second most populous city in Oregon, with 169,798 residents. Portland, with 647,805, ranks as the 26th among U. S. cities. The Portland metropolitan area, which includes the city of Vancouver, Washington, to the north, ranks the 25th largest metro area in the nation, with a population of 2,453,168.
Oregon is one of the most geographically diverse states in the U. S. marked by volcanoes, abundant bodies of water, dense evergreen and mixed forests, as well as high deserts and semi-arid shrublands. At 11,249 feet, Mount Hood, a stratovolcano, is the state's highest point. Oregon's only national park, Crater Lake National Park, comprises the caldera surrounding Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the United States; the state is home to the single largest organism in the world, Armillaria ostoyae, a fungus that runs beneath 2,200 acres of the Malheur National Forest. Because of its diverse landscapes and waterways, Oregon's economy is powered by various forms of agriculture and hydroelectric power. Oregon is the top timber producer of the contiguous United States, the timber industry dominated the state's economy in the 20th century. Technology is another one of Oregon's major economic forces, beginning in the 1970s with the establishment of the Silicon Forest and the expansion of Tektronix and Intel.
Sportswear company Nike, Inc. headquartered in Beaverton, is the state's largest public corporation with an annual revenue of $30.6 billion. The earliest evidence of the name Oregon has Spanish origins; the term "orejón" comes from the historical chronicle Relación de la Alta y Baja California written by the new Spaniard Rodrigo Montezuma and made reference to the Columbia River when the Spanish explorers penetrated into the actual North American territory that became part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. This chronicle is the first topographical and linguistic source with respect to the place name Oregon. There are two other sources with Spanish origins, such as the name Oregano, which grows in the southern part of the region, it is most probable that the American territory was named by the Spaniards, as there are some populations in Spain such as "Arroyo del Oregón" considering that the individualization in Spanish language "El Orejón" with the mutation of the letter "g" instead of "j". Another early use of the name, spelled Ouragon, was in a 1765 petition by Major Robert Rogers to the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The term referred to the then-mythical River of the West. By 1778, the spelling had shifted to Oregon. In his 1765 petition, Rogers wrote: The rout...is from the Great Lakes towards the Head of the Mississippi, from thence to the River called by the Indians Ouragon... One theory is that the name comes from the French word ouragan, applied to the River of the West based on Native American tales of powerful Chinook winds on the lower Columbia River, or from firsthand French experience with the Chinook winds of the Great Plains. At the time, the River of the West was thought to rise in western Minnesota and flow west through the Great Plains. Joaquin Miller explained in Sunset magazine, in 1904, how Oregon's name was derived: The name, Oregon, is rounded down phonetically, from Ouve água—Oragua, Or-a-gon, Oregon—given by the same Portuguese navigator that named the Farallones after his first officer, it in a large way, means cascades:'Hear the waters.' You should steam up the Columbia and hear and feel the waters falling out of the clouds of Mount Hood to understand the full meaning of the name Ouve a água, Oregon.
Another account, endorsed as the "most plausible explanation" in the book Oregon Geographic Names, was advanced by George R. Stewart in a 1944 article in American Speech. According to Stewart, the name came from an engraver's error in a French map published in the early 18th century, on which the Ouisiconsink River was spelled "Ouaricon-sint", broken on two lines with the -sint below, so there appeared to be a river flowing to the west named "Ouaricon". According to the Oregon Tourism Commission, present-day Oregonians pronounce the state's name as "or-uh-gun, never or-ee-gone". After being drafted by the Detroit Lions in 2002, former Oregon Ducks quarterback Joey Harrington distributed "Orygun" stickers to members of the media as a reminder of how to pronounce the name of his home state; the stickers are sold by the University of Oregon Bookstore. Oregon is 295 miles north to south at longest distance, 395 miles east to west. With an area of 98,381 square miles, Oregon is larger than the United Kingdom.
It is the ninth largest state in the United States. Oregon's highest point is the summit of Mount Hood, at 11,249 feet, its lowest point is the sea level of the Pacific Ocean along the Oregon Coas
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite to link devices worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of private, academic and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies; the Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web, electronic mail and file sharing. Some publications no longer capitalize "internet"; the origins of the Internet date back to research commissioned by the federal government of the United States in the 1960s to build robust, fault-tolerant communication with computer networks. The primary precursor network, the ARPANET served as a backbone for interconnection of regional academic and military networks in the 1980s; the funding of the National Science Foundation Network as a new backbone in the 1980s, as well as private funding for other commercial extensions, led to worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies, the merger of many networks.
The linking of commercial networks and enterprises by the early 1990s marked the beginning of the transition to the modern Internet, generated a sustained exponential growth as generations of institutional and mobile computers were connected to the network. Although the Internet was used by academia since the 1980s, commercialization incorporated its services and technologies into every aspect of modern life. Most traditional communication media, including telephony, television, paper mail and newspapers are reshaped, redefined, or bypassed by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as email, Internet telephony, Internet television, online music, digital newspapers, video streaming websites. Newspaper and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging, web feeds and online news aggregators; the Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of personal interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, social networking. Online shopping has grown exponentially both for major retailers and small businesses and entrepreneurs, as it enables firms to extend their "brick and mortar" presence to serve a larger market or sell goods and services online.
Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries. The Internet has no single centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage; the overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address space and the Domain Name System, are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force, a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise. In November 2006, the Internet was included on USA Today's list of New Seven Wonders; when the term Internet is used to refer to the specific global system of interconnected Internet Protocol networks, the word is a proper noun that should be written with an initial capital letter.
In common use and the media, it is erroneously not capitalized, viz. the internet. Some guides specify that the word should be capitalized when used as a noun, but not capitalized when used as an adjective; the Internet is often referred to as the Net, as a short form of network. As early as 1849, the word internetted was used uncapitalized as an adjective, meaning interconnected or interwoven; the designers of early computer networks used internet both as a noun and as a verb in shorthand form of internetwork or internetworking, meaning interconnecting computer networks. The terms Internet and World Wide Web are used interchangeably in everyday speech. However, the World Wide Web or the Web is only one of a large number of Internet services; the Web is a collection of interconnected documents and other web resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. As another point of comparison, Hypertext Transfer Protocol, or HTTP, is the language used on the Web for information transfer, yet it is just one of many languages or protocols that can be used for communication on the Internet.
The term Interweb is a portmanteau of Internet and World Wide Web used sarcastically to parody a technically unsavvy user. Research into packet switching, one of the fundamental Internet technologies, started in the early 1960s in the work of Paul Baran and Donald Davies. Packet-switched networks such as the NPL network, ARPANET, the Merit Network, CYCLADES, Telenet were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s; the ARPANET project led to the development of protocols for internetworking, by which multiple separate networks could be joined into a network of networks. ARPANET development began with two network nodes which were interconnected between the Network Measurement Center at the University of California, Los Angeles Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science directed by Leonard Kleinrock, the NLS system at SRI International by Douglas Engelbart in Menlo Park, California, on 29 October 1969; the third site was the Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics Center at the University of California, Santa Barbara, followed by the University of
42nd parallel north
The 42nd parallel north is a circle of latitude, 42 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses Europe, the Mediterranean Sea, the Pacific Ocean, North America, the Atlantic Ocean. At this latitude the sun is visible for 15 hours, 15 minutes during the summer solstice and 9 hours, 6 minutes during the winter solstice; the earth rotation speed at this latitude is equal to the speed of sound. Starting at the Prime Meridian and heading eastwards, the parallel 42° north passes through: The parallel 42° north forms most of the New York-Pennsylvania border, although due to imperfect surveying in 1785–1786, this boundary wanders around on both sides of the true parallel; the area around the parallel in this region is known as the Twin Tiers. The 42nd parallel became agreed upon as the northward limit of the Spanish Empire by the Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819 with the United States, which established the parallel as the border between the Viceroyality of New Spain of the Kingdom of Spain and the western territory of the United States of America from the meridian of the headwaters of the Arkansas River west to the Pacific Ocean.
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo of 1848 ceded much of what was northern Mexico to the United States. S. states which were created from Mexican territory have the parallel 42° north as their northern border, the adjoining U. S. states of Oregon and Idaho have the parallel as their southern border. The parallel passes through the states of Wyoming, Iowa, Michigan, New York, Rhode Island and Massachusetts, passes through the following cities in the United States: Crescent City, California Yreka, California Ames, Iowa Chicago, Illinois Kalamazoo, Michigan Coldwater, Michigan Erie, Pennsylvania Jamestown, New York Busti, New York Binghamton, New York Plymouth, Massachusetts Springfield, Massachusetts Worcester, Massachusetts Ashland, Oregon Medford, Oregon Providence, Rhode Island The parallel 42° north passes through the southern end of Lake Michigan and Lake Erie. Part of the water boundary between Canada and the United States passes south of the 42nd parallel; the southern tip of the Canadian province of Ontario just goes south of it at Point Pelee and Pelee Island, while the southernmost portion of the Town of Essex at Colchester is located below the 42nd parallel.
41st parallel north 43rd parallel north The Twin Tiers region of New York and Pennsylvania The "Jefferson" region of Oregon and California
United States Postal Service
The United States Postal Service is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for providing postal service in the United States, including its insular areas and associated states. It is one of the few government agencies explicitly authorized by the United States Constitution; the U. S. Mail traces its roots to 1775 during the Second Continental Congress, when Benjamin Franklin was appointed the first postmaster general; the Post Office Department was created in 1792 from Franklin's operation. It was elevated to a cabinet-level department in 1872, was transformed by the Postal Reorganization Act in 1970 into the USPS as an independent agency; the USPS as of 2017 has 644,124 active employees and operated 211,264 vehicles in 2014. The USPS is the operator of the largest civilian vehicle fleet in the world; the USPS is obligated to serve all Americans, regardless of geography, at uniform price and quality. The USPS has exclusive access to letter boxes marked "U.
S. Mail" and personal letterboxes in the United States, but now has to compete against private package delivery services, such as United Parcel Service and FedEx. Since the early 1980s, many of the direct tax subsidies to the Post Office, with the exception of subsidies for costs associated with the disabled and overseas voters, have been reduced or eliminated in favor of indirect subsidies, in addition to the advantages associated with a government-enforced monopoly on the delivery of first-class mail. Since the 2006 all-time peak mail volume, after which Congress passed the Postal Accountability and Enhancement Act which mandated that $5.5 billion per year be paid to prefund employee retirement health benefits, revenue dropped due to recession-influenced declining mail volume, prompting the postal service to look to other sources of revenue while cutting costs to reduce its budget deficit. In the early years of the North American colonies, many attempts were made to initiate a postal service.
These early attempts were of small scale and involved a colony, Massachusetts Bay Colony for example, setting up a location in Boston where one could post a letter back home to England. Other attempts focused on a dedicated postal service between two of the larger colonies, such as Massachusetts and Virginia, but the available services remained limited in scope and disjointed for many years. For example, informal independently-run postal routes operated in Boston as early as 1639, with a Boston to New York City service starting in 1672. A central postal organization came to the colonies in 1691, when Thomas Neale received a 21-year grant from the British Crown for a North American Postal Service. On February 17, 1691, a grant of letters patent from the joint sovereigns, William III and Mary II, empowered him: to erect and establish within the chief parts of their majesties' colonies and plantations in America, an office or offices for receiving and dispatching letters and pacquets, to receive and deliver the same under such rates and sums of money as the planters shall agree to give, to hold and enjoy the same for the term of twenty-one years.
The patent included the exclusive right to establish and collect a formal postal tax on official documents of all kinds. The tax was repealed a year later. Neale appointed Governor of New Jersey, as his deputy postmaster; the first postal service in America commenced in February 1692. Rates of postage were fixed and authorized, measures were taken to establish a post office in each town in Virginia. Massachusetts and the other colonies soon passed postal laws, a imperfect post office system was established. Neale's patent expired in 1710; the chief office was established in New York City, where letters were conveyed by regular packets across the Atlantic. Before the Revolution, there was only a trickle of business or governmental correspondence between the colonies. Most of the mail went forth to counting houses and government offices in London; the revolution made Philadelphia, the seat of the Continental Congress, the information hub of the new nation. News, new laws, political intelligence, military orders circulated with a new urgency, a postal system was necessary.
Journalists took the lead, securing post office legislation that allowed them to reach their subscribers at low cost, to exchange news from newspapers between the thirteen states. Overthrowing the London-oriented imperial postal service in 1774–1775, printers enlisted merchants and the new political leadership, created a new postal system; the United States Post Office was created on July 26, 1775, by decree of the Second Continental Congress. Benjamin Franklin headed it briefly. Before the Revolution, individuals like Benjamin Franklin and William Goddard were the colonial postmasters who managed the mails and were the general architects of a postal system that started out as an alternative to the Crown Post; the official post office was created in 1792 as the Post Office Department. It was based on the Constitutional authority empowering Congress "To establish post offices and post roads"; the 1792 law provided for a expanded postal network, served editors by charging newspapers an low rate.
The law guaranteed the sanctity of personal correspondence, provided the entire country with low-cost access to information on public affairs, while establishing a right to personal privacy. Rufus Easton was appointed by Thomas Jefferson first postmaster of St. Louis under the recommendation of Postmaster General Gideon Granger. Rufus Easton was the first postmaster and built the first post office west o
Architecture of the California missions
The architecture of the California missions was influenced by several factors, those being the limitations in the construction materials that were on hand, an overall lack of skilled labor, a desire on the part of the founding priests to emulate notable structures in their Spanish homeland. And while no two mission complexes are identical, they all employed the same basic building style. Although the missions were considered temporary ventures by the Spanish hierarchy, the development of an individual settlement was not a matter of "priestly whim." The founding of a mission followed longstanding procedures. Once empowered to erect a mission in a given area, the men assigned to it chose a specific site that featured a good water supply, plenty of wood for fires and building material, ample fields for grazing herds and raising crops; the padres blessed the site, with the aid of their military escort fashioned temporary shelters out of tree limbs or driven stakes, roofed with thatch or reeds. It was these simple huts that would give way to the stone and adobe buildings which exist to this day.
The first priority when beginning a settlement was the construction of the church. The majority of mission sanctuaries were oriented on a east–west axis to take the best advantage of the sun's position for interior illumination. Once the spot for the church was selected, its position would be marked and the remainder of the mission complex would be laid out; the priests' quarters, convento, kitchens, soldiers' and servants' living quarters and other ancillary chambers were grouped around a walled, open court or patio inside which religious celebrations and other festive events took place. The cuadrángulo was a perfect square because the Fathers had no surveying instruments at their disposal and measured off all dimensions by foot. In the event of an attack by hostile forces the mission's inhabitants could take refuge within the quadrangle; the basic, common elements found in all of the Alta California missions can be summarized as follows: Arched corridors. The Alta California missions as a whole do not incorporate the same variety or elaborateness of detail in their design exhibited in the structures erected by Spanish settlers in Arizona and Mexico during the same T.
V period. Some fanciful accounts regarding the construction of the missions claimed that underground tunnels were incorporated into garden the design, to be used as a means of emergency egress in the event of attack; the scarcity of imported materials, together with a lack of skilled laborers, compelled the Fathers to employ simple building materials and methods in the construction of mission structures. Since importing the quantity of materials necessary for a large mission complex was impossible, the padres had to gather the materials they needed from the land around them. Five basic materials were used in constructing the permanent mission structures: adobe, stone and tile. Adobes were made from a combination of earth and water, with chaff, straw, or manure added to bind the mixture together. Pieces of bricks or shells were placed in the mix to improve the cohesiveness; the soil used may have been loam, or sandy or gravelly earth. The making of the bricks was a simple process, derived from methods developed in Spain and Mexico.
A convenient, level spot was chosen near the intended building site and close to a suitable water supply. The ground was dug up and soaked with water, whereupon bare-legged workers would stomp the wet earth and binders into a homogeneous consistency fit for carrying to, placing in, the brick molds; the mixture was compressed into the wooden formas, which were arranged in rows, leveled by hand to the top of the frame. From time to time, a worker would leave an imprint of his hand or foot on the surface of a wet brick, or a literate workman would inscribe his name and the date on the face; when the forms were filled, the bricks were left in the sun to dry. Great care was taken to expose the bricks on all sides, in order to ensure uniform drying and prevent cracking. Once dry, the bricks were stacked in rows to await their use. California adobes measured 11 by 22 inches, were 2 to 5 inches thick, weighed 20 to 40 pounds, making them convenient to carry and easy to handle during the construction process.
Facilities for milling lumber were non-existent: workers used stone axes and crude saws to shape the wood, used logs which only had their bark stripped from them. These methods gave mission structures their distinctive appearance. Timber was used to reinforce walls, as vigas to support roofs, as forms for door and window openings and arches. Since most of the settlements were located in valleys or coastal plains totally devoid of suitably large trees, the padres were in most cases limited to pine, poplar and juniper t