Anti-whaling refers to actions taken by those who seek to end whaling in various forms, whether locally or globally in the pursuit of marine conservation. Some anti-whaling factions have received criticism and legal action for extreme methods including violent direct action, the term anti-whaling may be used to describe beliefs and activities related to these actions. Anti-whaling activism has a short history compared to forms of activism. Early members of environmental organizations began protesting whale hunts around the world in the 20th century and these actions were in direct response to the global depletion of whale populations due to over-exploitation by the whaling industry and the failure of international whaling regulations. Sea Shepherd has repeatedly attempted to highlight and stop the pilot whale hunt. It launched its latest action in the area, involving two vessels and dozens of activists, two months ago, the whale meat and blubber are consumed by locals and considered delicacies.
The League of Nations raised concerns about the over-exploitation of whale stocks and this eventually led to the Geneva Convention for the Regulation of Whaling which was presented in 1931 but did not enter into force until 1934 and was completely ignored by Japan and Germany. In 1937 the International Conference on Whaling added limits on pelagic whaling in order to prevent excessive exploitation, critics charge that the IWC and ICRW have largely failed due to a lack of enforceable rules and regulatory loopholes. In 1966 the Convention on Fishing and Conservation of Living Resources of the High Seas took the first steps in marine conservation worldwide and this international treaty was designed to specifically counter the over-exploitation of sealife including whales. In 1972, the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment produced a 52-0 vote in favor of a 10-year global moratorium on commercial whaling, the UN resolution was not adopted by the IWC. Japan, Iceland, South Africa and Panama voted no, in 1973, a moratorium was once again proposed and voted down in the IWC lacking the required 3/4 majority.
Japan, Iceland and South Africa voted no, between 1973 and 1982 the IWC would see its membership increase from 14 member nations to 37. In 1972 the United States passed the Marine Mammal Protection Act as the first article of legislation to call specifically for an approach to natural resource management. That same year the United States enacted the Marine Protection, the United States would play a significant role in the acceptance of a global moratorium on commercial whaling due to its domestic laws. It was strengthened by the 1979 Packwood-Magnuson Amendment to the Fishery Conservation, popular culture grew to widely accept whales and dolphins as interesting and intelligent over the latter half of the 20th century. From the original tourist attractions at Marineland to giant SeaWorld theme parks, captive dolphins, the 1960s television series, starred a Lassie-like dolphin character who befriends a young boy and performs feats of intelligence often saving the day. The 1967 novel, The Day of the Dolphin which inspired the 1973 film, in 1970 the biologist and environmentalist Roger Payne recorded and produced the popular Songs of the Humpback Whale album, after his 1967 discovery of Whale song among Humpback whales.
With the growing popularity of entertaining cetaceans came information and even warnings about the threats to these adored animals, joan McIntyre both celebrated the whale and condemned the whaler in the 1974 publication, Mind in the Waters
An ecoregion is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone. All three of these are less or greater than an ecosystem. Ecoregions cover relatively large areas of land or water, and contain characteristic, the biodiversity of flora and ecosystems that characterise an ecoregion tends to be distinct from that of other ecoregions. Three caveats are appropriate for all bio-geographic mapping approaches, firstly, no single bio-geographic framework is optimal for all taxa. Ecoregions reflect the best compromise for as many taxa as possible, ecoregion boundaries rarely form abrupt edges, rather and mosaic habitats bound them. Thirdly, most ecoregions contain habitats that differ from their assigned biome, biogeographic provinces may originate due to various barriers. Some physical, some climatic and some ocean chemical related, the history of the term is somewhat vague as it was used in many contexts, forest classifications, biome classifications, biogeographic classifications, etc.
The concept of ecoregion of Bailey gives more importance to ecological criteria, while the WWF concept gives more importance to biogeography, there is significant, but not absolute, spatial correlation among these characteristics, making the delineation of ecoregions an imperfect science. Such transition zones are called ecotones, Ecoregions can be categorized using an algorithmic approach or a holistic, “weight-of-evidence” approach where the importance of various factors may vary. An example of the approach is Robert Bailey’s work for the U. S. The intended purpose of ecoregion delineation may affect the method used, according to WWF, the boundaries of an ecoregion approximate the original extent of the natural communities prior to any major recent disruptions or changes. WWF has identified 867 terrestrial ecoregions, and approximately 450 freshwater ecoregions across the Earth, the use of the term ecoregion is an outgrowth of a surge of interest in ecosystems and their functioning. In particular, there is awareness of issues relating to spatial scale in the study and it is widely recognized that interlinked ecosystems combine to form a whole that is greater than the sum of its parts.
The Global 200 is the list of ecoregions identified by WWF as priorities for conservation, Terrestrial ecoregions are land ecoregions, as distinct from freshwater and marine ecoregions. In this context, terrestrial is used to mean of land, WWF ecologists currently divide the land surface of the Earth into 8 major ecozones containing 867 smaller terrestrial ecoregions. The WWF effort is a synthesis of previous efforts to define. Many consider this classification to be decisive, and some propose these as stable borders for bioregional democracy initiatives. The eight terrestrial ecozones follow the major floral and faunal boundaries, identified by botanists and zoologists, ecozone boundaries generally follow continental boundaries, or major barriers to plant and animal distribution, like the Himalayas and the Sahara
CITES is a multilateral treaty to protect endangered plants and animals. It was drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963 at a meeting of members of the International Union for Conservation of Nature, the convention was opened for signature in 1973 and CITES entered into force on 1 July 1975. In order to ensure that the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade was not violated, as of 2015, Secretary-General of the CITES Secretariat is John E. Scanlon. CITES is one of the largest and oldest conservation and sustainable use agreements in existence, participation is voluntary, and countries that have agreed to be bound by the Convention are known as Parties. Although CITES is legally binding on the Parties, it does not take the place of national laws, rather it provides a framework respected by each Party, which must adopt their own domestic legislation to implement CITES at the national level. Often, domestic legislation is either non-existent, or with penalties with the gravity of the crime, funding for the activities of the Secretariat and Conference of the Parties meetings comes from a Trust Fund derived from Party contributions.
Trust Fund money is not available to Parties to improve implementation or compliance and these activities, and all those outside Secretariat activities must find external funding, mostly from donor countries and regional organizations such as the European Union. The Secretariat, when informed of an infraction by a Party, the Secretariat will give the Party time to respond to the allegations and may provide technical assistance to prevent further infractions. Other actions the Convention itself does not provide for but that derive from subsequent COP resolutions may be taken against the offending Party, infractions may include negligence with respect to permit issuing, excessive trade, lax enforcement, and failing to produce annual reports. As of 2013 the demand was massive and had expanded to thousands of species previously considered unremarkable. The text of the Convention was finalized at a meeting of representatives of 80 countries in Washington, united States, on 3 March 1973. It was open for signature until 31 December 1974 and it entered into force after the 10th ratification by a signatory country, on 1 July 1975.
Countries that signed the Convention become Parties by ratifying, accepting or approving it, by the end of 2003, all signatory countries had become Parties. States that were not signatories may become Parties by acceding to the Convention, as of October 2016, the Convention has 183 parties, including 182 states and the European Union. The CITES Convention includes provisions and rules for trade with non-Parties, UN observer the Holy See is not a member. The Faroe Islands, a country in the Kingdom of Denmark, is treated as a non-Party to CITES. The REIO can vote at CITES meetings with the number of votes representing the number of members in the REIO, at that time it entered into force only for those States that had accepted the amendment. The amended text of the Convention will apply automatically to any State that becomes a Party after 29 November 2013, for States that became party to the Convention before that date and have not accepted the amendment, it will enter into force 60 days after they accept it
Humankind benefits in a multitude of ways from all kinds of ecosystems, forest ecosystems, grassland ecosystems, aquatic ecosystems, natural ecosystems, urban ecosystems, etc. Collectively, these benefits are becoming known as ecosystem services, Ecosystem services are regularly involved in the provisioning of clean drinking water and the decomposition of wastes. While scientists and environmentalists have discussed ecosystem services implicitly for decades, to help inform decision-makers, many ecosystem services are being assigned economic values. Recognition of how ecosystems could provide services to humankind date back to at least Plato who understood that deforestation could lead to soil erosion. Modern ideas of ecosystem services probably began when Marsh challenged in 1864 the idea that Earth’s natural resources are unbounded by pointing out changes in fertility in the Mediterranean. It was not until the late 1940s that three key authors – Henry Fairfield Osborn, Jr, William Vogt, and Aldo Leopold – promoted recognition of human dependence on the environment.
In 1956, Paul Sears drew attention to the role of the ecosystem in processing wastes. In 1970, Paul Ehrlich and Rosa Weigert called attention to ecological systems in their environmental science textbook, the potential destruction, by man’s own activities, of those ecological systems upon which the very existence of the human species depends. In following years, variations of the term were used, the ecosystem services concept has continued to expand and includes socio-economic and conservation objectives, which are discussed below. A history of the concepts and terminology of ecosystem services as of 1997, can be found in Dailys book Nature’s Services, per the 2006 Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, ecosystem services are the benefits people obtain from ecosystems. The MA delineated the four categories of ecosystem services—supporting, regulating, by 2010, there had evolved various working definitions and descriptions of ecosystem services in the literature. Ecosystem services that are necessary for the production of all other ecosystem services and these include services such as nutrient recycling, primary production and soil formation.
These services make it possible for the ecosystems to provide such as food supply, flood regulation. Who vote for models that explicitly link ecological structures and functions with cultural values and those cultural values do result not from properties produced by ecosystems but are the product of a specific way of seeing within the given cultural framework of symbolic experience. S. Environmental Protection Agency, authorities opted to restore the polluted Catskill Watershed that had provided the city with the ecosystem service of water purification. Pollination of crops by bees is required for 15-30% of U. S. food production, intensified agricultural practices can quickly erode pollination services through the loss of species. The remaining species are unable to compensate this, the presence of such ecosystem elements functions almost like an insurance policy for farmers. In watersheds of the Yangtze River, spatial models for water flow through different forest habitats were created to determine potential contributions for hydroelectric power in the region, in the 1980s, mineral water company Vittel faced a critical problem
Deforestation, clearance or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use. Examples of deforestation include conversion of forestland to farms, the most concentrated deforestation occurs in tropical rainforests. About 30% of Earths land surface is covered by forests, Deforestation occurs for multiple reasons, trees are cut down to be used for building or sold as fuel, while cleared land is used as pasture for livestock and plantation. The removal of trees without sufficient reforestation has resulted in damage to habitat, biodiversity loss and it has adverse impacts on biosequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Deforestation has used in war to deprive the enemy of cover for its forces. Modern examples of this were the use of Agent Orange by the British military in Malaya during the Malayan Emergency, as of 2005, net deforestation rates have ceased to increase in countries with a per capita GDP of at least US$4,600. Deforested regions typically incur significant adverse soil erosion and frequently degrade into wasteland, disregard of ascribed value, lax forest management and deficient environmental laws are some of the factors that allow deforestation to occur on a large scale.
In many countries, both naturally occurring and human-induced, is an ongoing issue, Deforestation causes extinction, changes to climatic conditions and displacement of populations as observed by current conditions and in the past through the fossil record. More than half of all plant and land animal species in the live in tropical forests. Between 2000 and 2012,2.3 million square kilometres of forests around the world were cut down, as a result of deforestation, only 6.2 million square kilometres remain of the original 16 million square kilometres of forest that formerly covered the Earth. According to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change secretariat, subsistence farming is responsible for 48% of deforestation, commercial agriculture is responsible for 32%, logging is responsible for 14%, and fuel wood removals make up 5%. Experts do not agree on whether industrial logging is an important contributor to global deforestation, some argue that poor people are more likely to clear forest because they have no alternatives, others that the poor lack the ability to pay for the materials and labour needed to clear forest.
One study found that population increases due to fertility rates were a primary driver of tropical deforestation in only 8% of cases. Other causes of contemporary deforestation may include corruption of government institutions, the distribution of wealth and power, population growth and overpopulation. Globalization is often viewed as another cause of deforestation, though there are cases in which the impacts of globalization have promoted localized forest recovery. The degradation of forest ecosystems has traced to economic incentives that make forest conversion appear more profitable than forest conservation. Some commentators have noted a shift in the drivers of deforestation over the past 30 years, Deforestation is ongoing and is shaping climate and geography. Deforestation is a contributor to global warming, and is cited as one of the major causes of the enhanced greenhouse effect
The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally. The term is most often applied to the Earth or some part of Earth and this environment encompasses the interaction of all living species, climate and natural resources that affect human survival and economic activity. Even acts which seem less extreme, such as building a mud hut or a system in the desert. Though many animals build things to provide an environment for themselves, they are not human, hence beaver dams. People seldom find absolutely natural environments on Earth, and naturalness usually varies in a continuum, more precisely, we can consider the different aspects or components of an environment, and see that their degree of naturalness is not uniform. If, for instance, in a field, the mineralogic composition and the structure of its soil are similar to those of an undisturbed forest soil. Natural environment is used as a synonym for habitat. For instance, when we say that the environment of giraffes is the savanna.
Earth science generally recognizes 4 spheres, the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, the atmosphere, and the biosphere as correspondent to rocks, water and life respectively. Some scientists include, as part of the spheres of the Earth, Earth science, is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. There are four major disciplines in sciences, namely geography, geophysics. These major disciplines use physics, biology, the Earths crust, or lithosphere, is the outermost solid surface of the planet and is chemically and mechanically different from underlying mantle. It has been generated greatly by igneous processes in which magma cools, beneath the lithosphere lies the mantle which is heated by the decay of radioactive elements. The mantle though solid is in a state of rheic convection and this convection process causes the lithospheric plates to move, albeit slowly. The resulting process is known as plate tectonics, volcanoes result primarily from the melting of subducted crust material or of rising mantle at mid-ocean ridges and mantle plumes.
An ocean is a body of saline water, and a component of the hydrosphere. Approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered by ocean, a body of water that is customarily divided into several principal oceans. More than half of area is over 3,000 meters deep
The early conservation movement included fisheries and wildlife management, soil conservation and sustainable forestry. Some say the movement is part of the broader and more far-reaching environmental movement. Chiefly in the United States, conservation is seen as differing from environmentalism in that it aims to preserve natural resources expressly for their sustainable use by humans. The conservation movement can be traced back to John Evelyns work Sylva, published as a book two years later, it was one of the most highly influential texts on forestry ever published. The field developed during the 18th century, especially in Prussia and these methods were first applied rigorously in British India from the early-19th century. This early ecological idea was in order to preserve the growth of teak trees. The first forestry officer was appointed in 1806 to regulate and preserve the trees necessary for shipbuilding and this promising start received a setback in the 1820s and 30s, when laissez-faire economics and complaints from private landowners brought these early conservation attempts to an end.
Conservation was revived in the century, with the first practical application of scientific conservation principles to the forests of India. Edward Percy Stebbing warned of desertification of India and this was the first case of state management of forests in the world. These local attempts gradually received more attention by the British government as the unregulated felling of trees continued unabated, in 1850, the British Association in Edinburgh formed a committee to study forest destruction at the behest of Dr. Hugh Cleghorn a pioneer in the nascent conservation movement. He had become interested in forest conservation in Mysore in 1847, in the same year, Cleghorn organised the Madras Forest Department and in 1860 the Department banned the use shifting cultivation. Cleghorns 1861 manual, The forests and gardens of South India, in 1861, the Forest Department extended its remit into the Punjab. Sir Dietrich Brandis, a German forester, joined the British service in 1856 as superintendent of the forests of Pegu division in eastern Burma.
During that time Burmas teak forests were controlled by militant Karen tribals and he introduced the taungya system, in which Karen villagers provided labour for clearing and weeding teak plantations. After seven years in Burma, Brandis was appointed Inspector General of Forests in India and he formulated new forest legislation and helped establish research and training institutions. The Imperial Forest School at Dehradun was founded by him, germans were prominent in the forestry administration of British India. As well as Brandis, Berthold Ribbentrop and Sir William P. D, schlich brought new methods to Indian conservation, the latter becoming the Inspector-General in 1883 after Brandis stepped down. Schlich helped to establish the journal Indian Forester in 1874, and he authored the five-volume Manual of Forestry on silviculture, forest management, forest protection, and forest utilisation, which became the standard and enduring textbook for forestry students
Bioterrorism is terrorism involving the intentional release or dissemination of biological agents. These agents are bacteria, viruses, or toxins, and may be in a naturally occurring or a human-modified form, for the use of this method in warfare, see biological warfare. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention bioterrorism is the release of viruses, toxins or other harmful agents to cause illness or death in people, animals. Biological agents can be spread through the air, water, or in food, terrorists tend to use biological agents because they are extremely difficult to detect and do not cause illness for several hours to several days. Some bioterrorism agents, like the smallpox virus, can be spread person to person and some, like anthrax. A biological weapon is useful to terrorists mainly as a method of creating mass panic, technologists such as Bill Joy have warned of the potential power which genetic engineering might place in the hands of future bio-terrorists. The use of agents that do not cause harm to humans, by the time World War I began, attempts to use anthrax were directed at animal populations.
This generally proved to be ineffective, shortly after the start of World War I, Germany launched a biological sabotage campaign in the United States, Russia and France. At that time, Anton Dilger lived in Germany, but in 1915 he was sent to the United States carrying cultures of glanders, Dilger set up a laboratory in his home in Chevy Chase, Maryland. He used stevedores working the docks in Baltimore to infect horses with glanders while they were waiting to be shipped to Britain, Dilger was under suspicion as being a German agent, but was never arrested. Dilger eventually fled to Madrid, where he died during the Influenza Pandemic of 1918, in 1916, the Russians arrested a German agent with similar intentions. Germany and its allies infected French cavalry horses and many of Russia’s mules and horses on the Eastern Front and these actions hindered artillery and troop movements, as well as supply convoys. In 1972 police in Chicago arrested two students, Allen Schwander and Stephen Pera, who had planned to poison the citys water supply with typhoid.
Schwander had founded a terrorist group, R. I. S. E, while Pera collected and grew cultures from the hospital where he worked. The two men fled to Cuba after being released on bail, Schwander died of natural causes in 1974, while Pera returned to the U. S. in 1975 and was put on probation. In 1980 the World Health Organization announced the eradication of smallpox, although the disease has been eliminated in the wild, frozen stocks of smallpox virus are still maintained by the governments of the United States and Russia. Disastrous consequences are feared if rogue politicians or terrorists were to get hold of the smallpox strains, since vaccination programs are now terminated, the world population is more susceptible to smallpox than ever before. In Oregon in 1984, followers of the Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh attempted to control a local election by incapacitating the local population
Biosecurity has multiple meanings and is defined differently according to various disciplines. The term was first used by the agricultural and environmental communities, starting from the late 1990s in response to the threat of biological terrorism, biosecurity encompasses the prevention of the intentional removal of biological materials from research laboratories. Biosecurity requires the cooperation of scientists, policy makers, security engineers, health security or biosecurity issues have not been considered as an international security issue especially in the traditional view of international relations. However, some changes in trend have contributed to inclusion of biosecurity in discussions of security, as time progressed, there was a movement towards securitization. Non-traditional security issues such as change, organized crime, terrorism. There was a realization that the actors in the international system not only involved nation-states but included international organizations, institutions.
Therefore, ensuring the security of various actors within each nation became an important agenda, Biosecurity is one of the issues to be securitized under this trend. In fact, on January 10,2000, the UN Security Council convened to discuss HIV/AIDS as a security issue in Africa, the UNDP Millennium Development Goals recognize health issues as international security issue. Several instances of epidemics that followed such as SARS increased awareness of health security, recently several factors have rendered biosecurity issues more severe. Some uncertainties about the implementation for biosecurity remain for future. The policy choices they make to address an immediate threat could pose another threat in the future, animal biosecurity differs from biosecurity which are measures taken to reduce the risk of infectious agent theft and dispersal by means of bioterrorism. Animal biosecurity is an approach, encompassing different means of prevention. A critical element in animal biosecurity, biocontainment, is the control of disease agents already present in a particular area, and works to prevent novel transmissions.
Animal biosecurity may protect organisms from infectious agents or noninfectious agents such as toxins or pollutants, animal biosecurity takes into account the epidemiological triad for disease occurrence, the individual host, the disease, and the environment in contributing to disease susceptibility. It aims to improve nonspecific immunity of the host to resist the introduction of an agent, biocontainment, an element of animal biosecurity, works to improve specific immunity towards already present pathogens. Biosecurity means the prevention of the use of pathogenic bioorganisms by laboratory staff or others. Biosafety means the protection of laboratory staff from being infected by pathogenic bioorganisms, Medical countermeasures are products such as biologics and pharmaceutical drugs that can protect from or treat the effects of a chemical, radiological, or nuclear attack. MCMs can be used for prevention and diagnosis of symptoms associated with CBRN attacks or threats, the FDA runs a program called the FDA Medical Countermeasures Initiative
The ultimate goal is to recreate an ecological microcosm of the country as a whole as it was before human arrival. There is usually provision for controlled access, and scientific study. The concept of mainland islands was pioneered in New Zealand and arose mainly from the circumstances of that countrys history. For millions of years New Zealand was part of the supercontinent Gondwanaland, which included Australia and South America, about 70 million years ago New Zealand became separated, earlier than Australia, South America and Antarctica. About five million years dinosaurs became extinct leaving the way open to mammals to dominate - except in New Zealand where there were no land mammals. In the absence of mammals, birds became dominant, evolutionary processes resulted in a unique assemblage of plants and animals, and New Zealand became a land dominated by birds. Without competition from browsing mammals, birds evolved to occupy niches that mammals occupied elsewhere, threatened by few predators, many birds had no need to fly and many species became flightless.
Birds, plants and bats, all evolved in the absence of mammals, with human colonisation came many accidental or deliberate introductions of mammals and birds. These wrought havoc with native species and many became extinct, many others were reduced in range and number, more recent information adds hedgehogs and mice to the list. These species have been introduced for a variety of reasons and some inadvertently, the effect remains the same, they have all contributed to the decline of native animals. Possums and deer did the same for the forest, New Zealand includes many offshore islands, some of which contained species rare or extinct on the mainland because introduced pests could not reach them. These islands are used to expand the range of rare species so that an ecological disaster on one island would not result in the total extinction of a species