Boeotia, sometimes alternatively Latinised as Boiotia, or Beotia, is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of Central Greece, its capital is Livadeia, its largest city is Thebes. Boeotia was a region of ancient Greece, since before the 6th century BC. Boeotia lies to the north of the eastern part of the Gulf of Corinth, it has a short coastline on the Gulf of Euboea. It bordered on Megaris in the south, Attica in the southeast, Euboea in the northeast, Opuntian Locris in the north and Phocis in the west; the main mountain ranges of Boeotia are Mount Parnassus in the west, Mount Helicon in the southwest, Cithaeron in the south and Parnitha in the east. Its longest river, the Cephissus, flows in the central part, where most of the low-lying areas of Boeotia are found. Lake Copais was a large lake in the center of Boeotia, it was drained in the 19th century. Lake Yliki is a large lake near Thebes; the earliest inhabitants of Boeotia, associated with the city of Orchomenus, were called Minyans.
Pausanias mentions that Minyans established the maritime Ionian city of Teos, occupied the islands of Lemnos and Thera. The Argonauts were sometimes referred to as Minyans. According to legend the citizens of Thebes paid an annual tribute to their king Erginus; the Minyans may have been proto-Greek speakers, but although most scholars today agree that the Mycenean Greeks descended from the Minyans of the Middle Helladic period, they believe that the progenitors and founders of Minyan culture were an autochthonous group. The early wealth and power of Boeotia is shown by the reputation and visible Mycenean remains of several of its cities Orchomenus and Thebes; the origin of the name "Boeotians" may lie in the mountain Boeon in Epirus. Some toponyms and the common Aeolic dialect indicate that the Boeotians were related to the Thessalians. Traditionally, the Boeotians are said to have occupied Thessaly, the largest fertile plain in Greece, to have been dispossessed by the north-western Thessalians two generations after the Fall of Troy.
They moved south and settled in another rich plain, while others filtered across the Aegean and settled on Lesbos and in Aeolis in Asia Minor. Others are said to have stayed in Thessaly, withdrawing into the hill country and becoming the perioikoi. Though far from Anthela, which lay on the coast of Malis south of Thessaly in the locality of Thermopylae, Boeotia was an early member of the oldest religious Amphictyonic League because her people had lived in Thessaly. Many ancient Greek legends are set in this region; the older myths took their final form during the Mycenean age when the Mycenean Greeks established themselves in Boeotia and the city of Thebes became an important centre. Many of them are related to the myths of Argos, others indicate connections with Phoenicia, where the Mycenean Greeks and the Euboean Greeks established trading posts. Important legends related to Boeotia include: Eros, worshiped by a fertility cult in Thespiae The Muses of Mount Helicon Ogyges and the Ogygian deluge Cadmus, said to have founded Thebes and brought the alphabet to Greece Dionysus and Semele Narcissus Heracles, born in Thebes The Theban Cycle, including the myths of Oedipus and the Sphinx, the Seven against Thebes Antiope and her sons Amphion and Zethus Niobe Orion, born in Boeotia and said to have fathered 50 sons with a local river god's daughters.
Many of these legends were used in plays by the tragic Greek poets, Aeschylus and Euripides: Aeschylus's Seven Against Thebes Sophocles's Oedipus Rex, Oedipus at Colonus, Antigone, known as the Theban plays Euripides's Bacchae, Phoenician Women and HeraclesThey were used in lost plays such as Aeschylus's Niobe and Euripides's Antiope. Boeotia was notable for the ancient oracular shrine of Trophonius at Lebadea. Graea, an ancient city in Boeotia, is sometimes thought to be the origin of the Latin word Graecus, from which English derives the words Greece and Greeks; the major poets Hesiod and Pindar were Boeotians. Boeotia had significant political importance, owing to its position on the north shore of the Gulf of Corinth, the strategic strength of its frontiers, the ease of communication within its extensive area. On the other hand, the lack of good harbours hindered its maritime development; the importance of the legendary Minyae has been confirmed by archaeological remains. The Boeotian population entered the land from the north before the Dorian invasion.
With the exception of the Minyae, the original peoples were soon absorbed by these immigrants, the Boeotians henceforth appear as a homogeneous nation. Aeolic Greek was spoken in Boeotia. In historical times, the leading city of Boeotia was Thebes, whose central position and military strength made it a suitable capital, it was the constant ambition of the Thebans to absorb the other townships into a single state, just as Athens had annexed the Attic communities. But the outlying cities resisted this policy, only allowed the formation of a loose federation, religious. While the Boeotians, unlike the Arcadians acted as a united whole against foreign enemies, the constant struggle between the cities was a serious check on the nation's development. Boeotia hardly figures in history before the late 6th century BC. Previous to this, its people are chiefly known as the makers of a type of geometric pottery, similar to
History of Greece
The history of Greece encompasses the history of the territory of the modern nation state of Greece as well as that of the Greek people and the areas they inhabited and ruled historically. The scope of Greek habitation and rule has varied throughout the ages and as a result the history of Greece is elastic in what it includes; the history of Greece is divided into the following periods: Neolithic Greece covering a period beginning with the establishment of agricultural societies in 7000 BC and ending in 3200/3100 BC, Helladic chronology covering a period beginning with the transition to a metal-based economy in 3200/3100 BC to the rise and fall of the Mycenaean Greek palaces spanning five centuries, Ancient Greece covering a period from the fall of the Mycenaean civilization in 1100 BC to 146 BC spanning multiple sub-periods including the Greek Dark Ages, Archaic period, the Classical period and the Hellenistic period, Roman Greece covering a period from the Roman conquest of Greece in 146 BC to 324 AD, Byzantine Greece covering a period from the establishment of the capital city of Byzantium, Constantinople, in 324 AD until the fall of Constantinople in 1453 AD, Ottoman Greece covering a period from 1453 up until the Greek Revolution of 1821, Modern Greece covering a period from 1821 to the present.
At its cultural and geographical peak, Greek civilization spread from Greece to Egypt and to the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan. Since Greek minorities have remained in former Greek territories and Greek emigrants have assimilated into differing societies across the globe. Nowadays most Greeks live in the modern states of Cyprus; the Neolithic Revolution reached Europe beginning in 7000–6500 BC when agriculturalists from the Near East entered the Greek peninsula from Anatolia by island-hopping through the Aegean Sea. The earliest Neolithic sites with developed agricultural economies in Europe dated 8500–9000 BPE are found in Greece; the first Greek-speaking tribes, speaking the predecessor of the Mycenaean language, arrived in the Greek mainland sometime in the Neolithic period or the Early Bronze Age. The transition from the Greek Neolithic to the Early Bronze Age occurred when Greece's agricultural population began to import bronze and copper and used basic bronze-working techniques. During the end of the 3rd millennium BC, the indigenous inhabitants of mainland Greece underwent a cultural transformation attributed to climate change, local events and developments, as well as to continuous contacts with various areas such as western Asia Minor, the Cyclades and Dalmatia.
The Cycladic culture is a significant Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age culture, is best known for its schematic flat female idols carved out of the islands' pure white marble centuries before the great Middle Bronze Age culture arose in Crete, to the south. The Minoan civilization in Crete, which lasted from about c. 3000 BC to c. 1400 BC, the Helladic culture on the Greek mainland from circa 3200/3100 BC to 2000/1900 BC. Little specific information is known about the Minoans, including their written system, recorded on the undeciphered Linear A script and Cretan hieroglyphs, they were a mercantile people engaged in extensive overseas trade throughout the Mediterranean region. Minoan civilization was affected by a number of natural cataclysms such as the volcanic eruption at Thera and earthquakes. In 1425 BC, the Minoan palaces were devastated by fire, which allowed the Mycenaean Greeks, influenced by the Minoans' culture, to expand into Crete; the Minoan civilization which preceded the Mycenaean civilization on Crete was revealed to the modern world by Sir Arthur Evans in 1900, when he purchased and began excavating a site at Knossos.
Mycenaean civilization originated and evolved from the society and culture of the Early and Middle Helladic periods in mainland Greece. It emerged in circa 1600 BC, when Helladic culture in mainland Greece was transformed under influences from Minoan Crete and lasted until the collapse of the Mycenaean palaces in c. 1100 BC. Mycenaean Greece is the Late Helladic Bronze Age civilization of Ancient Greece and it is the historical setting of the epics of Homer and most of Greek mythology and religion; the Mycenaean period takes its name from the archaeological site Mycenae in the northeastern Argolid, in the Peloponnesos of southern Greece. Athens, Pylos and Tiryns are important Mycenaean sites. Mycenaean civilization was dominated by a warrior aristocracy. Around 1400 BC, the Mycenaeans extended their control to Crete, center of the Minoan civilization, adopted a form of the Minoan script called Linear A to write their early form of Greek; the Mycenaean-era script is called Linear B, deciphered in 1952 by Michael Ventris.
The Mycenaeans buried their nobles in beehive tombs, large circular burial chambers with a high-vaulted roof and straight entry passage lined with stone. They buried daggers or some other form of military equipment with the deceased; the nobility were buried with gold masks, tiaras and jeweled weapons. Mycenaeans were buried in a sitting position, some of the nobility underwent mummification. Around 1100–1050 BC, the Mycenaean civilization collapsed. Numerous cities were sacked and the region entered what historians se
Ioannina called Yannena within Greece, is the capital and largest city of the Ioannina regional unit and of Epirus, an administrative region in north-western Greece. Its population is 112,486, according to 2011 census, it lies at an elevation of 500 metres above sea level, on the western shore of lake Pamvotis. Ioannina is located 410 km northwest of Athens, 260 kilometres southwest of Thessaloniki and 80 km east of the port of Igoumenitsa in the Ionian Sea; the city's foundation has traditionally been ascribed to the Byzantine Emperor Justinian in the 6th century AD, but modern archaeological research has uncovered evidence of Hellenistic settlements. Ioannina flourished in the late Byzantine period, it became part of the Despotate of Epirus following the Fourth Crusade and many wealthy Byzantine families fled there following the sack of Constantinople, with the city experiencing great prosperity and considerable autonomy, despite the political turmoils. Ioannina surrendered to the Ottomans in 1430 and until 1868 it was the administrative center of the Pashalik of Yanina.
In the period between the 18th and 19th centuries, the city was a major center of the modern Greek Enlightenment. Ioannina was ceded to Greece in 1913 following the Balkan Wars; the city has two hospitals, the General Hospital of Ioannina "G. Hatzikosta", the University Hospital of Ioannina, it is the seat of the University of Ioannina and of several departments of the Τechnological Educational Institute of Epirus, the headquarters of which are located in Arta. The city's emblem consists of the portrait of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian crowned by a stylized depiction of the nearby ancient theater of Dodona; the city's formal name, Ioannina, is a corruption of Agioannina or Agioanneia, "place of St. John", is said to be linked to the establishment of a monastery dedicated to Saint John the Baptist, around which the settlement grew. According to another theory, the city was named after Ioannina, the daughter of Belisarius, general of the emperor Justinian. There are two name forms in Greek, Ioannina being the formal and historical name, while the colloquial and more used Υannena or Υannina represents the vernacular tradition of Demotic Greek.
The demotic form corresponds to those in the neighbouring languages. The first indications of human presence in Ioannina basin are dated back to the Paleolithic period as testified by findings in the cavern of Kastritsa. During classical antiquity the basin was inhabited by the Molossians and four of their settlements have been identified there. Despite the extensive destruction suffered in Molossia during the Roman conquest of 167 BC, settlement continued in the basin albeit no longer in an urban pattern; the exact time of Ioannina's foundation is unknown, but it is identified with an unnamed new, "well-fortified" city, recorded by the historian Procopius as having been built by the Byzantine emperor Justinian I for the inhabitants of ancient Euroia. This view is not supported, however, by any concrete archaeological evidence. Early 21st-century excavations have brought to light fortifications dating to the Hellenistic period, the course of, followed by reconstruction of the fortress in the Byzantine and Ottoman periods.
The identification of the site with one of the ancient cities of Epirus has not yet been possible. It is not until 879 that the name Ioannina appears for the first time, in the acts of the Fourth Council of Constantinople, which refer to one Zacharias, Bishop of Ioannine, a suffragan of Naupaktos. After the Byzantine conquest of Bulgaria, in 1020 Emperor Basil II subordinated the local bishopric to the Archbishopric of Ohrid; the Greek archaeologist K. Tsoures dated the Byzantine city walls and the northeastern citadel of the Ioannina Castle to the 10th century, with additions in the late 11th century, including the south-eastern citadel, traditionally ascribed to the short-lived occupation of the city by the Normans under the leadership of Bohemond of Taranto in 1082. In a chrysobull to the Venetians in 1198, the city is listed as part of its own province. In the treaty of partition of the Byzantine lands after the Fourth Crusade, Ioannina was promised to the Venetians, but in the event, it became part of the new state of Epirus, founded by Michael I Komnenos Doukas.
Under Michael I, the city was fortified anew. The Metropolitan of Naupaktos, John Apokaukos, reports how the city was but a "small town", until Michael gathered refugees who had led Constantinople and other parts of the Empire that fell to the crusaders of the Fourth Crusade, settled them there, transforming the city into a fortress and "ark of salvation". Despite frictions with local inhabitants who tried in 1232 to expel the refugees, the latter were successfully settled and Ioannina gained in both population and economic and political importance. In the aftermath of the Battle of Pelagonia in 1259, much of Epirus was occupied by the Empire of Nicaea, Ioannina was placed under siege. Soon, the Epirote ruler Michael II Komnenos Doukas, aided by his younger son John I Doukas, managed to recover their capital of Arta and relieve Ioannina, evicting the Nicaeans from Epirus. In c. 1275 or c. 1285, John I Doukas, now ruler of Thessaly, launched a raid against the city and its environs, a few years an army from the restored Byzantine Empire unsuccessfully laid siege to the city.
Following the assassination in 1318 of the last n
The island of Delos, near Mykonos, near the centre of the Cyclades archipelago, is one of the most important mythological and archaeological sites in Greece. The excavations in the island are among the most extensive in the Mediterranean. Delos had a position as a holy sanctuary for a millennium before Olympian Greek mythology made it the birthplace of Apollo and Artemis. From its Sacred Harbour, the horizon shows the three conical mounds that have identified landscapes sacred to a goddess in other sites: one, retaining its Pre-Greek name Mount Kynthos, is crowned with a sanctuary of Zeus. Established as a cult center, Delos had an importance that its natural resources could never have offered. In this vein Leto, searching for a birthing-place for Artemis and Apollo, addressed the island: Delos, if you would be willing to be the abode of my son Phoebus Apollo and make him a rich temple –, but if you have the temple of far-shooting Apollo, all men will bring you hecatombs and gather here, incessant savour of rich sacrifice will always arise, you will feed those who dwell in you from the hand of strangers.
Investigation of ancient stone huts found on the island indicate that it has been inhabited since the 3rd millennium BCE. Thucydides identifies the original inhabitants as piratical Carians who were expelled by King Minos of Crete. By the time of the Odyssey the island was famous as the birthplace of the twin gods Apollo and Artemis. Indeed, between 900 BCE and 100 CE, sacred Delos was a major cult centre, where Dionysus is in evidence as well as the Titaness Leto, mother of the above-mentioned twin deities. Acquiring Panhellenic religious significance, Delos was a religious pilgrimage for the Ionians. A number of "purifications" were executed by the city-state of Athens in an attempt to render the island fit for the proper worship of the gods; the first took place in the 6th century BCE, directed by the tyrant Pisistratus who ordered that all graves within sight of the temple be dug up and the bodies moved to another nearby island. In the 5th century BCE, during the 6th year of the Peloponnesian war and under instruction from the Delphic Oracle, the entire island was purged of all dead bodies.
It was ordered that no one should be allowed to either die or give birth on the island due to its sacred importance and to preserve its neutrality in commerce, since no one could claim ownership through inheritance. After this purification, the first quinquennial festival of the Delian games were celebrated there. Four years all inhabitants of the island were removed to Atramyttium in Asia as a further purification. After the Persian Wars the island became the natural meeting-ground for the Delian League, founded in 478 BCE, the congresses being held in the temple; the League's common treasury was kept here as well until 454 BCE. The island had no productive capacity for fiber, or timber, with such being imported. Limited water was exploited with an extensive cistern and aqueduct system and sanitary drains. Various regions operated agoras. Strabo states that in 166 BCE the Romans converted Delos into a free port, motivated by seeking to damage the trade of Rhodes, at the time the target of Roman hostility.
In 167 or 166 BCE, after the Roman victory in the Third Macedonian War, the Roman Republic ceded the island of Delos to the Athenians, who expelled most of the original inhabitants. Roman traders came to purchase tens of thousands of slaves captured by the Cilician pirates or captured in the wars following the disintegration of the Seleucid Empire, it became the center of the slave trade, with the largest slave market in the larger region being maintained here. The Roman destruction of Corinth in 146 BCE allowed Delos to at least assume Corinth's role as the premier trading center of Greece. However, Delos' commercial prosperity, construction activity, population waned after the island was assaulted by the forces of Mithridates VI of Pontus in 88 and 69 BCE, during the Mithridatic Wars with Rome. Before the end of the 1st century BCE, trade routes had changed. Due to the inadequate natural sources of food and water, the above history, unlike other Greek islands, Delos did not have an indigenous, self-supporting community of its own.
As a result, in times it was uninhabited. Since 1872 the École française d'Athènes has been excavating the island, the complex of buildings of which compares with those of Delphi and Olympia. In 1990, UNESCO inscribed Delos on the World Heritage List, citing it as the "exceptionally extensive and rich" archaeological site which "conveys the image of a great cosmopolitan Mediterranean port"; the small Sacred Lake in its circular bowl, now intentionally left dry by the island's caretakers to suppress disease-spreading bacteria, is a topographical feature that determined the placement of features. The Minoan Fountain was a rectangular public we
Florina is a town and municipality in the mountainous northwestern Macedonia, Greece. Its motto is,'Where Greece begins'; the town of Florina is the capital of the Florina regional unit and the seat of the eponymous municipality. It belongs to the administrative region of West Macedonia; the town's population is 17,686 people. It is in a wooded valley about 13 km south of the international border of Greece with the Republic of North Macedonia. Florina is the gateway to the Prespa Lakes and, until the modernisation of the road system, of the old town of Kastoria, it is located west of Edessa, northwest of Kozani, northeast of Ioannina and Kastoria cities. Outside the Greek borders it is in proximity to Korçë in Albania and Bitola in the Republic of Macedonia; the nearest airports are situated to the south. The mountains of Verno lie to Varnous to the northwest. Winters bring heavy snow and long periods of temperature below freezing point. Furthermore, the town and the surrounding valley is covered in thick fog during the winter months that may last for weeks under specific conditions.
During the summer months it becomes a busy market town with an economy boosted by summer and winter tourism due to the heavy snowfalls and the nearby ski resorts. Though Florina was the site of the first rail line built in the southern Ottoman provinces in the late 19th century, its rail system remains undeveloped. Today, Florina is linked by a single track standard gauge line to Thessaloniki and Bitola, to Kozani where it was intended to continue south and link up with the terminal in Kalambaka, in Thessaly but this did not proceed due to the 1930s financial crisis. Florina is passed by GR-2 and GR-3/E65; the new Motorway 27 will run east of Florina with its Florina-Niki segment operational since 2015. The historic Via Egnatia is situated to the east. Florina is one of the coldest towns in Greece, because of its geographic position. Heavy snowfalls, thick fog and below-freezing temperatures are common during the winter months, while the summers are mild. Under the Köppen climate classification, Florina has a humid subtropical climate with strong hot-summer continental climate influences.
On 18 January 2012, a temperature of -25.1 °C was recorded by the HNMS's station with several reports, however, in the local press for temperatures in villages of the municipality that reached -32 °C, but there was no official record of such temperature. The National Observatory of Athens's station reported a temperature of -22.2 °C a day earlier in Florina, while the same station continuously recorded minimum temperatures below -20 °C from 16/1/12 until 19/1/12, with the average maximum temperature for January just -0.6 °C, the prevalence for 13 consecutive days of temperatures below 0 °C 24 hours a day. The above situation resulted in the Greek General Secretariat of Civil Protection to declare the municipality of Florina in a state of emergency on 16/1/12, at the request of the mayor of Florina, due to the polar temperatures and the intense snowfall that prevailed for days; the city's original Byzantine name, Χλέρινον, derives from the Greek word χλωρός. The name was sometimes Latinized as Florinon in the Byzantine period, in early Ottoman documents the forms Chlerina and Florina are both used, with the latter becoming standard after the 17th century.
The form with is a local dialect form of χλωρός in Greek. The Slavic name for the city is Lerin, a borrowing of the Byzantine Greek name, but with the loss of the initial characteristic of the local dialect; the Albanian name for the city is Follorinë. The current municipality of Florina was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 4 former municipalities, that since 2011 became municipal units: Florina Kato Kleines Meliti PerasmaThe municipality has an area of 819.698 km2, the municipal unit 150.634 km2. The municipal unit of Florina is further divided into the following communities: Alona Armenochori Florina Koryfi Mesonisi Proti Skopia Trivouno Within the boundaries of the present-day city lie the remains of a Hellenistic settlement on the hill of Agios Panteleimon. Archaeologists excavated on the site in 1930-1934, but a hotel was built over the ruins. Excavations began again in the 1980s and the total excavated area is now around 8,000 metres square; the buildings uncovered are residential blocks, the range of finds suggests that the site was continuously inhabited from the 4th century BC until its destruction by fire in the 1st century BC.
Many of these finds are now on display in the Archaeological Museum of Florina. The town is first mentioned in 1334, when the Serbian king Stefan Dušan established a certain Sphrantzes Palaeologus as commander of the fortress of Chlerenon. By 1385, the place had fallen to the Ottomans. An Ottoman defter for the year 1481 records a settlement of 243 households. Florina and its inhabitants contributed to the Macedonian Struggle. Prominent leaders included Nikolaos Pyrzas, Petros Chatzitasis. In the late Ottoman period the area surrounding Florina supported the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization who fought against the Ottomans. During the Macedonian Struggle the Greek makedonomachoi gained significant advantage towards the Bulgarian Exarhists within 10 months in 1905 and extended their zone of control in various regions of western Macedonia including the plains north and south of Florina. In 1
Greece is a maritime nation by tradition, as shipping is arguably the oldest form of occupation of the Greeks and has been a key element of Greek economic activity since ancient times. Today, shipping is the country's most important industry worth $9 billion in 2015, 4% of the country's GDP. If related businesses are added, the figure jumps to $17 billion or 7.5% of GDP, employs about 192,000 people, shipping receipts are about 1/3 of the nation's trade deficit. In 2015, the Greek Merchant Navy controlled the world's largest merchant fleet, in terms of tonnage, with a total DWT of 334,649,089 tons and a fleet of 5,226 Greek-owned vessels, according to Lloyd's List. Greece is ranked in the top for all kinds of ships, including first for tankers and bulk carriers. Many Greek shipping companies have their headquarters located either in Athens or London and New York City, are run by Greek traditional shipping families which are notable for their great wealth and influence in the international maritime industry, such as the Onasis, Latsis, Angelicoussis, Niarchos and Goulandris.
The 7th Secretary General of the International Maritime Organization was Efthymios Mitropoulos. The Greeks have been a maritime nation since antiquity, as the mountainous landscape of the mainland, the limited farming area and the extended coastline of Greece led people to shipping; the geographical position of the region on the crossroads of ancient sea lanes in the eastern Mediterranean, the multiplicity of islands and the proximity to other advanced civilizations helped shape the maritime nature of the Greek nation at an early stage. In Greece and the wider Aegean, international trade existed from the Minoan and Mycenean times in the Bronze Age; the presence of goods such as pottery, copper objects far away from their area of provenance attests to this wide-ranging network of shipping transport and trade that existed between the Greek mainland and the Greek islands. The Greeks soon came to dominate the maritime trade in the region expanding it along the shores of the Mediterranean to Egypt, Asia Minor, the Black Sea, establishing colonies.
The prowess of the ancient Greek navy was displayed in naval battles during the Persian wars, the Delian League era and the Peloponnesian war. In the following centuries, a large part of the sea trade of the Roman Empire was carried out by the Greeks, while they continued to be involved and play a major role in shipping during the era of the Byzantine Empire as well. In the times of the Ottoman Empire, the involvement of the Greeks in international maritime commerce was prominent and Greek ships could be found in the ports of the eastern Mediterranean, they expanded their shipping activities and trade towards western Europe in the 16th century, taking advantage from the increasing need for grain. The restrictions imposed by the Ottomans to regulate the grain trade did not prevent the Greeks from carrying out illicit trade which brought considerable fortunes to them; the Greek maritime merchants increased their influence, as they supplied the Balkans with raw materials, handled goods on behalf of foreigners, distributed the goods to the final markets and controlled the sea trade in the region, assuming the role of shipping agents.
During the 18th century, the consolidation of political and economic power at the hands of the Phanariotes in Constantinople helped further expansion of the Greek maritime activity into the rest of Europe. The Greek merchant marine was able to displace the western maritime powers due to the Anglo-French wars, which led their commerce to decline, the navigation of the Greek vessels under the protection of the Russian Empire in many occasions; the most prominent of the Greek cities that emerged as maritime powers were those from western Greece Galaxidi and Missolonghi, but Arta and Corfu, due to their early commercial ties with the Italian cities. In addition, the Aegean Islands were active in shipping, where traditionally the inhabitants occupied with maritime commerce Hydra, Andros, Chios, Kasos and Mykonos. Although they did not have their own national flag, they flew the flags of the Russian and the British Empire for international routes. In 1792, the first Greek insurance company was founded in Trieste and those of Odessa followed in 1808 and 1814.
Greek seafarers made a lot of money and gained further knowledge and experience as they had to refine their ships and themselves in warfare against pirates. The growth of the Greek merchant fleet gave confidence and success to them, while their contact with the western peoples awakened their national consciousness and made them feel free; the existence of a reservoir of trained sailors was to be proven an inestimable advantage once the Greek War of Independence had broken out, when the Greek merchant fleet converted to a formidable martial weapon against the cumbersome ships of the Ottoman fleet. Greek merchants provided the material basis for the Neohellenic Diafotismos. Impelled by the sense of local patriotism that had always been strong in the Greek world, they endowed schools and libraries; the three most important schools-cum-colleges in the Greek world on the eve of the War of Independence were situated in Smyrna and Ayvalik, all three major centres of Greek commerce. In the wake of the nineteenth century diaspora the Chiot families were well positioned to take advantage of the commercial opportunities across Europe after the Napoleonic Wars.
Families such as the Rallis were established in Marseille and London. They established a network of shipping specialists across a
Hippocrates of Kos known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles, considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine. He is referred to as the "Father of Medicine" in recognition of his lasting contributions to the field as the founder of the Hippocratic School of Medicine; this intellectual school revolutionized medicine in ancient Greece, establishing it as a discipline distinct from other fields with which it had traditionally been associated, thus establishing medicine as a profession. However, the achievements of the writers of the Corpus, the practitioners of Hippocratic medicine and the actions of Hippocrates himself were commingled. Hippocrates is portrayed as the paragon of the ancient physician, credited with coining the Hippocratic Oath, still relevant and in use today, he is credited with advancing the systematic study of clinical medicine, summing up the medical knowledge of previous schools, prescribing practices for physicians through the Hippocratic Corpus and other works.
Historians agree. Soranus of Ephesus, a 2nd-century Greek physician, was Hippocrates' first biographer and is the source of most personal information about him. Biographies are in the Suda of the 10th century AD, in the works of John Tzetzes, Aristotle's "Politics", which date from the 4th century BC. Soranus wrote that Hippocrates' father was Heraclides, a physician, his mother was Praxitela, daughter of Tizane; the two sons of Hippocrates and Draco, his son-in-law, were his students. According to Galen, a physician, Polybus was Hippocrates' true successor, while Thessalus and Draco each had a son named Hippocrates. Soranus said that Hippocrates learned medicine from his father and grandfather, studied other subjects with Democritus and Gorgias. Hippocrates was trained at the asklepieion of Kos, took lessons from the Thracian physician Herodicus of Selymbria. Plato mentions Hippocrates in two of his dialogues: in Protagoras, Plato describes Hippocrates as "Hippocrates of Kos, the Asclepiad". Hippocrates taught and practiced medicine throughout his life, traveling at least as far as Thessaly and the Sea of Marmara.
Several different accounts of his death exist. He died in Larissa, at the age of 83, 85 or 90, though some say he lived to be well over 100. Hippocrates is credited with being the first person to believe that diseases were caused not because of superstition and gods. Hippocrates was credited by the disciples of Pythagoras of allying medicine, he separated the discipline of medicine from religion and arguing that disease was not a punishment inflicted by the gods but rather the product of environmental factors and living habits. Indeed there is not a single mention of a mystical illness in the entirety of the Hippocratic Corpus. However, Hippocrates did work with many convictions that were based on what is now known to be incorrect anatomy and physiology, such as Humorism. Ancient Greek schools of medicine were split on; the Knidian school of medicine focused on diagnosis. Medicine at the time of Hippocrates knew nothing of human anatomy and physiology because of the Greek taboo forbidding the dissection of humans.
The Knidian school failed to distinguish when one disease caused many possible series of symptoms. The Hippocratic school or Koan school achieved greater success by applying general diagnoses and passive treatments, its focus was on patient prognosis, not diagnosis. It could treat diseases and allowed for a great development in clinical practice. Hippocratic medicine and its philosophy are far removed from that of modern medicine. Now, the physician focuses on specific diagnosis and specialized treatment, both of which were espoused by the Knidian school; this shift in medical thought since Hippocrates' day has caused serious criticism over the past two millennia, with the passivity of Hippocratic treatment being the subject of strong denunciations. Another important concept in Hippocratic medicine was that of a crisis, a point in the progression of disease at which either the illness would begin to triumph and the patient would succumb to death, or the opposite would occur and natural processes would make the patient recover.
After a crisis, a relapse might follow, another deciding crisis. According to this doctrine, crises tend to occur on critical days, which were supposed to be a fixed time after the contraction of a disease. If a crisis occurred on a day far from a critical day, a relapse might be expected. Galen believed that this idea originated with Hippocrates, though it is possible that it predated him. Hippocratic medicine was passive; the therapeutic approach was based on "the healing power of nature". According to this doctrine, the body contains within itself the power to re-balance the four humours and heal itself. Hippocratic therapy focused on easing this natural process. To this end, Hippocrates believed "rest and immobilization