A cameo role or cameo appearance is a brief appearance or voice part of a known person in a work of the performing arts. These roles are small, many of them non-speaking ones, are either appearances in a work in which they hold some special significance or renowned people making uncredited appearances. Short appearances by celebrities, film directors, athletes or musicians are common. A crew member of the movie or show playing a minor role can be referred to as a cameo as well, such as Alfred Hitchcock's performed cameos. "cameo role" meant "a small character part that stands out from the other minor parts". The Oxford English Dictionary connects this with the meaning "a short literary sketch or portrait", based on the literal meaning of "cameo", a miniature carving on a gemstone. More "cameo" has come to refer to any short appearances, as a character, such as the examples below. Cameos are not credited because of their brevity, or a perceived mismatch between the celebrity's stature and the film or television series in which they are appearing.
Many are publicity stunts. Others are acknowledgments of an actor's contribution to an earlier work, as in the case of many film adaptations of television series, or of remakes of earlier films. Others honour celebrities known for work in a particular field; the best-known series of cameos was by Alfred Hitchcock, who made brief appearances in most of his films. Cameos occur in novels and other literary works. "Literary cameos" involve an established character from another work who makes a brief appearance to establish a shared universe setting, to make a point, or to offer homage. Balzac employed this practice, as in his Comédie humaine. Sometimes a cameo features a historical person who "drops in" on fictional characters in a historical novel, as when Benjamin Franklin shares a beer with Phillipe Charboneau in The Bastard by John Jakes. A cameo appearance can be made by the author of a work to put a sort of personal "signature" on a story. Vladimir Nabokov put himself in his novels, for instance as the minor character Vivian Darkbloom in Lolita.
Quentin Tarantino provides small roles in at least 10 of his movies. Peter Jackson has made brief cameos in all of his movies, except for his first feature-length film Bad Taste in which he plays a main character, as well as The Battle of the Five Armies, though a portrait of him appears in the film. For example, he plays a peasant eating a carrot in The Fellowship of the Ring and The Desolation of Smaug. All four were non-speaking "blink and you miss him" appearances, although in the Extended Release of The Return of the King, his character was given more screen time and his reprise of the carrot eating peasant in The Desolation of Smaug was featured in the foreground in reference to The Fellowship of the Ring - last seen twelve years earlier. Director Martin Scorsese appears in the background of his films as a bystander or an unseen character. In Who's That Knocking at My Door, he appears as one of the gangsters, he opens up his film The Color of Money with a monologue on the art of playing pool.
In addition, he appears with his wife and daughter as wealthy New Yorkers in Gangs of New York, he appears as a theatre-goer and is heard as a movie projectionist in The Aviator. In a same way, Roman Polanski appears as a hired hoodlum in his film Chinatown, slitting Jack Nicholson's nose with the blade of his clasp knife. Directors sometimes cast well-known lead actors with whom they have worked in the past in other films. Mike Todd's film Around the World in 80 Days was filled with cameo roles: John Gielgud as an English butler, Frank Sinatra playing piano in a saloon, others; the stars in cameo roles were pictured in oval insets in posters for the film, gave the term wide circulation outside the theatrical profession. It's a Mad, Mad, Mad World, an "epic comedy" features cameos from nearly every popular American comedian alive at the time, including The Three Stooges, Jerry Lewis, a silent appearance by Buster Keaton and a voice-only cameo by Selma Diamond. Aaron Sorkin had cameos in some works he wrote: as a bar customer speaking about law in his debut film screenplay A Few Good Men, as an advertising executive in The Social Network and as a guest at the inauguration of President Matt Santos in the final episode of The West Wing.
Franco Nero, the actor who portrayed the Django character in the original 1966 film appears in a bar scene of the Tarantino film Django Unchained. Many cameos featured in Maverick, directed by Richard Donner. Among them, Danny Glover – Mel Gibson's co-star in the Lethal Weapon franchise directed by Donner – appears as the lead bank robber, he and Maverick share a scene where they look as if they knew each other, but shake it off. As Glover makes his escape with the money, he mutters "I'm too old for this shit", his character's catchphrase in the Lethal Weapon films. In addition, a strain of the main theme from Lethal Weapon plays in the score when Glover is revealed. Actress Margot Kidder made a cameo appearance in the same film as a robbed villager: she had starred as Lois Lane in Donner's Superman. Ben Stiller, Vince Vaughn, Owen Wilson, Luke Wilson and
Color grading is the process of improving the appearance of an image for presentation in different environments on different devices. Various attributes of an image such as contrast, saturation, black level, white point may be enhanced whether for motion pictures, videos, or still images. Color grading and color correction are used synonymously as terms for this process and can include the generation of artistic color effects through creative blending and composting of different images. Color grading is now performed in a digital process either in a controlled environment such as a color suite, or in any location where a computer can be used in dim lighting; the earlier photo-chemical film process, now referred to as color timing, was performed at a photographic laboratory by the use of filters and exposure changes while copying from one film to another. Color timing is used in reproducing film elements. "Color grading" was a lab term for the process of changing color appearance in film reproduction when going to the answer print or release print in the film reproduction chain.
By the late 2010s, this film grading technique had become known as color timing and still involved changing the duration of exposure through different filters during the film development process. Color timing is specified in printer points which represent presets in a lab contact printer where 7-12 printer points represent one stop of light; the number of points per stop varied based upon negative or print stock and different presets at Film Labs. In a film production, the creative team would meet with the “Lab Timer” who would watch a running film and make notes dependent upon the team's directions. After the session, the Timer would return to the Lab, put the film negative on a device which had preview filters with a controlled backlight, pick exact settings of each printer point for each scene; these settings were punched onto a paper tape and fed to the high-speed printer where the negative was exposed through a backlight to a print stock. Filter settings were changed on the fly to match the printer lights.
For complex work such as visual effects shots, "wedges” running through combinations of filters were sometimes processed to aid the choice of the correct grading. This process is used. With the advent of television, broadcasters realised the limitations of live television broadcasts and they turned to broadcasting feature films from release prints directly from a telecine; this was before 1956 when Ampex introduced the first Quadruplex videotape recorder VRX-1000. Live television shows could be recorded to film and aired at different times in different time zones by filming a video monitor; the heart of this system was a device for recording a television broadcast to film. The early telecine hardware was the "film chain" for broadcasting from film and utilized a film projector connected to a video camera; as explained by Jay Holben in American Cinematographer Magazine, "The telecine didn't become a viable post-production tool until it was given the ability to perform colour correction on a video signal."
In a Cathode-ray tube system, an electron beam is projected at a phosphor-coated envelope, producing a spot of light the size of a single pixel. This beam is scanned across a film frame from left to right, capturing the "vertical" frame information. Horizontal scanning of the frame is accomplished as the film moves past the CRT's beam. Once this photon beam passes through the film frame, it encounters a series of dichroic mirrors which separate the image into its primary red and blue components. From there, each individual beam is reflected onto a photomultiplier tube where the photons are converted into an electronic signal to be recorded to tape. In a charge-coupled device telecine, a white light is shone through the exposed film image onto a prism, which separates the image into the three primary colors, red and blue; each beam of colored light is projected at a different CCD, one for each color. The CCD converts the light into an electronic signal, the telecine electronics modulate these into a video signal that can be color graded.
Early color correction on Rank Cintel MkIII CRT telecine systems was accomplished by varying the primary gain voltages on each of the three photomultiplier tubes to vary the output of red and blue. Further advancements converted much of the color-processing equipment from analog to digital and with the next-generation telecine, the Ursa, the coloring process was digital in the 4:2:2 color space; the Ursa Gold brought about color grading in the full 4:4:4 color space. Color correction control systems started with the Rank Cintel TOPSY in 1978. In 1984 Da Vinci Systems introduced their first color corrector, a computer-controlled interface that would manipulate the color voltages on the Rank Cintel MkIII systems. Since technology has improved to give extraordinary power to the digital colorist. Today there are many companies making color correction control interfaces including Da Vinci Systems, Pandora International and more; some telecines are still in operation in 2018. Some of the main artistic functions of color correction: Reproduce what was shot Compensate for variations in the material Compensate for the intended viewing environment Optimize base appearance for inclusion of special visual effects Establish a desired artistic'look' Enhance and/or alter the mood of a scene — the visual equivalent to the musical accomp
Color magazine (lighting)
A color magazine is a fixture attached to a follow spot that places different color filters in the path of the beam. Instead of working with comparatively cumbersome gel frames, the color magazine allows the spot operator to slide color frames in or out of place using a series of levers; the term boomerang is used to describe a color magazine. Color magazines are now becoming rarer with the widespread availability of programmable-colour LED lighting
An autofocus optical system uses a sensor, a control system and a motor to focus on an automatically or manually selected point or area. An electronic rangefinder has a display instead of the motor. Autofocus methods are distinguished by their type as being either active, passive or hybrid variants. Autofocus systems rely on one or more sensors to determine correct focus; some AF systems rely on a single sensor. Most modern SLR cameras use through-the-lens optical sensors, with a separate sensor array providing light metering, although the latter can be programmed to prioritize its metering to the same area as one or more of the AF sensors. Through-the-lens optical autofocusing is now speedier and more precise than can be achieved manually with an ordinary viewfinder, although more precise manual focus can be achieved with special accessories such as focusing magnifiers. Autofocus accuracy within 1/3 of the depth of field at the widest aperture of the lens is common in professional AF SLR cameras.
Most multi-sensor AF cameras allow manual selection of the active sensor, many offer automatic selection of the sensor using algorithms which attempt to discern the location of the subject. Some AF cameras are able to detect whether the subject is moving towards or away from the camera, including speed and acceleration data, keep focus on the subject — a function used in sports and other action photography; the data collected from AF sensors is used to control an electromechanical system that adjusts the focus of the optical system. A variation of autofocus is an electronic rangefinder, a system in which focus data are provided to the operator, but adjustment of the optical system is still performed manually; the speed of the AF system is dependent on the widest aperture offered by the lens. F-stops of around f/2 to f/2.8 are considered optimal in terms of focusing speed and accuracy. Faster lenses than this have low depth of field, meaning that it takes longer to achieve correct focus, despite the increased amount of light.
Most consumer camera systems will only autofocus reliably with lenses that have a widest aperture of at least f/5.6, while professional models can cope with lenses that have a widest aperture of f/8, useful for lenses used in conjunction with teleconverters. Between 1960 and 1973, Leitz patented an array of corresponding sensor technologies. At photokina 1976, Leica had presented a camera based on their previous development, named Correfot, in 1978 they displayed an SLR camera with operational autofocus; the first mass-produced autofocus camera was the Konica C35 AF, a simple point and shoot model released in 1977. The Polaroid SX-70 Sonar OneStep was the first autofocus single-lens reflex camera, released in 1978; the Pentax ME-F, which used focus sensors in the camera body coupled with a motorized lens, became the first autofocus 35 mm SLR in 1981. In 1983 Nikon released the F3AF, their first autofocus camera, based on a similar concept to the ME-F; the Minolta 7000, released in 1985, was the first SLR with an integrated autofocus system, meaning both the AF sensors and the drive motor were housed in the camera body, as well as an integrated film advance winder —, to become the standard configuration for SLR cameras from this manufacturer, Nikon abandoned their F3AF system and integrated the autofocus-motor and sensors in the body.
Canon, elected to develop their EOS system with motorised lenses instead. In 1992, Nikon changed back to lens integrated motors with their AF-S range of lenses. Active AF systems measure distance to the subject independently of the optical system, subsequently adjust the optical system for correct focus. There are various ways including ultrasonic sound waves and infrared light. In the first case, sound waves are emitted from the camera, by measuring the delay in their reflection, distance to the subject is calculated. Polaroid cameras including the Spectra and SX-70 were known for applying this system. In the latter case, infrared light is used to triangulate the distance to the subject. Compact cameras including the Nikon 35TiQD and 28TiQD, the Canon AF35M, the Contax T2 and T3, as well as early video cameras, used this system. A newer approach included in some consumer electronic devices, like mobile phones, is based on the time-of-flight principle, which involves shining a laser or LED light to the subject and calculating the distance based on the time it takes for the light to travel to the subject and back.
This technique is sometimes called laser autofocus, is present in many mobile phone models from several vendors. An exception to the two-step approach is the mechanical autofocus provided in some enlargers, which adjust the lens directly. Passive AF systems determine correct focus by performing passive analysis of the image, entering the optical system, they do not direct any energy, such as ultrasonic sound or infrared light waves, toward the subject. Passive autofocusing can be achieved by contrast measurement. Phase detection is achieved by comparing them. Through-the-lens secondary image registration (TTL
The camera angle marks the specific location at which the movie camera or video camera is placed to take a shot. A scene may be shot from several camera angles simultaneously; this will give a different experience and sometimes emotion. The different camera angles will have different effects on the viewer and how they perceive the scene, shot. There are a few different routes; the typical shot measurements unit is the milliframe. Milliframes are used to calculate. One milliframe equals about.328cm. However, the exact size of a milliframe is impossible to calculate since it is not a physical measurement. Where the camera is placed in relation to the subject can affect the way the viewer perceives the subject. There are a number of camera angles, such as a high-angle shot, a low-angle shot, a bird's-eye view and a worm's-eye view. A Viewpoint is the apparent angle from which the camera views and records the subject, they include the eye-level camera angle and the point of view shot. A high-angle shot is a shot in which the camera is physically higher than the subject and is looking down upon the subject.
The high angle shot can make the subject look small or weak or vulnerable while a low-angle shot is taken from below the subject and has the power to make the subject look powerful or threatening. A neutral shot or eye-level shot has little to no psychological effect on the viewer; this shot is. A point of view shot shows the viewer the image through the subject's eye; some POV shots use hand-held cameras to create the illusion that the viewer is seeing through the subject's eyes. Bird's eye shot or bird's-eye view shots are taken directly above the scene to establish the landscape and the actors relationship to it. Worm's-eye view is a shot, looking up from the ground, is meant to give the viewer the feeling that they are looking up at the character from way below and it is meant to show the view that a child or a pet would have; when considering the camera angle one must remember that each shot is its own individual shot and the camera angle should be taken in context of the scene and film.
There are many different types of shots. There are extreme long shots which are far away from the subject and might not show a person at all. Extreme long shots are done in a high angle so the viewer can look down upon a setting or scene. Extreme longs shots are used to open the scene or narrative and show the viewer the setting; the rest of the shots are most done in an eye level or point of view shot although it is possible to do any shot with any angle. There is the long shot which shows the subject though the setting still dominates the picture frame. There is the medium long shot which makes the subject and the setting have equal importance and has the two about 50/50 in the frame. Is the medium shot which emphasizes the character and is about a knees to waist up type shot; the medium close up is a shot that has the waist to the chest and up. The next closest shot is the close up which has the shoulders and up or maybe a little tighter on the head. There is the extreme close up shot which has one body part usually.
This can be a hand or anything else. These shots can be used with any of the aforementioned camera angles. A dutch angle called a canted angle or simply the tilted angle, is an angle in which the camera itself is tilted to the left or the right; the unnatural angle gives the viewer a feeling that world is out of psychological unrest. During production and post-production, it is necessary to give a unique alphanumeric identity to each camera angle, labeled as "scenes." For example: "Scene 24C." Camera angle letters are pronounced on the set using either the NATO phonetic alphabet or the older police-style radio alphabet. For example: "Scene 24C" would be pronounced as "Scene 24, Charlie." Some letters are avoided because they look like letters or numbers when written
In optics, chromatic aberration is a failure of a lens to focus all colors to the same point. It is caused by dispersion: the refractive index of the lens elements varies with the wavelength of light; the refractive index of most transparent materials decreases with increasing wavelength. Since the focal length of a lens depends on the refractive index, this variation in refractive index affects focusing. Chromatic aberration manifests itself as "fringes" of color along boundaries that separate dark and bright parts of the image. There are two types of chromatic aberration: axial, transverse. Axial aberration occurs when different wavelengths of light are focused at different distances from the lens. Longitudinal aberration is typical at long focal lengths. Transverse aberration occurs when different wavelengths are focused at different positions in the focal plane, because the magnification and/or distortion of the lens varies with wavelength. Lateral aberration is typical at short focal lengths.
The ambiguous acronym LCA is sometimes used for either lateral chromatic aberration. The two types of chromatic aberration have different characteristics, may occur together. Axial CA occurs throughout the image and is specified by optical engineers and vision scientists in diopters, it can be reduced by stopping down, which increases depth of field so that though the different wavelengths focus at different distances, they are still in acceptable focus. Transverse CA does not occur in increases towards the edge, it is not affected by stopping down. In digital sensors, axial CA results in the red and blue planes being defocused, difficult to remedy in post-processing, while transverse CA results in the red and blue planes being at different magnifications, can be corrected by radially scaling the planes appropriately so they line up. In the earliest uses of lenses, chromatic aberration was reduced by increasing the focal length of the lens where possible. For example, this could result in long telescopes such as the long aerial telescopes of the 17th century.
Isaac Newton's theories about white light being composed of a spectrum of colors led him to the conclusion that uneven refraction of light caused chromatic aberration. There exists a point called the circle of least confusion, where chromatic aberration can be minimized, it can be further minimized by using an achromatic lens or achromat, in which materials with differing dispersion are assembled together to form a compound lens. The most common type is an achromatic doublet, with elements made of flint glass; this reduces the amount of chromatic aberration over a certain range of wavelengths, though it does not produce perfect correction. By combining more than two lenses of different composition, the degree of correction can be further increased, as seen in an apochromatic lens or apochromat. Note that "achromat" and "apochromat" refer to the type of correction, not the degree, an achromat made with sufficiently low dispersion glass can yield better correction than an achromat made with more conventional glass.
The benefit of apochromats is not that they focus three wavelengths but that their error on other wavelengths is quite small. Many types of glass have been developed to reduce chromatic aberration; these are low. These hybridized glasses have a low level of optical dispersion; the use of achromats was an important step in the development of the optical microscope and in telescopes. An alternative to achromatic doublets is the use of diffractive optical elements. Diffractive optical elements are able to generate arbitrary complex wave fronts from a sample of optical material, flat. Diffractive optical elements have negative dispersion characteristics, complementary to the positive Abbe numbers of optical glasses and plastics. In the visible part of the spectrum diffractives have a negative Abbe number of −3.5. Diffractive optical elements can be fabricated using diamond turning techniques. For a doublet consisting of two thin lenses in contact, the Abbe number of the lens materials is used to calculate the correct focal length of the lenses to ensure correction of chromatic aberration.
If the focal lengths of the two lenses for light at the yellow Fraunhofer D-line are f1 and f2 best correction occurs for the condition: f 1 ⋅ V 1 + f 2 ⋅ V 2 = 0 where V1 and V2 are the Abbe numbers of the materials of the first and second lenses, respectively. Since Abbe numbers are positive, one of the focal lengths must be negative, i.e. a diverging lens, for the condition to be met. The overall focal length of the doublet f is given by the standard formula for thin lenses in contact: 1 f = 1 f 1 + 1 f 2 and the above condition ensures this will be the focal length of the doublet for light at the blue and red F
Anamorphic format is the cinematography technique of shooting a widescreen picture on standard 35 mm film or other visual recording media with a non-widescreen native aspect ratio. It refers to the projection format in which a distorted image is "stretched" by an anamorphic projection lens to recreate the original aspect ratio on the viewing screen; the word anamorphic and its derivatives stem from the Greek words meaning "formed again". As a camera format, anamorphic format is losing popularity in comparison to "flat" formats such as Super 35 mm film shot using spherical lenses. In the years since digital cinema cameras and projectors have become commonplace, anamorphic has experienced a considerable resurgence of popularity, due in large part to the higher base ISO sensitivity of digital sensors, which facilitates shooting at smaller apertures; the process of anamorphosing optics was developed by Henri Chrétien during World War I to provide a wide angle viewer for military tanks. The optical process was called Hypergonar by Chrétien and was capable of showing a field of view of 180 degrees.
After the war, the technology was first used in a cinematic context in the short film Construire un Feu in 1927 by Claude Autant-Lara. In the 1920s, phonograph and motion picture pioneer Leon F. Douglass created special effects and anamorphic widescreen motion picture cameras. However, how this relates to the earlier French invention, development, is unclear. Anamorphic widescreen was not used again for cinematography until 1952 when Twentieth Century-Fox bought the rights to the technique to create its CinemaScope widescreen technique. CinemaScope was one of many widescreen formats developed in the 1950s to compete with the popularity of television and bring audiences back to the cinemas; the Robe, which premiered in 1953, was the first feature film released, filmed with an anamorphic lens. The introduction of anamorphic widescreen arose from a desire for wider aspect ratios that maximised overall image detail while retaining the use of standard cameras and projectors; the modern anamorphic format has an aspect ratio of 2.40:1, meaning the picture's width is 2.4 times its height.
The older Academy format 35 mm film has an aspect ratio of 1.37:1, when projected, is not as wide. Anamorphic widescreen was a response to a shortcoming in the non-anamorphic spherical widescreen format. With a non-anamorphic lens, the picture is recorded onto the film negative such that its full width fits within the film's frame, but so does its full height. A substantial part of the frame area is thereby wasted, being occupied by a portion of the image, subsequently matted-out and so not projected, in order to create the widescreen image. To increase overall image detail, by using all the available area of the negative for only that portion of the image which will be projected, an anamorphic lens is used during photography to stretch the image vertically, thereby filling the full frame's area with the portion of the image that corresponds to the area projected in the non-anamorphic format. Up to the early 1960s, three major methods of anamorphosing the image were used: counter-rotated prisms, curved mirrors in combination with the principle of Total Internal Reflection, cylindrical lenses.
Regardless of method, the anamorphic lens projects a vertically stretched image on the film negative. This deliberate geometric distortion is reversed on projection, resulting in a wider aspect ratio on-screen than that of the negative's frame. An anamorphic lens consists of a regular spherical lens, plus an anamorphic attachment that does the anamorphosing; the anamorphic element operates at infinite focal length, so that it has little or no effect on the focus of the primary lens it's mounted on but still anamorphoses the optical field. A cameraman using an anamorphic attachment uses a spherical lens of a different focal length than he would use for Academy format, the anamorphic attachment squeezes the image to half-width. Other anamorphic attachments existed which would expand the image in the vertical dimension, so that a frame twice as high as it might have been filled the available film area. In either case, since a larger film area recorded the same picture the image quality was improved.
The distortion introduced in the camera must be corrected when the film is projected, so another lens is used in the projection booth that restores the picture back to its correct proportions to restore normal geometry. The picture is not manipulated in any way in the