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Chungtia

Chungtia is an Ao Naga village in Nagaland, India. It is located 16 km north-west of Mokokchung; the Mokokchung-Mariani Highway passes through its eastern corner. It is located at an altitude of 1,335 feet above sea level; the suburb of Sabangya and the Aliba village form a continuous settlement area along with Chungtia. According to Edwin W. Clark's accounts, when he first set foot in Mulong village in 1872, under the protectorate of Chungtia, had to seek permission from the latter for his stay, promptly allowed by Chungtia. Subsequently, he went on to spread Christianity all over Nagaland; the cultural festivities of the Ao Naga, Moatsü and Tsüngremong, are celebrated by the villagers. In the local memory, it enjoys honor as one of the few Ao villages. Today, the stories of those brave warriors circulate through folk songs and stories. While you are there, you can enjoy glimpse of its past while visiting the log drum situated on a hill top. Chungtia village has population of 4661 of which 2408 are males while 2253 are females as per the 2011 Census of India.

The village has a population of children with age 0-6 is 641 which makes up 13.75% of total population of village. Average sex ratio of Chungtia village is 942, higher than the state average of 931. Child sex ratio for the Chungtia as per census is 978, higher than Nagaland average of 943. Chungtia village has a high literacy rate. In 2011, literacy rate of Chungtia village was 86.12% compared to the average 79.55% of the state. Male literacy stands at 88.39% while female literacy rate is 83.68%. Government Primary School Government Middle School Christ King School Jubilee Memorial School Chungtia villagers of Nagaland, have a strong reliance on plants as medicines. Previous studies have shown that 31 Chungtia medicinal plants used customarily for skin related treatments possess antimicrobial properties against skin pathogens supporting the use of these plants by the Chungtia villagers. Five plants, namely Albizia lucidior, Begonia picta, Cassia floribunda, Holboellia latifolia, Maesa indica have no previous studies on their antimicrobial properties, while Prunus persica has only antimicrobial activity reported on its fruit, with no reports on its roots, which are used by the Chungtia villagers.

These six plants for their antimicrobial properties against dermatologically relevant pathogens and undertake phytochemical analysis of the most active species, Prunus persica. The presence of pathogenic bacteria and fungi can cause skin infections and exacerbate the healing of and seriousness of sores and wounds. Skin disease and infections cause a significant global disease burden, with the escalating occurrence of multidrug resistant microorganisms, there is heightened concern that the rates of skin infections will only worsen. Much research effort is therefore being focused on identifying new antimicrobial compounds, including those isolated from nature. Since the introduction of conventional antibiotics in the 1950s, there has been little use of plant derivatives as antimicrobials. However, interest in using phytochemicals for the treatment of microbial infections has increased from the late 1990s following the poor efficacy of conventional antibiotics, due in part to their excessive and inappropriate use in mammalian infections.

The Chungtia villagers have developed a wealth of knowledge on medicinal flora over many generations. An ethnobotanical study documented 37 medicinal plants used by Chungtia villagers for the treatment of skin related ailments consistent with a microbial aetiology. Reported the customary uses by Chungtia villagers of 38 plants for the topical treatment of skin related ailments of a microbial aetiology. Following an extensive literature review on the antimicrobial activities and antimicrobially active extracts/chemical constituents of these plants, it was found that extracts from 21 of the plants, including relevant plant parts used by the Chungtia villagers, have been analysed for their antimicrobial properties, 12 were reported for possessing antimicrobial activity in a different plant part and compounds with antimicrobial activities have been isolated from fourteen of them; these findings support the customary uses of these plants by the Chungtia villagers. Five Chungtia plants, namely Albizia lucidior, Begonia picta, Cassia floribunda, Holboellia latifolia, Maesa indica have no prior studies on their antimicrobial properties, while only fruit of Prunus persica have been studied for antimicrobial activity, with no reports on the roots used by the Chungtia villagers.

These six plants were therefore selected for antimicrobial studies. While all the tested plant extracts showed activity against at least two microorganisms in the MTT microdilution assay, only the P. persica extract was active when tested using the disc diffusion method. The discrepancy in results between these two methods is not uncommon. While the disc diffusion assay is a used method for the antimicrobial screening of medicinal plants, the activity measured as the zone of inhibition is influenced by numerous factors including the size and polarity of the compounds present. Moreover, filter paper discs, which are used and were utilised in this study, can influence results. Paper discs are composed of cellulose, which possesses many free hydroxyl groups which render the surface of the discs hydrophilic. Therefore, polar compounds can adsorb to the surface of the discs and not diffuse into the medium; as a consequence, some polar compounds that possess antimicrobial activity may not show

Programme level

Programme level refers to the signal level that an audio source is transmitted or recorded at, is important in audio if listeners of Compact Discs and television are to get the best experience, without excessive noise in quiet periods or distortion of loud sounds. Programme level is measured using a peak programme meter or a VU meter; the level of an audio signal is among the most basic of measurements, yet widespread misunderstanding and disagreement about programme levels has become arguably the greatest single obstacle to high quality sound reproduction. Live sound covers an enormous range of levels, but this is not something that can be demonstrated with a conventional sound level meter. Sound level meters respond quite even on a "fast" setting: they use a root mean square rectifier which by definition must take a slow running average of the square of the input voltage. Music is complex, varying, with brief peaks originating from many sources including the initial impact of sticks on cymbals and drums.

A loud band might measure 100 dB SPL on a sound level meter, yet have peaks reaching 130 dB SPL or higher. A recording system must handle these peaks; the sound level meter is useless for properly assessing noise levels, since the used A-weighting is based on equal-loudness contours for pure tones, is not valid for the random noise. The subjective loudness of noise is best measured using a noise-meter to the ITU-R 468 noise weighting standard; the chart below shows, on this basis, the real range of live music, the level capabilities of various stages in the audio chain, from microphone to loudspeaker. This chart is based on the assumption that what goes in should come out—true high-fidelity—and so an Alignment Level corresponding to 100 dB SPL has been assumed throughout. Any lower level would imply severe clipping at the first stage. Top quality microphones do not present a problem; the master recording process, using current 24-bit techniques, offers around 99 dB of "true" dynamic range. Audio system measurements Noise measurement Weighting filter Equal-loudness contour Fletcher-Munson curves EBU Recommendation R68-2000 AES Preprint 4828 - Levels in Digital Audio Broadcasting by Neil Gilchrist EBU Recommendation R117-2006 AES Convention Paper 5538 On Levelling and Loudness Problems at Broadcast Studios EBU R89-1997 on CD-R levels