The Constitution of the State of Minnesota was approved by the residents of Minnesota Territory in a special election held on October 13, 1857, was ratified by the United States Senate on May 11, 1858, marking the admittance of Minnesota to the Union. Nearly 120 amendments have been approved, with the most significant being a reorganization in 1974 to simplify the document, making it easier for modern readers to comprehend and reducing the extensive verbiage, it is believed that the constitution was amended twice prior to ratification. An election in Minnesota Territory to select Republican and Democratic delegates to a state constitutional convention was held on June 1, 1857, following passage of an enabling act by the U. S. Congress on February 26 of that year; the convention was held in Saint Paul from July 13 to August 29. However, the divisions between the two political parties were so great that they each held their own separate conventions and never met together aside from five people from each party who met in a conference committee to create a document acceptable to both sides.
Still, the tension was so extreme that delegates would not sign anything, signed by a member of the complementary convention. In the end, each convention signed their own copies of the document; the two were identical, but had about 300 differences in punctuation and wording because of errors in transcription produced as copyists worked late into the night on August 28. The Republican version, written on white paper, ran 39 pages and was signed by 53 delegates, while the Democratic version, written on blue-tinged paper, was 37 pages long and had 51 signatures. On October 13, an election to approve the constitution was held. Ballots only provided for an affirmative answer, which reduced the number of negative votes since doing so required altering the ballot; the tally was 571 for rejection. The territorial secretary, a Democrat, sent a certified copy of the Democratic version to Washington, D. C. to be ratified by the Senate. A copy of the Republican version was sent by an unknown party, there is good historical evidence to show that both versions were available to Congress members.
Additionally, the Republican version was sent with the bill returned to Minnesota. The Minnesota State Legislature began to convene before the constitution was ratified, although officials elected to other positions such as governor did not begin acting in their official roles until later; the first two acts created by the legislature were amendments to the constitution, they were approved by voters on April 15, 1858. One authorized a loan to railroads of US$5 million, the other related to the term of office of the first state officers. Amended constitutions were the ones viewed by Congress during the ratification process; the validity of the early laws passed by the Legislature is somewhat in doubt, although they have never been challenged in court. A bill of rights is featured prominently in the constitution as Article I. There are seventeen sections, including many that echo the amendments to the United States Constitution by subject, but not by language; the Minnesota Supreme Court, which has final authority over how the Bill of Rights is interpreted, has given conflicting signals about when the state Bill of Rights should be interpreted differently from the federal one.
For example, Section 3 states that "the liberty of the press shall forever remain inviolate, all persons may speak and publish their sentiments on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of such right." The First Amendment to the United States Constitution, by contrast, states that "Congress shall make no law... abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press." Despite the affirmative protections of Section 3, the Minnesota Supreme Court has followed the majority position of most states, rejected the position of the Supreme Court of California in the landmark case of Robins v. Pruneyard Shopping Center, stubbornly refused to interpret such language any differently from the First Amendment; the court's most recent case on this issue was State v. Wicklund, in 1999, which involved a failed attempt by fur-coat protesters to demonstrate at the owned but publicly financed Mall of America. By contrast, Section 16 addresses the "freedom of conscience," or more freedom of religion. In the 1990 case of State v. Hershberger, which involved the Amish's successful attempt to be declared exempt from a state traffic law, the Minnesota Supreme Court affirmed more expansive protections for Minnesotans than the First Amendment's Free Exercise Clause provides.
Although the text of Section 10 is the same as the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution, the Minnesota Supreme Court has interpreted it differently, so as to provide more expansive protections for persons subject to criminal prosecution under state law. For example, in the 2003 case of State v. Carter, the court held that a police dog's "sniff" of a rented storage locker is a "search" under the state Bill of Rights though it is not a search under the federal Bill of Rights. In the 1994 case of Ascher v. Commissioner of Public Safety, the court held that DWI sobriety checkpoints, while constitutional under the Fourth Amendment, were unconstitutional under Article 1, Section 10; some of the other provisions in the Minnesota Bill of Rights are for trial by jury and due process of law. Amongst other rules, the state legislature may not meet in regular session "after the first Monday following the third Saturday in May of any year." The governor may call a special session following
Minnesota State Capitol
The Minnesota State Capitol is the seat of government for the U. S. state of Minnesota, in its capital city of Saint Paul. It houses the Minnesota Senate, Minnesota House of Representatives, the office of the Attorney General and the office of the Governor; the building includes a chamber for the Minnesota Supreme Court, although court activities take place in the neighboring Minnesota Judicial Center. The building is set in a landscaped campus. Various monuments are to its sides and front. Behind, a bridge spans University Avenue, in front others were added over the sunken roadway of Interstate 94, thus preserving the sight lines. Set near the crest of a hill, from the Capitol steps a panoramic view of downtown Saint Paul is presented; the building was built by Butler-Ryan Construction and designed by Cass Gilbert and modeled after Saint Peter's Basilica in Rome—the unsupported marble dome is the second largest in the world, after Saint Peter's. However, like all capitols with domes in the US it is inspired by the idea of domed capitols originating with the United States Capitol dome.
Work began on the capitol in 1896, its corner-stone laid July 27, 1898, construction was completed in 1905. It is the third building to serve this purpose: the first capitol was destroyed by fire in 1881, the second was completed in 1883, but was considered to be too small immediately. Above the southern entrance to the building is a gilded quadriga called The Progress of the State, sculpted by Daniel Chester French and Edward Clark Potter, it was completed and raised to the roof of the capitol in 1906. The four horses represent the power of nature: earth, wind and water; the women leading the horses symbolize civilization, the man on the chariot represents prosperity. In 1994 and 1995, the statues underwent a restoration procedure which included replacing the gold leaf on the figures. A sphere perched above the capitol dome had similar treatment. Any classical dome built since Michelangelo's must expect to be compared to it, Gilbert's dome is a frank homage, with interesting differences, his drawings show that he planned a wider drum and, correspondingly, a more massive dome.
The smaller dome as built is smaller than St. Peter's and has a simplified design: single columns round the upper lantern instead of double ones, for instance; the ribs on the capitol dome are less pronounced than those on St. Peter's, but they are still visually apparent. Gilbert knew that St. Peter's dome was on the edge of being unstable: it had cracked and had to be reinforced, his engineer for this project, Gunvald Aus, bound the brick dome in reinforcing steel bands, Gilbert crowned the paired columns round the drum with additional stone. Other than St. Peter's, additional buildings with marble domes include the Taj Mahal in India, the Rhode Island State House in the city of Providence; the central block under the dome needed three entrances, Gilbert avoided creating visual references to a triumphal arch, which would have been inappropriate in its position. He managed to avoid any reference to a palace block that would have been offensive to Minnesotans. However, Gilbert drew ire for choosing stone from Georgia rather than native Minnesota stone.
A compromise was made where the base of the building and interior spaces used varieties of native stone, including Kasota stone, the rare Minnesota Pipestone used by Native Americans for their peace pipes. Upon completion, the exterior and interior of the building drew praise, leading to requests for Gilbert to design capitol buildings for other states such as West Virginia and Arkansas and other notable structures; the capitol cost US$4.5 million at the beginning of the 20th century. It opened its doors to the public for the first time on January 2, 1905. A hundred years the building's estimated value was $400 million. Most days of the week the building is open for individual visits, organized tours are given, including a stair climb to the roof behind the Quadriga. Upon entering the building by the south door, one is below the central dome. A large star, symbolizing Minnesota's motto, "The Star of the North", is directly beneath the apex. Various portraits of state governors, flags captured by Minnesota's regiments during the American Civil War, are on display.
Paintings showing some of the related battles can be seen in the governor's outer office. Much of the building is open to the public, although one interesting sight is only accessible; this is the cloak room behind the House of Representatives chamber. The walls are painted to simulate a north woods forest, but in one corner is a tiny four leaf clover; this was added by an Irish artist to remember his home island. The structure was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1972; the Minnesota State Capitol underwent a comprehensive restoration project from 2013 to 2017, the first major renovation since the building first opened. Work began in 2013, with the project estimated at that time to cost $241 million, funded via a series of appropriations made by the Minnesota legislature; the project repaired and modernized deteriorating building systems, restored the building to Cass Gilbert's original architectural vision, increased public meeting space, updated life safety systems and improved accessibility for people with disabilities.
During renovation, more than 30,000 pieces of marble were replaced. The amount of public space in the building was doubled to nearly 40,000 square feet, with a number of new public spaces opened to the public for reservation and use year round; the pro
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite to link devices worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of private, academic and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies; the Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web, electronic mail and file sharing. Some publications no longer capitalize "internet"; the origins of the Internet date back to research commissioned by the federal government of the United States in the 1960s to build robust, fault-tolerant communication with computer networks. The primary precursor network, the ARPANET served as a backbone for interconnection of regional academic and military networks in the 1980s; the funding of the National Science Foundation Network as a new backbone in the 1980s, as well as private funding for other commercial extensions, led to worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies, the merger of many networks.
The linking of commercial networks and enterprises by the early 1990s marked the beginning of the transition to the modern Internet, generated a sustained exponential growth as generations of institutional and mobile computers were connected to the network. Although the Internet was used by academia since the 1980s, commercialization incorporated its services and technologies into every aspect of modern life. Most traditional communication media, including telephony, television, paper mail and newspapers are reshaped, redefined, or bypassed by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as email, Internet telephony, Internet television, online music, digital newspapers, video streaming websites. Newspaper and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging, web feeds and online news aggregators; the Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of personal interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, social networking. Online shopping has grown exponentially both for major retailers and small businesses and entrepreneurs, as it enables firms to extend their "brick and mortar" presence to serve a larger market or sell goods and services online.
Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries. The Internet has no single centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage; the overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address space and the Domain Name System, are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force, a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise. In November 2006, the Internet was included on USA Today's list of New Seven Wonders; when the term Internet is used to refer to the specific global system of interconnected Internet Protocol networks, the word is a proper noun that should be written with an initial capital letter.
In common use and the media, it is erroneously not capitalized, viz. the internet. Some guides specify that the word should be capitalized when used as a noun, but not capitalized when used as an adjective; the Internet is often referred to as the Net, as a short form of network. As early as 1849, the word internetted was used uncapitalized as an adjective, meaning interconnected or interwoven; the designers of early computer networks used internet both as a noun and as a verb in shorthand form of internetwork or internetworking, meaning interconnecting computer networks. The terms Internet and World Wide Web are used interchangeably in everyday speech. However, the World Wide Web or the Web is only one of a large number of Internet services; the Web is a collection of interconnected documents and other web resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. As another point of comparison, Hypertext Transfer Protocol, or HTTP, is the language used on the Web for information transfer, yet it is just one of many languages or protocols that can be used for communication on the Internet.
The term Interweb is a portmanteau of Internet and World Wide Web used sarcastically to parody a technically unsavvy user. Research into packet switching, one of the fundamental Internet technologies, started in the early 1960s in the work of Paul Baran and Donald Davies. Packet-switched networks such as the NPL network, ARPANET, the Merit Network, CYCLADES, Telenet were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s; the ARPANET project led to the development of protocols for internetworking, by which multiple separate networks could be joined into a network of networks. ARPANET development began with two network nodes which were interconnected between the Network Measurement Center at the University of California, Los Angeles Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science directed by Leonard Kleinrock, the NLS system at SRI International by Douglas Engelbart in Menlo Park, California, on 29 October 1969; the third site was the Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics Center at the University of California, Santa Barbara, followed by the University of
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h
Minnesota's congressional districts
Minnesota is divided into 8 congressional districts, each represented by a member of the United States House of Representatives. After the 2010 Census, the number of Minnesota's seats remained unchanged. Minnesota statutes do not require candidates for the United States House of Representatives to reside in the district in which they run for office, but candidates must be inhabitants of the state at the time of the election. List of members of the Minnesotan United States House delegation, their terms, their district boundaries, the districts' political ratings according to the CPVI; the delegation has a total of 8 members, including 5 Democrats, 3 Republicans. Districts were re-drawn in 2012; the 2010 elections determined the officials for the 2011–2013 term using 2002 districts, while the 2012 elections used the new districts. The 2002–2012 districts are described below: Minnesota's 1st congressional district extends across southern Minnesota from the border with South Dakota to the border of Wisconsin.
Minnesota's 2nd congressional district spans the width of the entire southern metro area and contains Dakota, Wabasha and Rice Counties. Minnesota's 3rd congressional district encompasses the suburbs of Hennepin County to the north and south of Minneapolis. Minnesota's 4th congressional district covers most of Ramsey County including all of St. Paul and several St. Paul suburbs and part of Washington. Minnesota's 5th congressional district covers eastern Hennepin County, including the entire city of Minneapolis, along with parts of Anoka and Ramsey counties Minnesota's 6th congressional district includes most or all of Benton, Stearns, Wright and Washington counties. Minnesota's 7th congressional district covers all of the western side of Minnesota from the Canada–US border down to Lincoln County and is the largest district in the state. Minnesota's 8th congressional district covers the northeastern part of Minnesota and includes Duluth and the Mesabi Range. Minnesota's two U. S. Senators are elected at large.
Congressional districts are used to ensure regional representation on other government bodies within the state. The following entities are required by state statute to have at least one member from each congressional district: The Minnesota Court of Appeals; the Board of Regents of the University of Minnesota. The Minnesota State Colleges and Universities System Board of Trustees; the state Board of Invention. Table of United States congressional district boundary maps in the State of Minnesota, presented chronologically. All redistricting events that took place in Minnesota between 1973 and 2013 are shown. Minnesota has eight congressional districts. There were 9th and 10th districts but they were eliminated in 1963 and 1933 respectively. Redistricting is done every 10 years to reflect population shifts within the United States. 9th district: 1903–1933, 1935–1963 10th district: 1915–1933 List of United States congressional districts Minnesota congressional districts map, 2013–present Minnesota Legislative Coordinating Commission
Demographics of Minnesota
The United States Census Bureau counted Minnesota's population at 5,303,925 in the 2010 Census. From fewer than 6,100 people in 1850, Minnesota's population grew to over 1.75 million by 1900. Each of the next six decades saw a 15.0% rise in population, reaching 3.41 million in 1960. Growth slowed, rising 11.0% to 3.8 million in 1970, an average of 9.0% over the next three decades to 4.91 million in the 2000 census. The rate of population change, age and gender distributions, approximate the national average. Minnesota's growing minority groups, still form a smaller proportion of the population than in the nation as a whole; the center of population of Minnesota is located in the city of Rogers. The population distribution by age in the 2005–2007 American Community Survey was: Under 5 years: 6.7% 5–9 years: 6.5% 10–14 years: 6.9% 15–19 years: 7.3% 20–24 years: 7.0% 25–34 years: 13.0% 35–44 years: 14.7% 45–54 years: 15.3% 55–59 years: 6.0% 60–64 years: 4.4% 65–74 years: 6.0% 75–84 years: 4.3% 85 years and over: 1.9%The median age was 36.9 years.
60.0% of the state's population lives within the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area and 40.0% in the remainder of the state. This is a result of the migration of jobs from farming and logging, prevalent in the 19th century, to the current concentration in professional and service jobs, concentrated in the metropolitan areas; the 16 most populous counties Over 85.0% of Minnesota's residents are of European descent, with the largest reported ancestries being German, Norwegian and Swedish. The Hispanic population of Minnesota is increasing, much like in other parts of the United States and recent immigrants have come from all over the world, including Hmong, Somalis and emigrants from the former Soviet bloc. Immigration to Minnesota was fueled by the efforts of railroad companies and civic boosters who published books explaining Minnesota's virtues. New Minnesotans sent letters back to the "old country" explaining the new hope and prosperity they had found in Minnesota; the first major wave of immigration, in the 1860s and 1870s, was from Germany and Ireland, most settlers moved to farming areas in the central and southern regions of the state.
Germans composed the largest immigrant group to Minnesota. When World War I started, 70% of the population was either foreign-born or had at least one parent born outside the United States. Of that number, more than one fourth were Germans. New Ulm, Saint Cloud, Shakopee were particular centers of German immigration. Scandinavians from Norway and Denmark, as well as immigrants from the Nordic country of Finland soon followed, but they tended to settle in distinctive communities of Norwegian, Swedish and Finnish groups instead of common Scandinavian or Nordic communities. Irish immigrants were the fourth largest group after the Germans and Norwegians, many of whom came as a result of the potato famine. Others were encouraged to immigrate by Archbishop John Ireland; the Irish concentrated in Saint Paul. Southern and eastern Europeans from Italy, Slovenia and Czecho-Slovakia became the dominant group immigrating to the United States, they tended to settle in the Twin Cities and the Iron Range; the Mesabi Range was popular among southeastern Europeans Slovenians and other Slavic immigrants living under the Austrian Empire, who found employment in the iron mines.
With extraordinary encouragement from Walter Mondale and Vietnamese immigrants started to come to Minnesota around the mid-1970s as the pro-American governments in their home countries collapsed. Many came through VOLAGS contracted with the State Department; as of the 2015 American Community Survey, there are a number residents from Laos and Thailand in the state, which include individuals of Hmong ancestry. In the mid-1990s, Somali immigrants began to settle in the United States as political turmoil occurred in Somalia. In 2002, official estimates put the population at around 15,000 residents. Many came through VOLAGS; as of the 2015 American Community Survey, there are 57,000 residents in the state who are of Somali ancestry. One of the fastest growing immigrant groups in Minnesota is the Karen people, an ethnic minority in conflict with the government in Myanmar. Most of the estimated 5,000 Karen in Minnesota came from refugee camps in Thailand. Many arrived through VOLAGS; as of the 2015 American Community Survey, the largest foreign-born groups in Minnesota are from Mexico, India, Laos including Hmong, China excluding Hong Kong and Taiwan and Thailand including Hmong.
Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number. Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic origin are not collected, but included in one Hispanic group. In the year 2007, 90.4% of Minnesota's population 5 years and over spoke only English at home. The remaining 9.6% spoke a language other than English at home. About 3.4 % of Minnesota's population spoke Spanish Creole at home. In addition, 2.1% of the population spoke a different Indo-European language at home. About 2.6 % of Minnesota's population spoke a Pacific Island language at home. The remaining 1.5% spoke a different language at home. Although Christianity dominates the religious persuasion of residents, there is a long history of non-Christian faith. German-Jewish
Natural history of Minnesota
The natural history of Minnesota covers many plant and animal species in the U. S. state of Minnesota. The continental climate and location of Minnesota at the physiographic intersection of the Laurentian and the Interior Plains influences its plant and animal life. Three of North America's biomes converge in Minnesota: prairie grasslands in the southwestern and western parts of the state, the eastern temperate deciduous forests in the east-central and the southeast and the coniferous forest in the north-central and northeast. An ecoregion is an area uniquely defined by natural features. Ecoregions in Minnesota were influenced by the unique glacial history, soil type, land use, climate of the state; the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, World Wildlife Fund maintain separate classifications of the state's ecoregions. Although different, they agree on delineating between the coniferous forest in the north-central portion and the Arrowhead, a temperate deciduous forest in the central and southeast, the tallgrass prairie in the southern and western portions of the state.
The northern coniferous forests are a vast wilderness of pine and spruce trees mixed with patchy stands of birch and poplar. Much of Minnesota's northern forest has been logged, leaving only a few patches of old-growth forest today in areas such as in the Chippewa National Forest and the Superior National Forest where the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness has some 400,000 acres of unlogged land. Although logging continues, regrowth keeps about one third of the state forested. Flora listed as threatened on the United States Fish and Wildlife Service list of endangered species include the Prairie bush-clover, the Western Prairie Fringed Orchid, Leedy's roseroot. Dwarf trout lily is listed as endangered. While loss of habitat and over harvest has affected native animals such as the pine marten, elk and the boreal woodland caribou whitetail deer and bobcat thrive; the state has the nation's largest population of timber wolves outside Alaska, supports healthy populations of black bear and moose.
Located on the Mississippi Flyway, Minnesota hosts migratory waterfowl such as geese and ducks, game birds such as grouse and turkeys. It is home to birds of prey including the bald eagle, red-tailed hawk, snowy owl; the lakes teem with sport fish such as walleye and largemouth bass and northern pike, streams in the southeast are populated by brook and rainbow trout