Air Products & Chemicals
Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. is an American international corporation whose principal business is selling gases and chemicals for industrial uses. Air Products' headquarters is in Allentown, Pennsylvania, in the Lehigh Valley region of Pennsylvania, in the United States. Air Products is the Lehigh Valley's third largest employer, after Lehigh Valley Hospital and St. Luke's Hospital. Leonard P. Pool founded the company in 1940, its French subsidiary, headquartered in Saint-Quentin-Fallavier, was the site of a terrorist attack on June 26, 2015. Air Product's current CEO and Chairman is Sefi Ghasemi. On September 17, 2015 Air Products announced its intent to spin off its Materials Technologies business; this new stand. Air Products serves customers in technology, healthcare and industrial markets worldwide with atmospheric industrial gases and specialty gases, performance materials and chemical intermediates. Air Products produces semiconductor materials, refinery hydrogen, natural gas liquefaction technology and equipment, epoxy additives, gas cabinets, advanced coatings and adhesives.
It is noted as addressing the hydrogen fuel cell economy through hydrogen fueling stations as well as its personal care chemicals business. Air Products provided the liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen fuel for the Space Shuttle External Tank. Air Products has had a working relationship with NASA for 50 years and has supplied the liquid hydrogen used for every Space Shuttle launch and the Mercury and Apollo missions. In 2013, Air Products' high purity BIP argon was used to determine a more accurate value for the Boltzmann Constant. In 2010, Air Products was awarded the Rushlight Hydrogen and Fuel Cells industry award for the Series 10 hydrogen fuelling station; the Rushlight Awards celebrate the leading environmental technologies and innovations by organizations throughout the UK and Ireland. The purpose is to promote what is happening in the world of hydrogen and fuel cells to the public and enable further development and funding to be granted toward reducing carbon emissions. On January 15, 2004, Air Products was named a Maplecroft Climate Innovation Indexes Leader, ranking 17th out of the 300 largest U.
S. companies evaluated for their climate-related carbon management programs. Air Products is working on several preeminent carbon capture and storage demonstration projects around the world. Air Products was included on the Dow Jones Sustainability North America Index as one of the best performing sustainable companies for 2008/11. Only the top 94 percent of the 987 largest North American companies are selected for the DJSI North America Index. In 2001, Air Products Received an Award of Merit from the WateReuse Association for Outstanding Water Conservation Efforts for conserving 62 million US gallons of drinking water annually by converting to recycled water for the cooling process at the Santa Clara, manufacturing facility; the award was presented during the 25th Annual WateReuse Symposium. WRA recognizes projects that have advanced the acceptance of water reuse through education, sound science, technology using reclamation, reuse, or desalination for the benefit of the public and the environment.
On March 4, 2010, Corporate Responsibility Magazine named Air Products to its 100 Best Corporate Citizens List. Official website
Skirmish of Sporting Hill
The Skirmish of Sporting Hill was a small skirmish during the Gettysburg Campaign of the American Civil War, taking place on June 30, 1863, at various locations in present-day Camp Hill, East Pennsboro Township and Hampden Township in Cumberland County, Pennsylvania. It is known as the northernmost engagement of Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia during the Civil War. Confederate Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell had led two full divisions and a cavalry brigade through Maryland into Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania in late June 1863, with the intention of seizing the state capital of Harrisburg. However, he had been delayed in crossing the rain-swollen Potomac River, which allowed time for the Union to respond. Pausing another day at Chambersburg, Ewell marched northwards through the Cumberland Valley towards Harrisburg. In response, Union Maj. Gen. Darius N. Couch, commanding the Department of the Susquehanna, dispatched troops to the present day borough of Camp Hill, located in the Cumberland Valley 2 miles west of Harrisburg.
Laborers hired by Couch erected earthworks and fortifications along the western portion of Bridgeport, adjacent to Camp Hill. The two largest of these became known as "Fort Couch" and "Fort Washington." Ewell's cavalry, a brigade under the command of Brig. Gen. Albert G. Jenkins, raided nearby Mechanicsburg on June 28; that same evening, receiving the unexpected news that the Federal Army of the Potomac was advancing through Maryland, Gen. Robert E. Lee was forced to consolidate his Army of Northern Virginia towards Gettysburg to counter this new threat; as a result, Ewell began to withdraw, would never realize the objective of taking Harrisburg. However, Jenkins skirmished with the 22nd and 37th New York Militia at Sporting Hill on the west side of Camp Hill on June 29, 1863; the Confederates used the barn of the Johannes Eberly House as cover while engaging the Union soldiers positioned along the Carlisle Pike. The Confederates attempted to cross the Carlisle Pike and outflank the Union soldiers but the Union soldiers saw their maneuvering and stymied their efforts.
The Confederate soldiers began artillery fire upon the Union position with shot and shell around 5 p.m. Just Lieutenant Perkins of the Federal Army arrived with two cannon and began firing upon the Eberly House's barn; the Federals' first shot at the barn smashed through the upper wooden structure and sent 50 Confederate soldiers running outside to their horses. The Confederates withdrew in the direction of Carlisle to rejoin Ewell's infantry for the march southward towards Heidlersburg and Gettysburg. At least 16 Confederates from the 16th and 36th Virginia Cavalry were killed during the fighting and an additional 20 to 30 were wounded. Union losses were listed at 11 men wounded; some of the battlefield was lost to development and the construction of PA Route 581. A Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission historical marker, denoting the skirmish, exists at the intersection of 31st Street and Market Streets in Camp Hill; the wooden part of the Eberly barn, where the Confederate soldiers were positioned, was destroyed by a tornado on March 21, 1976, but the barn's limestone foundation still remains.
Both the Eberly barn foundation and the Eberly House itself are still standing, as they were preserved by real estate developer Tom Gaughen, who built the nearby Brambles apartment complex that encircles the house. Boyd, Neil, "The Confederate Invasion of Central Pennsylvania and the Battle of Sporting Hill" Yankee Gazette #6 Battle Imminent In Pennsylvania, Harrisburg Attacked
William Martin Joel is an American singer-songwriter and pianist. Nicknamed the "Piano Man", he has been making music since the 1960s, releasing popular albums throughout the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s, he was born in 1949 in The Bronx, New York, grew up on Long Island, New York, both places that influenced his music. After dropping out of high school, Joel took part in two short-lived bands, The Hassles and Attila, before signing a record deal with Family Productions and kicking off a solo career in 1971 with his first release, Cold Spring Harbor. In 1972, Joel caught the attention of Columbia Records after a live radio performance of the song "Captain Jack" became popular in Philadelphia, prompting him to sign a new record deal with the company and release his second solo album, Piano Man, which contained his first hit single of the same name. After releasing two more albums, Streetlife Serenade and Turnstiles, Joel released his critical and commercial breakthrough album, The Stranger, in 1977.
In 1978, Joel's album 52nd Street was his first album to peak at #1 on the Billboard 200 chart. Joel released his seventh studio album, Glass Houses, in an attempt to further establish himself as a rock and roll artist, his next album, The Nylon Curtain, was released in 1982, stemmed from a desire from Joel to create more lyrically and melodically ambitious music. An Innocent Man, released in 1983, served as an homage to genres of music which Joel had grown up with in the 1950s, such as rhythm and blues and doo-wop. After releasing the albums The Bridge and Storm Front in 1986 and 1989 Joel released his twelfth and final solo album, River of Dreams, in 1993, he went on to release Fantasies and Delusions, a 2001 album featuring classical compositions composed by Joel and performed by British-Korean pianist Richard Hyung-ki Joo. Joel provided voiceover work in 1988 for the 27th animated Disney film, Oliver & Company, in which he provided the voice of the character Dodger, contributed to the soundtracks to several different films, including Easy Money, Ruthless People, Honeymoon in Vegas.
Across the 20 years of his solo career, Joel produced 33 Top 40 hits in the US, all of which he wrote himself, three of which managed to top the charts. He is a six-time Grammy Award winner, nominated for 23 Grammy Awards. With over 150 million records sold worldwide, he is one of the best-selling artists of all time as well as the sixth best-selling recording artist and the third best-selling solo artist in the United States, his 1985 compilation album, Greatest Hits Vol. 1 & 2, is one of the best-selling albums in the US. Joel was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, the Long Island Music Hall of Fame. In 2001, Joel received the Johnny Mercer Award from the Songwriters Hall of Fame. In 2013, Joel received the Kennedy Center Honors, the nation's highest honor for influencing American culture through the arts. Since the advent of his solo career, Joel has held a successful touring career, holding live performances across the globe in which he sings several of his written songs.
In 1987, he became one of the first artists to hold a rock and roll tour in the Soviet Union following the country's alleviation of the ban on rock and roll music. Despite retiring from writing and releasing pop music following the release of River of Dreams, he continues to tour, he performs at Madison Square Garden in Manhattan. Joel has been in several relationships, including marriages to Elizabeth Weber Small, model Christie Brinkley, Katie Lee. Since 2015, he has been married to his 4th spouse. William Martin Joel was born in the Bronx on May 9, 1949; when he was one year old, his family moved to the Long Island suburb of Hicksville, New York, in the Town of Oyster Bay, where he and his younger sister were raised in a section of Levitt homes. Joel's father, Howard Joel, a classical pianist and businessman, was born in Nuremberg, Germany, to a Jewish family, the son of a merchant and manufacturer, Karl Amson Joel. Helmut was educated in Switzerland, his father had created a successful mail order textile business, Joel Macht Fabrik.
To escape the Nazi regime, Helmut's family emigrated to Switzerland. His father was forced to sell his business at a fraction of its value; the family reached the United States via Cuba, because immigration quotas for German Jews prevented direct immigration at the time. In the United States, Helmut/Howard Joel always loved music. Joel's mother, was born in Brooklyn to Jewish parents and Rebecca Nyman, who had immigrated from England. Joel has said that neither of his parents had talked much about World War II, which were such dark years. After Rosalind and Howard Joel divorced in 1957, he returned to Europe, as he had never liked the United States, considering the people uneducated and materialistic, he settled in Austria. He remarried. Billy Joel has a half-brother, Alexander Joel, born to his father in Europe, who became a classical conductor there. Alexander Joel was the chief musical director of the Staatstheater Braunschweig from 2001 to 2014. Joel reluctantly began piano lessons at an early age, at his mother'
Bethlehem is a city in Lehigh and Northampton counties in the Lehigh Valley region of the eastern portion of the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 74,982, making it the seventh largest city in Pennsylvania, after Philadelphia, Allentown, Erie and Scranton. Of this, 55,639 were in Northampton County, 19,343 were in Lehigh County. Bethlehem lies in the center of the Lehigh Valley, a region of 731 sq mi, home to more than 800,000 people. Together with Allentown and Easton, the Valley embraces the Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA-NJ metropolitan area, including Lehigh and Carbon counties within Pennsylvania, Warren County in the adjacent state of New Jersey. Smaller than Allentown but larger than Easton, Bethlehem is the Lehigh Valley's second most populous city. In turn, this metropolitan area comprises Pennsylvania's third-largest metropolitan area and the state's largest and most populous contribution to the greater New York City metropolitan area.
There are four general sections of the city: central Bethlehem, the south side, the east side, the west side. Each of these sections blossomed at different times in the city's development and each contains areas recognized under the National Register of Historic Places. ZIP codes that use the address Bethlehem totaled 116,000 in population in the year 2000; these ZIP codes include Hanover Township. The Norfolk Southern Railway's Lehigh Line, runs through Bethlehem heading east to Easton and Phillipsburg, New Jersey across the Delaware River; the Norfolk Southern Railway's Reading Line runs through Bethlehem heading west to Allentown and Reading. In July 2006, Money magazine placed Bethlehem as number 88 on its "Top 100 Best Places to Live." The areas along the Delaware River and its tributaries in eastern Pennsylvania were long inhabited by indigenous peoples of various cultures. By the time of European contact, these areas were the historic territory of the Algonquian-speaking Lenape Nation, which had three main divisions, the Unami and Munsee.
They traded with the Dutch and English colonists in the mid-Atlantic area. On Christmas Eve in 1741, David Nitschmann and Count Nicolaus von Zinzendorf, leading a small group of Moravians, founded the mission community of Bethlehem along the banks of the Monocacy Creek by the Lehigh River in the colony of Pennsylvania, they came to set up missionary communities among the Native Americans and unchurched German-speaking Christians. They named the settlement after the Biblical town Bethlehem of Judea, the birthplace of Jesus. "Count Zinzendorf said,'Brothers, how more fittingly could we call our new home than to name it in honor of the spot where the event we now commemorate took place. We will call this place Bethlehem.' And so was Bethlehem named after the birthplace of the Man of Peace.'" It was a typical Moravian Settlement Congregation, where the Church owned all the property. Until the 1850s only members of the Moravian Church were permitted to lease land plots in Bethlehem. However, a member of a group of families that were part of a Huguenot settlement in the Delaware River Valley landed in Bethlehem, a decade or two before 1800 had established grist and saw mills known as Calvin's Mills.
One member of this family was part of the Bethlehem Township council from 1798 to 1802. The historic Brethren's House, Sisters' House, Widows' House and Gemeinhaus with the Old Chapel are remnants of this period of communal living; the Moravians ministered to regional Lenape Native Americans through their mission in the area, as well as further east in the New York colony. In the historic Bethlehem God's Acre cemetery, converted Lenape lie buried alongside the Moravians. In 1762, Bethlehem built the first water-works in America to pump water for public use. While George Washington and his troops stayed in Valley Forge, Washington stored his personal effects at the farm of James Burnside in Bethlehem – as of 1998 a historical museum; the prosperous village was incorporated into a free borough in the County of Northampton in 1845. After the Unity Synod of 1848, Bethlehem became the headquarters of the Northern Province of the Moravian Church in North America. On March 27, 1900, the Bach Choir of Bethlehem presented the United States debut of German Lutheran Johann Sebastian Bach's Mass in B Minor in the city's Central Moravian Church.
After the Civil War the Borough of South Bethlehem was formed. In 1886 the Borough of West Bethlehem was formed. In 1904, the Boroughs of West Bethlehem and Bethlehem merged. In 1917, the Borough of South Bethlehem and Bethlehem merged to become the City of Bethlehem, with Archibald Johnston selected as the new city's first mayor. Bethlehem Township, Pennsylvania has remained a separate political entity. After the merger of the two boroughs, the bureau provided a count for the original sections. Bethlehem became a center of heavy trade during the industrial revolution; the Bethlehem Steel Corporation and based in Bethlehem, was once the second-largest steel producer in the United States, after Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania-based U. S. Steel. Bethlehem Steel was one of the largest shipbuilding companies in the world and one of the most powerful symbols of American industrial manufacturing leadership. Bethlehem Steel began producing the first wide-flange structural shapes made in the United States and the
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
Avondale Mine disaster
The Avondale Mine disaster was a massive fire at the Avondale Colliery near Plymouth, Pennsylvania, on September 6, 1869. It caused the death of 110 workers, it started when the wooden lining of the mine shaft caught fire and ignited the coal breaker built directly overhead. The shaft was the only entrance and exit to the mine, the fire trapped and suffocated 108 of the workers, it was the greatest mine disaster to that point in American history. One of the first global relief efforts occurred after the disaster, with donations for the families of victims arriving from all over the world. Another result of the fire was the enacting by the Pennsylvania General Assembly of legislation establishing safety regulations for the coal mining industry, making Pennsylvania the first state to enact such legislation; these laws mandated, among other things, that there must be at least two entrances to underground mines. The disaster caused thousands of miners to join the Workingmen's Benevolent Association, one of the first unions to represent coal miners in the United States.
Continuing labor and social strife in the Pennsylvania anthracite coal fields resulted in an increase of the activities of the "Molly Maguires", a controversial organization that conducted violent attacks against anthracite coal mine operators. These conflicts resulted in the trial and execution of twenty members of the Molly Maguires in Pottsville and Mauch Chunk; the Steuben Shaft at Avondale Colliery is situated on the right bank of the Susquehanna River, four miles from Plymouth, PA in Luzerne County. It was developed in 1867 by the Nanticoke Coal Company, a subsidiary of the Delaware and Western Railroad; the 327-foot-deep shaft allowed access to the 9-foot Red Ash Vein, which yielded a commercially desirable grade of anthracite. The shaft was lined with wooden timber, partitioned into two sections. One section was reserved for upcast ventilation provided by a furnace; the breaker was built directly on top of the mouth of the shaft, coal was extracted by use of the room and pillar method.
There was only one exit from the mine, the shaft. This practice had been banned in England, but was common for anthracite coal mines in the United States; the Steuben Shaft seemed to have been a disaster waiting to happen, but this was state-of-the-art construction for American deep-shaft coal mines at the time. It was by design, the most economic configuration possible. Lack of a second exit minimized non-productive development time, location of the breaker above the headframe reduced coal haulage to the processing point, furnace ventilation required less capital outlay than mechanical ventilation, developed a decade before in England. About 200 workers were employed with the workforce being predominantly Welsh. A three-month strike had just ended, the day shift was in the mine on Monday, September 6, 1869. During the morning of September 6, 1869, the coal breaker atop Steuben Shaft at the Avondale Colliery caught fire; the official investigators concluded that the furnace, located well over 100 feet from the shaft but connected to it by a flue, was the source of ignition, with flames traveling up the wood-reinforced shaft and engulfing the entire wooden structure up to the headhouse, 60 feet above the headframe.
However, not everyone has accepted the theory, so ethnic conflict between Welsh and Irish workers, industrial espionage, spontaneous combustion have been considered as possible causes. The entire inside day shift was trapped underground; the flames grew quickly setting most of the surrounding wooden structures alight. James M. Corrigary, the writer of a research paper on the incident, described it as such: "Imagine a plane of fire running up at an angle of about thirty-three degrees toward the hill above, after it has accomplished that distance, see it shoot up in one immense column into the air, while dense clouds of smoke envelope all surrounding objects, the reader can have a faint idea of the spectacle." As the fire increased, it attracted hundreds of people families of trapped miners. The crowd grew to ten thousand bystanders, helpless to do anything but watch as the buildings and shaft burned. Water was soon brought to diminish the fire; as soon as the flames had been extinguished sufficiently for rescuers to approach the shaft, preparations were made to put a derrick over the opening by which men could descend into the mine.
The derrick was set up by around 5:30 p.m. and a consensus was reached to send a dog into the mine first to make sure it was safe. The dog was brought out alive, indicating that it would be safe for humans. Before the dog had been lowered into the shaft a number of men had called into the mine, hoping they would receive an answer from the imprisoned miners. Though some claimed to have heard a response, most had not heard anything; this was repeated after the dog had been brought up and the mine had been deemed safe, with the same result. A volunteer, Charles Vartue of the Grand Tunnel colliery, was asked to descend into the mine and report on the conditions inside. At 6:30 p.m. Vartue stepped into a bucket attached to the derrick and was lowered into the shaft. Fourteen minutes he gave a signal to ascend. Vartue reported that there was timber halfway down the shaft which caused an obstruction, that at least two men would need to go down to remove it. More volunteers were requested, Charles Jones of Plymouth and Stephen Evans of Nottingham Shaft were selected to be lowered into the mine.
Equipped with tools such as a hatchet and a hook, they signaled to stop their descent several times to remove obstructions. They reached the bottom of the shaft at 7:05 and
Battle of Brandywine
The Battle of Brandywine known as the Battle of Brandywine Creek, was fought between the American Continental Army of General George Washington and the British Army of General Sir William Howe on September 11, 1777. The "Redcoats" of the British Army defeated the American rebels in the Patriots' forces and forced them to withdraw northeast toward the American capital and largest city of Philadelphia where the Second Continental Congress had been meeting since 1775; the engagement occurred near Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania during Howe's campaign to take Philadelphia, part of the American Revolutionary War. More troops fought at Brandywine than any other battle of the American Revolution, it was the longest single-day battle of the war, with continuous fighting for 11 hours. Howe's army departed from Sandy Hook, New Jersey across New York Bay from the occupied town of New York City on the southern tip of Manhattan Island, on July 23, 1777, landed near present-day Elkton, Maryland, at the point of the "Head of Elk" by the Elk River at the northern end of the Chesapeake Bay, at the southern mouth of the Susquehanna River.
Marching north, the British Army brushed aside American light forces in a few skirmishes. General Washington offered battle with his army posted behind Brandywine Creek - off the Christina River. While part of his army demonstrated in front of Chadds Ford, Howe took the bulk of his troops on a long march that crossed the Brandywine far beyond Washington's right flank. Due to poor scouting, the Americans did not detect Howe's column until it reached a position in rear of their right flank. Belatedly, three divisions were shifted to block the British flanking force at Birmingham Friends Meetinghouse and School, a Quaker meeting house. After a stiff fight, Howe's wing broke through the newly formed American right wing, deployed on several hills. At this point Lieutenant General Wilhelm von Knyphausen attacked Chadds Ford and crumpled the American left wing; as Washington's army streamed away in retreat, he brought up elements of General Nathanael Greene's division which held off Howe's column long enough for his army to escape to the northeast.
Polish General Casimir Pulaski defended Washington's rear assisting in his escape. The defeat and subsequent maneuvers left Philadelphia vulnerable; the British captured the city two weeks on September 26, beginning an occupation that would last nine months until June 1778. In late August 1777, after a distressing 34-day journey from Sandy Hook on the coast of New Jersey, a Royal Navy fleet of more than 260 ships carrying some 17,000 British troops under the command of British General Sir William Howe landed at the head of the Elk River, on the northern end of the Chesapeake Bay near present-day Elkton, Maryland 40–50 miles southwest of Philadelphia. Unloading the ships proved to be a logistical problem because the narrow river neck was shallow and muddy. General George Washington had situated the American forces, about 20,300-strong, between Head of Elk and Philadelphia, his forces were able to reconnoiter the British landing from Iron Hill near Newark, about 9 miles to the northeast. Because of the delay disembarking from the ships, Howe did not set up a typical camp but moved forward with the troops.
As a result, Washington was not able to gauge the strength of the opposing forces. After a skirmish at Cooch's Bridge south of Newark, the British troops moved north and Washington abandoned a defensive encampment along the Red Clay Creek near Newport, Delaware to deploy against the British at Chadds Ford; this site was important as it was the most direct passage across the Brandywine River on the road from Baltimore to Philadelphia. On September 9, Washington positioned detachments to guard other fords above and below Chadds Ford, hoping to force the battle there. Washington employed General John Armstrong, commanding about 1,000 Pennsylvania militia, to cover Pyle's Ford, 5.8 miles south of Chadds Ford, covered by Major Generals Anthony Wayne's and Nathanael Greene's divisions. Major General John Sullivan's division extended northward along the Brandywine's east banks, covering the high ground north of Chadds Ford along with Major General Adam Stephen's division and Major General Lord Stirling's divisions.
Further upstream was a brigade under Colonel Moses Hazen covering Buffington's Ford and Wistar's Ford. Washington was confident; the British grouped forces at nearby Kennett Square. Howe, who had better information about the area than Washington, had no intention of mounting a full-scale frontal attack against the prepared American defenses, he instead employed a flanking maneuver. About 6,800 men under the command of Wilhelm von Knyphausen advanced to meet Washington's troops at Chadds Ford; the remainder of Howe's troops, about 9,000 men, under the command of Charles, Lord Cornwallis, marched north to Trimble's Ford across the West Branch of the Brandywine Creek east to Jefferies Ford across the East Branch, south to flank the American forces. September 11 began with a heavy fog. Washington received contradictory reports about the British troop movements and continued to believe that the main force was moving to attack at Chadds Ford. Knyphausen's Column At 5:30 a.m. the British and Hessian troops began marching east along the "Great Road" from Kennett Square, advancing on the American troops positioned where the road crossed Brandywine Creek.
The first shots of the battle took place about 4 miles west of Chadds Ford, at Welch's Tavern. Elements of Maxwell's continental light infantry skirmished with