World Sacred Music Festival
The World Festival of Sacred Music is an annual music festival, held for a week in Fes, Morocco. It was first held in 1994; the World Festival of Sacred Music-Los Angeles a citywide festival that takes place in Los Angeles once every three years. A sixteen-day celebration of the rich sacred music and movement traditions of the people of Los Angeles, with events produced in diverse venues ranging from the city's major stages to intimate places of worship; the Festival was initiated by the Dalai Lama in 1999 as part of an unprecedented celebration of the human spirit. The Festival is a volunteer and grassroots effort based on the intention to utilize the arts festival model to build genuine community cooperation and understanding. Building on the success of the "Americas" festival in 1999 the Los Angeles organizing partners — the UCLA Center for Intercultural Performance, the EarthWays Foundation and the Foundation for World Arts — committed to the creation of a new festival in 2002 and every three years thereafter.
In 1999, 2002, 2005, 2011. The Aratani World Series is a project of the World Festival of Sacred Music-LA in partnership with the Japanese American Cultural and Community Center.] The Aratani World Series is a trailblazing new annual series in Los Angeles featuring world-class artists meeting at the global crossroads of music and dance. The World Sacred Music Festival in Olympia, Washington, USA began in 2005, inspired by the Fez Festival and other sacred music festivals. Sponsored by the non-profit organization Interfaith Works, the World Sacred Music Festival features regional and international artists from a wide variety of ethnicities and spiritual traditions. In 2005 it was a two-day festival and from 2006-2009 it was a single-day festival. In 2010 the festival began presenting quarterly sacred music events. Official website Photos of the 2007 edition, by photojournalist Fabien Maisonneuve World Sacred Music Festival of Olympia, Washington, a related site World Festival of Sacred Music Los Angeles Festival des Musiques Sacrées du Monde on WikiMusique
Jemaa el-Fnaa is a square and market place in Marrakesh's medina quarter. It remains the main square of Marrakesh, used by tourists; the origin of its name is unclear: jamaa means "congregation" in Arabic referring to a destroyed Almoravid mosque. Fnaʼ or finâʼ can mean "death" or "a courtyard, space in front of a building". "finâʼ in Arabic means "open area". Other meanings could be "The assembly of death," or "The Mosque at the End of the World". Another explanation is that it refers to a mosque with a distinctive courtyard or square in front of it. A third translation is "assembly of the dead", referring to public executions on the plaza around 1050 AD. Marrakesh was founded by the Almoravid Dynasty 1070-1072. After a destructive struggle, it fell to the Almohads in 1147. Following this, Jamaa el-Fna was renovated along with much of the city; the city walls were extended by Abou Yacoub Youssef and by Yacoub el Mansour from 1147-1158. The surrounding mosque, hospital, parade ground and gardens around the edges of the marketplace were overhauled, the kasbah was fortified.
Subsequently, with the fortunes of the city, Jamaa el Fna saw periods of decline and renewal. During the day it is predominantly occupied by orange juice stalls, water sellers with traditional leather water-bags and brass cups, youths with chained Barbary apes and snake charmers despite the protected status of these species under Moroccan law; as the day progresses, the entertainment on offer changes: the snake charmers depart, late in the day the square becomes more crowded, with Chleuh dancing-boys, story-tellers and peddlers of traditional medicines. As darkness falls, the square fills with dozens of food-stalls as the number of people on the square peaks; the square is edged along one side by the Marrakesh souk, a traditional North African market catering both for the common daily needs of the locals, for the tourist trade. On other sides are hotels and gardens and cafe terraces, narrow streets lead into the alleys of the medina quarter. Once a bus station, the place was closed to vehicle traffic in the early 2000s.
The authorities are well aware of its importance to the tourist trade, a strong but discreet police presence ensures the safety of visitors. The idea of the UNESCO project Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity came from people concerned about the Jamaa el Fna; the place is known for its active concentration of traditional activities by storytellers and performers, but it was threatened by economic development pressures. In fighting for the protection of traditions, the residents called for action on an international level. To recognize the need for the protection of such places — termed "cultural spaces" — and other popular and traditional forms of cultural expression. UNESCO encourages communities to identify, protect and revitalize such heritage; the UNESCO label aims to raise awareness about the importance of oral and intangible heritage as an essential component of cultural diversity. Shortly before noon on April 28, 2011, a blast originating in a cafe in the square killed 17 people and injured another 25.
Initial reports blamed an accidental gas explosion, but officials blamed "criminals" and "terrorists". Jemaa El-Fnaa, Marrakesh's main square was featured in the 25th Season of The Amazing Race, Episode 5; the square was featured in the Alfred Hitchcock movie The Man. An interesting account of the place in the 1970s can be seen in Esther Freud's novel Hideous Kinky. Jimmy Page and Robert Plant recorded some songs and their DVD "No Quarter - Unledded" here; as the Djemaa el-Fnaa, the square was a featured location in James Michener's 1971 book The Drifters. Juan Goytisolo lived in Marrakesh and had had an important role in the categorization of Jamaa el Fna as one of the Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity The square was featured as a photo shoot setting in the TV reality series America's Next Top Model Cycle 16; some reports have it that political activists are sometimes imprisoned and abused in the police jail under Jamaa el Fna. The book "A Year in Marrakesh" by British travel writerPeter Mayne includes descriptions of the square in the 1950s.
The Rough Guide To Morocco, 2001. Rough Guide Publishing ISBN 1-85828-601-8 The Time Machine | Photography portfolio about Jamaa El-Fna Official Website | Official Website about Jamaa El-Fna BBC news about preserving intangible patrimony A Night at Jamaa El-Fna - article in English with many high-quality pictures
Gnawa music is a rich Moroccan repertoire of ancient African Islamic spiritual religious songs and rhythms. Its well-preserved heritage combines ritual poetry with traditional dancing; the music is performed at lila, entire communal nights of celebration dedicated to prayer and healing guided by the Gnawa maalem, or master musician, their group of musicians and dancers. Though many of the influences that formed this music can be traced to sub-Saharan West-Africa, its traditional practice is concentrated in Morocco. Nowadays, Gnawa music has spread through many other countries such as France; the word "Gnawa", plural of "Gnawi", is taken to be derived from the Hausa-Fulani demonym "Kanawa" for the residents of Kano, the capital of the Hausa-Fulani Emirate, under Morocco influence-Link of allegiance for centuries, economically, in matters of defense.. The Moroccan language replaces "K" with "G", how the Kanawa, or Hausa people, were called Gnawa in Morocco The history of the Gnawi is related to the famous Moroccan royal "Black Guard", which became today the Royal Guard of Morocco.
A short browsing of the Moroccan and Hausa contexts will suffice to show the connections between both cultures, religiously -as both are Malikite Moslems, with many Moroccan spiritual schools active in Hausaland- and artistically, with Gnawa music being the prime example of Hausa-sounding and typical Hausa articulation of music within Morocco its local language, traditions. Gnawa music is one of the major musical currents in Morocco. Moroccans overwhelmingly love Gnawa music and Gnawas'Maalems' are respected, enjoy an aura of musical stardom. In a Gnawa song, one phrase or a few lines are repeated over and over, so the song may last a long time. In fact, a song may last several hours non-stop. However, what seems to the uninitiated to be one long song is a series of chants, to do with describing the various spirits, so what seems to be a 20-minute piece may be a whole series of pieces - a suite for Sidi Moussa, Sidi Hamou, Sidi Mimoun or the others, but because they are suited for adepts in a state of trance, they go on and on, have the effect of provoking trance from different angles.
The melodic language of the stringed instrument is related to their vocal music and to their speech patterns, as is the case in much African music. It is a language that emphasizes on the tonic and fifth, with quavering pitch-play pitch-flattening, around the third, the fifth, sometimes the seventh; this is the language of the blues. Gnawa music is characterized by instrumentation; the large heavy iron castanets known as qraqab and a three -string lute known as a hajhuj are central to Gnawa music. The rhythms of the Gnawa, like their instrumentations are distinctive. Gnawa is characterized by interplay between triple and duple meters; the "big bass drums" mentioned by Schuyler are not featured in a more traditional setting. Gnawa have venerable stringed-instrument traditions involving both bowed lutes like the gogo and plucked lutes like the gimbri, a three-stringed bass instrument; the Gnawa use large drums called tbel in their ritual music. The Gnawa hajhuj has strong historical and musical links to West African lutes like the Hausa halam, a direct ancestor of the banjo.
Gnawa hajhuj players use a technique which 19th century American minstrel banjo instruction manuals identify as "brushless drop-thumb frailing". The "brushless" part means. Instead, the thumb drops in a hypnotically rhythmic pattern against the freely-vibrating bass string producing a throbbing drone, while the first two or three fingers of the same hand pick out, percussive patterns in a drum-like telegraphic manner. Gnawas perform a complex liturgy, called lila or derdeba; the ceremony recreates the first sacrifice and the genesis of the universe by the evocation of the seven main manifestations of the divine demiurgic activity. It calls the seven saints and supernatural entities represented by seven colors, as a prismatic decomposition of the original light/energy; the derdeba is jointly animated by a maâlem at the head of his troop and by moqadma or shuwafa, in charge of the accessories and clothing necessary to the ritual. During the ceremony, the clairvoyante determines the accessories and clothing as it becomes ritually necessary.
Meanwhile, the maâlem, using the guembri and by burning incense, calls the saints and the supernatural entities to present themselves in order to take possession of the followers, who devote themselves to ecstatic dancing. Inside the brotherhood, each group gets together with an initiatory moqadma, the priestess that leads the ecstatic dance called the jedba, with the maâlem, accompanied by several players of krakebs. Preceded by an animal sacrifice that assures the presence of the spirits, the all-night ritual begins with an opening that consecrates the space, the aâda, during which the musicians perform a swirling acrobatic dance, playing the krakebs; the mluk are abstract entities. The participants enter a trance state. By means of these dances, participants negotiate their relationships with the mluk either plac
The Soussi people called Isussin or Swassa, are a major Berber subgroup inhabiting the southwestern mountains, Sous River, southern coastal regions of Morocco. The Soussis traditionally call themselves Isoussin; this endonym is rendered as les Soussis in French. The Soussis are known as Isoussin and Swassa. Among Arabic speakers, Chleuh serves as an appellation for Berbers although Amazigh/Imazighin is the proper Berber self-name for Berbers as a whole; the Soussi people live in Morocco's southern Atlantic coast, the High Atlas Mountains, the Anti Atlas mountains, the Sous Valley. They are of Berber origin, which along with the Berber people, includes other ethnic subgroups such as the Tuareg, Kabyle and Beraber; the Soussi people are a part of Morocco's Berber-speaking community, the southernmost residing Berber population. In antiquity, Berbers traded with the Phoenicians and Carthaginians in commercial entrepots and colonies along the northwestern littoral, they established the ancient kingdom of Mauretania, which fell under Roman rule in 33 CE, before being reunited under Berber sovereignty.
During the 7th century, the Islamic Umayyad Caliphate invaded the Berber and Byzantine strongholds in the Northwest Africa, seizing Carthage in 698 AD. Although the Umayyads nominally controlled Morocco over the following years, their rule was tenuous due to Berber resistance, shortly in 739 AD Umayyad Arabs were killed by the Moroccan Berbers at the battle of Nobles and Bagdoura. Morocco remained under the rule of Berber kingdoms such as Barghawata and Midrar.. etc. In 789 AD, with the approval of the locals, a former Umayyad courtier established the Idrisid dynasty that ruled in Fez, it lasted as various petty states vied for control over the ensuing centuries. After 1053, Morocco was ruled by a succession of Muslim dynasties founded by Berber tribes. Among these were the Almoravid dynasty who spread Islam in Morocco, the Almohad dynasty, the Marinid dynasty. In 1668, a sharifan family from the east assumed control and established the incumbent Alawite dynasty. Although the Soussis adopted Islam and other Berbers in the mountains have held on to their traditional language and religious customs to varying degrees.
A small minority of the Shilha people are Jewish. The French and Spanish colonial empires partitioned Morocco in 1904, the southern part of the territory was declared a French protectorate in 1912. Arabization remained an official state policy under both the colonial and succeeding post-independence governments. With the spread of the Berber Spring to Berber territory during the 1980s, the Berbers sought to reaffirm their Berber roots; this culminated with a proposal by Berber nationalists in 2013 to establish an independent Sousse state within a greater Morocco federation. The Soussis live in Morocco's Atlas Mountains and Sous Valley. Traditionally, they are farmers who keep herds; some are semi-nomadic, growing crops during the season when water is available, moving with their herds during the dry season. The Soussi communities in the southwestern mountains of Morocco cooperated with each other in terms of providing reciprocal grazing rights as seasons changed, as well as during periods of war.
These alliances were re-affirmed by annual festive gatherings, where one Soussi community would invite nearby and distant Shilha communities. The Soussis speak a Tasoussit dialect, it belongs to the Berber branch of the Afro-Asiatic family. Their language is sometimes referred to as Sous-Berber; as of 2014, there were around 5 million Shilha speakers, constituting 14.1% of the Moroccan population. The Soussi language differs from certain Berber varieties, such as those spoken by the Tuareg. High Atlas "Shluh", Encyclopædia Britannica online, 2008, webpage: EB-Shluh. Maroc - Carte linguistique
The dirham is the currency of Morocco. It is issued by the central bank of Morocco, it is subdivided into 100 centimes. Before the introduction of a modern coinage in 1882, Morocco issued copper coins denominated in falus, silver coins denominated in dirham, gold coins denominated in benduqi. From 1882, the dirham became a subdivision of the Moroccan rial, with 500 Mazunas = 10 dirham = 1 rial; when most of Morocco became a French protectorate in 1912 it switched to the Moroccan franc. The dirham was reintroduced on 16 October 1960, it replaced the franc as the major unit of currency but, until 1974, the franc continued to circulate, with 1 dirham = 100 francs. In 1974, the santim replaced the franc. In 1960, silver 1 dirham coins were introduced; these were followed by nickel 1 dirham and silver 5 dirham coins in 1965. In 1974, with the introduction of the santim, a new coinage was introduced in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 santimat and 1 dirham; the 1 santim coins were aluminium, the 5 up to 20 santimat were minted in brass, with the highest two denominations in cupro-nickel.
Cupro-nickel 5 dirham coins were added in 1980 and changed to a bi-metal coin in 1987. The bi-metal coins bear two year designations for the issue date—1987 in the Gregorian calendar and the 1407 in the Islamic calendar; the 1 santim was only minted until 1987 when new designs were introduced, with a ½ dirham replacing the 50 santimat without changing the size or composition. The new 5 dirham coin was bimetallic, as was the 10 dirham coin introduced in 1995. Cupro-nickel 2 dirham coins were introduced in 2002. In 2011, a new series of coins has been issued, with the 5 and 10 dirham coin utilizing a latent image as a security feature; the first notes denominated in dirham were overprints on earlier franc notes, in denominations of 50 dirhams and 100 dirhams. In 1965, new notes were issued for 10 and 50 dirhams. 100 dirham notes were introduced in 1970, followed by 200 dirham notes in 1991 and 20 dirham notes in 1996. 5 dirham notes were replaced by coins in 1980, with the same happening to 10 dirham notes in 1995.
In mid-October 2009, Bank Al-Maghrib issued four million 50-dirham banknotes to commemorate the bank's 50th anniversary. The commemorative note measures 147 x 70 mm and features the portraits of Kings Mohammed VI, Hassan II, Mohammed V; the back of the notes features the headquarters of Bank Al-Maghrib in Rabat. The speech delivered in 1959 by Mohammed V at the opening of Bank Al-Maghrib is microprinted on the back. In December 2012, Bank-Al Maghrib issued a 25-dirham banknote to commemorate the 25th anniversary of banknote production at the Moroccan State Printing Works, Dar As-Sikkah, it is the first banknote in the world to be printed on Durasafe, a paper-polymer-paper composite substrate produced by Fortress Paper. The front of the commemorative note features an intaglio vignette and a watermark of King Mohammed VI, a magenta-green color shift security thread; the thread, like the watermark, is embedded inside the banknote yet visible behind a one-sided Viewsafe polymer window. It has a transparent polymer window embossed with the King's royal crest.
The back of the note carries a print vignette commemorating 25 years of banknote printing at the Moroccan State Printing Works, Dar As-Sikkah. The windows in Durasafe are formed by die cutting each side of the three layer composite substrate separately. One-sided Viewsafe windows give a clear view inside the substrate where the thread and the watermark of King Mohammed VI are protected, but visible behind the polymer core; the transparent Thrusafe window is created by die-cutting both the outer paperlayers to reveal only the transparent polymer core. On August 15, 2013, Bank Al-Maghrib has announced a new series of banknotes; the notes feature a portrait of the royal crown. Each of the notes show a Moroccan door to the left of the portrait, demonstrating the richness of the country's architectural heritage, symbolizing the openness of the country. Popular denominations are words used in Morocco to refer to different values of the currency; those include the rial, equivalent to 5 santimat, the franc, equivalent to 1 santim.
When dealing with goods with a value lower than a dirham, it is common to use the rial or santim. For high priced goods, such as cars, it is normative to refer to the price in santimat. However, rial is used when centime when speaking in French. Though not used by the young generation, the denomination 1000, 2000... to 100,000 francs will be used by people who lived during the French colonial period when referring to 10, 20 and 1000 dirham. Rial is used for higher value than portions of the dirham, reaching 5000 dhs; this denomination is used in Moroccan Arabic speaking context in popular milieu such as old medina souks or vegetable markets. Moroccan dirham is accepted in trade markets in Ceuta, despite the prices being displayed in Euro. Economy of Morocco Heiko Otto. "Historical banknotes of Morocco". Retrieved 2017-01-03
Morocco the Kingdom of Morocco, is a country located in the Maghreb region of North West Africa with an area of 710,850 km2. Its capital is the largest city Casablanca, it overlooks the Mediterranean Sea to the Atlantic Ocean to the west. Morocco claims the areas of Ceuta, Melilla and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera, all of them under Spanish jurisdiction. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid and Almohad dynasties, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa; the Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, allowing Morocco to remain the only northwest African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, which rules to this day, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, it regained its independence in 1956, has since remained comparatively stable and prosperous by regional standards.
Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco occupies two thirds of the territory, peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock; the unitary sovereign state of Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors; the king can issue decrees called dahirs. He can dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court.
Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, its official languages are Arabic and Berber. E; the Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, French are widely spoken. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Sephardi Jews, West African and European influences. Morocco is a member of the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union, it has the fifth largest economy of Africa. The full Arabic name al-Mamlakah al-Maghribiyyah translates to "Kingdom of the West". For historical references, medieval Arab historians and geographers sometimes referred to Morocco as al-Maghrib al-Aqṣá to distinguish it from neighbouring historical regions called al-Maghrib al-Awsaṭ and al-Maghrib al-Adná; the basis of Morocco's English name is Marrakesh, its capital under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad Caliphate. The origin of the name Marrakesh is disputed, but is most from the Berber words amur akush or "Land of God"; the modern Berber name for Marrakesh is Mṛṛakc. In Turkish, Morocco is known as a name derived from its ancient capital of Fes.
However, this was not the case in other parts of the Islamic world: until the middle of the 20th century, the common name of Morocco in Egyptian and Middle Eastern Arabic literature was Marrakesh. The English name Morocco is an anglicisation of the Spanish "Marruecos", from which derives the Tuscan "Morrocco", the origin of the Italian "Marocco"; the area of present-day Morocco has been inhabited since Paleolithic times, sometime between 190,000 and 90,000 BC. A recent publication may demonstrate an earlier habitation period, as Homo sapiens fossils discovered in the late 2000s near the Atlantic coast in Jebel Irhoud were dated to 315,000 years before present. During the Upper Paleolithic, the Maghreb was more fertile than it is today, resembling a savanna more than today's arid landscape. Twenty-two thousand years ago, the Aterian was succeeded by the Iberomaurusian culture, which shared similarities with Iberian cultures. Skeletal similarities have been suggested between the Iberomaurusian "Mechta-Afalou" burials and European Cro-Magnon remains.
The Iberomaurusian was succeeded by the Beaker culture in Morocco. Mitochondrial DNA studies have discovered the Saami of Scandinavia; this supports theories that the Franco-Cantabrian refuge area of southwestern Europe was the source of late-glacial expansions of hunter-gatherers who repopulated northern Europe after the last ice age. Northwest Africa and Morocco were drawn into the wider emerging Mediterranean world by the Phoenicians, who established trading colonies and settlements in the early Classical period. Substantial Phoenician settlements were at Chellah and Mogador. Mogador was a Phoenician colony as early as the early 6th century BC. Morocco became a realm of the Northwest African civilisation of ancie
Maroc Telecom is the main telecommunication company in Morocco. IAM employs around 11,178 employees, it has 8 regional delegations with 220 offices present on all the territory of Morocco. The company is listed on both Euronext Paris. In 2006, the company reported a turnover of $2.67 bn. The custom base was established at 1.27m lines for the landline and at 391,000 lines for the ADSL. The acronym IAM of Maroc Telecom comes from its original Arabic name Ittisalat Al Maghrib; the name "Maroc Telecom" was adopted for better international recognizability. The origin of a Moroccan telecommunication project dates back to 1891 when Sultan Hassan I created the first Moroccan postal service. In 1913, the Moroccan Postal Telephone and Telegraph was established before a Dahir related to the monopoly of the state of Telegraphy and Telephony was published. In 1967, Morocco placed the first underwater cable between Tetouan and Perpignan, through the Mediterranean. A few years in 1970, a transmission via INTELSAT was introduced.
The Telex service was automated in 1971 just before installing a digital center in Fes. Due to the advancement of telecommunications around the globe, Morocco decided to create a new entity called the Office National des Postes et Télécommunications to manage the industry. ONPT was responsible of the introduction of Analog Mobile Radiotelephony in 1987. On, in 1992, Morocco set up the first underwater optical fiber cable. Two years a GSM service was operational; the Internet was introduced in Morocco by ONPT in 1995. Although, the service remains slow, with Maroc Telecom less than half, sometimes only a tenth, of promised Internet speeds of up to 20 Mbit/s. After the publication of a telecommunications' decree, Maroc Telecom was founded in 1998. On 20 February 2001 the Moroccan government sold 35% of Maroc Telecom's shares to French mass media company Vivendi; the transaction amounted to 23 Billion dirhams. On 4 January 2005 Vivendi acquired an additional 16% for 12.4 billion dirhams raising its participation to 51%.
In October 2007, the CDG ceded, via its subsidiary Filpar Holding, 2% of Maroc Telecom to Vivendi in exchange of 0.6% of Vivendi's shares, putting the total shares owned by Vivendi to 53%. In July 2013, it was announced that the firm’s majority owner, would sell its 53% stake in the firm to Etisalat for around $4.2 billion. IAM has three main activities: It consists of the provision of public phones throughout Morocco; the fixed park reaches 1.6 million lines. Mobile services are provided via a GSM network. Maroc Telecom counted 33 million customers at the end of October 2012, its network covers 97% of the Moroccan population. It has 12.5 million customers in Mali, Burkina Faso and Mauritania. It is one of the most profitable phone operators in Africa with a revenue of 2.2 billion euros during the first 9 months of 2012. Maroc Telecom launched 4G+ in Morocco on July 13, 2015, to negative reception because of low internet connection speeds not living up to the alleged 4G standards. On June 1, 2006, IAM launched the IPTV package deployed by Huawei Technology via the ADSL line.
The service was the first of its kind in the Middle East. In July 2006 Maroc Telecom signed with the French telecommunications equipment company Alcatel a contract for a submarine cable network connection between Morocco and France. Morocco Telecom's aim is to upgrade the capacity of its services; the project cost € 26 million and was named "Atlas Offshore". In December 2006, IAM invested in Burkina Faso's ONATEL. Communications in Morocco Internet censorship in Morocco List of telephone operating companies Inwi Meditel Maroc Telecom HQ Maroc Telecom website Euronext analysis