Mount Alfred is a mountain located at the Queen Reach arm and head of the Jervis Inlet within the Pacific Ranges of the Coast Mountains in British Columbia, Canada. The mountain is the highest in the portion of the mainland between Jervis and Toba Inlets, with its 1,318 metres prominence defined by the pass at the head of the Skwawka River, which feeds the head of Jervis Inlet; the unofficially-named Alfred Creek Falls, on Alfred Creek which drains off the mountain's glaciers southeast into the Skwawka, is one of Canada's highest waterfalls at 700 metres. The mountain was named during the 1860 survey by HMS Plumper who charted all of the area and was named after Alfred Edward "Affie", the third child and second son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of England, and, Duke of Edinburgh from his birth in 1844 until his death in 1900; the first ascent of Mount Alfred was made in 1929 by Arthur Tinniswood Dalton and Percy Williams Easthope. Mount Alfred Gallery CM_C2308 Fraser River to N. E. Pt. of Texada Island including Howe Sound and Jervis Inlet'Annotated' 1863.02.16 1865.08 Detail Map of Mt. Alfred from the 1860 Survey Map of the Jervis Inlet and Mt. Alfred
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
The Bendor Range is a small but once-famous subrange of the Pacific Ranges of the Coast Mountains, about It is 7,000 square kilometres in area and about 40 km long and about 18 km at its widest. It lies between Anderson Lake on the southeast and the Carpenter Lake Reservoir or the Bridge River Power Project on the north, with the gold-rich valley of Cadwallader Creek on its southwest; the range's western flank is the site of a series of now-semi-abandoned mining towns. One of these, Bralorne, is among the deepest mines in Canada and in its heyday was the third-richest gold mine in the world, its shafts plunge a mile beneath sea level under the range. The name "Bendor" is believed by some locally to be a Gaelic-French hybrid - ben d'or - mountain of gold - and while it does mean that, more or less, the name was conferred in honour of Bend Or, a famous racehorse of the 1890s; the range has only a few small icefields, but a number of high and difficult peaks. The highest is Whitecap Mountain 2918 m, visible from the Lillooet end of Seton Lake but, as it is located near the heart of the range, invisible from the towns and lakes around its perimeter.
At the northwest of the range, but invisible from the towns below because of the terrain of its flanks, is Mount Truax 2870 m. East of it are Mount Williams 2775 m and Mount Bobb 2821 m. Note: some classification systems assign the Bendor to the Chilcotin Ranges subgrouping of the Pacific Ranges, but this is incorrect as it is on the south side of the Bridge River, the limit of the Chilcotin Ranges. "Bendor Range". BC Geographical Names. Bridge River-Lillooet Country Archive Bendor Range entry in the Canadian Mountain Encyclopedia
Indian Arm is a steep-sided glacial fjord adjacent to the city of Vancouver in southwestern British Columbia. Formed during the last Ice Age, it extends due north from Burrard Inlet, between the communities of Belcarra and the District of North Vancouver on into mountainous wilderness. Burrard Inlet and the opening of Indian Arm was mapped by Captain George Vancouver and explored days by Dionisio Alcalá Galiano in June 1792. Indian Arm is a salt-water fjord. There are no crossings, road access is limited to the communities on the southern portion of the arm; the steep mountain slopes are so impassable that most have seen no development, despite the proximity to a major city. Indian River, marked by a small dock at the north end of the arm, can be reached by boat from the Vancouver area or by a logging road from Squamish; the slopes along Indian Arm are either forested or sheer granite cliffs. The inlet is narrow and the mountains rise steeply on both sides directly from the sea. There are several waterfalls, with the largest being Granite Falls at the north end on the east side.
Spray of Pearls Falls at Wigwam Creek is in the north west corner, Silver Falls is on the western side at Elsay Creek. There are numerous unnamed seasonal waterfalls running over the rocky cliff walls that can best be viewed during spring run off. In winter, frozen ice-falls can be viewed. Wildlife viewing can include seals, bald eagles and black bears. A large pink salmon run in odd-numbered years continues to October. Indian Arm Provincial Park includes large parts of both shores of the fjord, as well as Racoon and Twin Islands; this park is 6,826 hectares in total. There are wilderness campgrounds at sea level at Bishop Creek, Granite Falls, Twin Islands; the Park is popular with boaters and kayakers, is visited by charter boat day tours leaving from Granville Island, Port Moody, or Coal Harbour. Divers can visit the shallow water surrounding Twin Islands. A rough wilderness hiking trail around the perimeter of Indian Arm was completed in 2003, it was created over many years by trailbuilder Don McPherson.
The south-eastern part of the Indian Arm park is adjacent to and surrounds the BC Hydro Buntzen Lake Recreation Area. Belcarra Park is managed by Metro Vancouver; the Baden-Powell Trail is well-maintained and well-marked. It originates at Panorama Park in Deep Cove, passing along the slopes of the mountains on the western side of Indian Arm to its western terminus in Horseshoe Bay, West Vancouver. Other parks around the shores of eastern Burrard Inlet and Indian Arm include: Cates Park and Panorama Park in the District of North Vancouver, Barnet Marine Park in Burnaby, Rocky Point Park, Inlet Park and Tidal Park in Port Moody, Thwaytes Landing Metro Park Reserve; the Say Nuth Khaw Yum Heritage Park / Indian Arm Provincial Park was created in 1995 as part of the BC Government's Lower Mainland Nature Legacy Program. The Park is located within the core of the Tsleil-Waututh Nation Traditional Territory. A Management Agreement was signed between the Tsleil-Waututh Nation and the Government of BC in 1998.
The Management Board has equal representation from the Tsleil-Waututh Nation and the BC Government to co-manage all aspects of the Park and Heritage Area. Heading north from Deep Cove one hits Woodlands, an established beachfront community. There are associated cabins and areas as one heads north: Thwaites, Alder Point, Croker Island, Indian River, Bedwell Bay, Anmore, Buntzen Bay, Jug Island, Whiskey Cove. There are two century old powerhouses along the eastern shore of the arm. Water from Coquitlam Lake flows through a 12,775 feet long tunnel to Buntzen Lake 150 metres above the tide line in Indian Arm. Boilerplate penstocks direct water from Buntzen Lake down to the two powerhouses on the shores of Indian Arm. Buntzen No. 1 was built in 1903 by the Vancouver City Light and Power Company to provide electricity for the Vancouver area's streetcars. It used four 1,500 kW generators and by 1912 three additional 5,000 kW units were installed; the north end of the original four unit powerhouse at Buntzen No. 1 was demolished in 1950 and a new building, a 55,000 kW unit 1 generator and a larger turbine were added in 1951.
Buntzen No2 was designed by the English architect Francis Rattenbury, it was built in 1912, 1/4 mile south of Buntzen No. 1 by British Columbia Electric Railway and produced 26,700 kW of power. One of Buntzen No2 three pelton wheels was shut down in 1972 leaving a capacity of 17,800 kW in operation. Buntzen No. 1 was shut down during 2010-2011 to complete a turbine runner replacement project. The stations are unmanned, operated by remote control from BC Hydro's System Control facility atop Burnaby Mountain. In 2015 BC Hydro lists capacity of the two powerhouses at 76.8 MW. There is confusion in maps and photographs about which site is Buntzen No. 1 and, Buntzen No. 2. Buntzen No. 1 is to the north and has four buildings, with the 1951 generator addition on the north end of the powerhouse and the transformer building uphill. The site is not appealing except for the ornate granite addition to the south end of the powerhouse with "Vancouver Power" carved in stone. Buntzen No. 2 is 1,000 feet to the south and is all contained within one beautiful building
North Shore Mountains
The North Shore Mountains are a mountain range overlooking Vancouver in British Columbia, Canada. Their southernmost peaks are visible from most areas in Vancouver and form a distinctive backdrop for the city; the steep southern slopes of the North Shore Mountains limit the extent to which the mainland municipalities of Greater Vancouver's North Shore can grow. In many places on the North Shore, residential neighbourhoods abruptly end and rugged forested slopes begin; these forested slopes are crisscrossed by a large network of trails including the Baden-Powell Trail, the Howe Sound Crest Trail, the Binkert/Lions Trail and a wide variety of mountain biking trails. The North Shore Mountains are a small subrange of the Pacific Ranges, the southernmost grouping of the vast Coast Mountains, they are bounded on the south by Burrard Inlet, on the west and north-west by Howe Sound, on the north and north-east by the Garibaldi Ranges. To the east the bounds are defined by Indian Arm; the ridge running north from Mount Seymour has its own name, the Fannin Range, while the bulk of the range and most of the Howe Sound-flanking portion of it is known as the Britannia Range.
Although not high, these mountains are rugged and should not be underestimated. Severe weather conditions in the North Shore Mountains contrast with mild conditions in nearby Vancouver; this is true in winter, but in summer, large precipices are hidden close to popular hiking trails and it is easy to get lost, despite being in sight of the city. Those who venture into the North Shore Mountains for whatever reason should be well prepared at any time of year. Three deep valleys divide the North Shore Mountains; these are, in order from west to east: Capilano River valley The Lynn Headwaters Lynn Valley Seymour River valleyThe Capilano and Seymour rivers emanate from the massive GVRD watershed area. The watershed extends deep into the North Shore Mountains region, but is off-limits to all unauthorized human activities; the Lynn Headwaters, a deep cirque valley drained by Lynn Creek, is no longer part of the GVRD watershed and is now a popular Regional Park. There are two Provincial Parks in the area, Cypress Provincial Park and Mount Seymour Provincial Park.
Both feature reliable road access, downhill ski areas, extensive trail networks. Nearby Grouse Mountain features a downhill ski area and tourist attractions which are accessible by the Skyride, an aerial tramway. A popular hiking trail, the Grouse Grind, climbs up the steep flanks of Grouse Mountain from the tramway parking lot. Before the Grouse Mountain Skyride was built, a chairlift operated from Skyline Drive at the head of North Vancouver's Lonsdale Avenue, the ski area itself could be accessed via Mountain Highway, which now has a gate at its upper end in the Lynn Valley neighbourhood. In the Seymour valley, a paved access road called the Seymour Trailway winds for many kilometres into the mountains, it is used for recreation, for TV and film productions such as Stargate SG-1. There are dozens of individual mountains in the North Shore Mountains; the list below is incomplete. Sky Pilot Mountain Mount Hanover Deeks Peak Black Mountain – A forested summit overlooking Horseshoe Bay. Ski runs on the northern slopes are managed by Cypress Mountain Resort.
Hollyburn Mountain – A popular hiking destination. Known as Hollyburn Ridge and the location of an old alpine recreation community dating back to the early years of the 20th Century, it is the site of the only groomed cross-country ski trails in the Lower Mainland. Mount Strachan – Ski runs on the southern slopes are managed by Cypress Mountain Resort. Mount Fromme – A large forested summit dome seen but visited; this mountain is noted for the mountain biking trails on its south slopes. Grouse Mountain – Site of a popular ski area, the popular hiking trail Grouse Grind. Dam Mountain – Located directly west of Grouse Mountain with the hike from the Grouse lodge referred to as the "Snowshoe Grind". Goat Mountain – Another popular alpine hiking destination conveniently located near the top of the Grouse Mountain aerial tramway. Crown Mountain – An exposed granite pyramid ringed by sheer cliffs. Lynn Peak – A small forested mountain a popular hiking destination due to ease of access; the Needles – An isolated series of ridge-top summits north of Lynn Peak.
Coliseum Mountain – A remote alpine area consisting of a series of gentle granite exposures. Mount Burwell – A remote granite dome located at the limit of legal backcountry access. Cathedral Mountain – Among the tallest and most prominent of the North Shore Mountains, but off-limits due to its location within the Greater Vancouver watershed. Mount Seymour – Good trails and convenient access by road make Seymour a local classic hiking area. Downhill ski area in winter. Mount Elsay – A remote backcountry peak located beyond Seymour. Mount Bishop – A climbed peak in the remote northern region of Mt. Seymour Provincial Park; the Lions – Probably the most famous peaks in the North Shore Mountains. These mountains, a pair of twin granite domes, are visually distinctive and can be seen from much of the Greater Vancouver area. Mount Harvey – An isolated alpine peak located near the Lions. Brunswick Mountain – The highest of the North Shore Mountains, located north of Mount Harvey. Capilano Mountain – east of the headwaters of the Capilano River Britannia Range Fannin Range Geography
For other places with the same name, see Burrard. Burrard Inlet is a shallow-sided coastal fjord in southwestern British Columbia, Canada. Formed during the last Ice Age, it separates the City of Vancouver and the rest of the low-lying Burrard Peninsula from the slopes of the North Shore Mountains, home to the communities of West Vancouver and the City and District of North Vancouver. What is now known as Burrard Inlet has been home to the Indigenous peoples of the Musqueam, Sḵwxwú7mesh and Tsleil-waututh, who have resided in this territory for thousands of years. In 1791, the first European explorers in the region, Juan Carrasco and José María Narváez, sailing under orders of Francisco de Eliza, entered the western part of the inlet in their ship, the Santa Saturnina, they failed to find the Fraser River, mistaking the lowland of the river's delta as a major inlet of the sea, which they named Canal de Floridablanca. This led to one of the prime objectives of the 1792 expedition of Dionisio Alcalá Galiano, to determine the exact nature of the Canal de Floridablanca.
Galiano spent many days exploring the general area, realizing that there was a great river there and sighting Burrard Inlet itself on June 19, 1792. Just days the inlet was again named by Captain George Vancouver, after his friend and former shipmate Captain Sir Harry Burrard. In 1888, the inlet was described in The British Columbia Pilot published by the British Admiralty as follows. Burrard inlet differs from most of the great sounds of this coast in being comparatively easy of access to steam vessels of any size or class, in the convenient depth of water for anchorage which may be found in every part of it, it is divided into three distinct harbours, viz. English bay or the outer anchorage; the inlet runs directly east from the Strait of Georgia to Port Moody and is urbanized on most of its shores. About two-thirds of the way east from the inlet's mouth, a secondary, much steeper-sided, glacial fjord, Indian Arm, extends straight north from the main inlet, between Belcarra and Deep Cove in North Vancouver on into mountainous wilderness.
From Point Atkinson and Point Grey on the west to Port Moody in the east, the inlet is about 25 km long. Settlements on the shores of Burrard Inlet include Vancouver, West Vancouver, North Vancouver and Port Moody. Three bridges, the First Narrows Bridge, the Ironworkers Memorial Second Narrows Crossing and the CNR railway bridge at the Second Narrows, the SeaBus passenger ferry, cross the inlet. Aside from just east of the inlet's mouth, it is widest between the First and Second Narrows the busiest part of Vancouver's port. Protected from the open ocean, the calm waters of Burrard Inlet form Vancouver's primary port area, an excellent one for large ocean-going ships. While some of the shoreline is residential and commercial, much is port-industrial, including railyards, terminals for container and bulk cargo ships, grain elevators, oil refineries. Freighters waiting to load or discharge cargoes in the inlet anchor in English Bay, which lies south of the mouth of the inlet and is separated from it by Vancouver's downtown peninsula and Stanley Park.
On the main inlet, a few park areas remain forested as they were centuries ago, but the steep slopes of Indian Arm are so impassable that most have seen no development, despite the proximity of such a major city. Only in 2003 was a rough wilderness hiking trail around the whole of Indian Arm completed, it was the work of one man over many years. Lions Gate Bridge Ironworkers Memorial Second Narrows Crossing Second Narrows Bridge SeaBus 2002 Aerial Photos of Vancouver, including several views of Burrard Inlet and its shores
The Tantalus Range is a subrange of the Pacific Ranges of the Coast Mountains in southern British Columbia, Canada. The range is viewed from the "Sea to Sky Highway" that travels from Vancouver to Squamish and Whistler. To Squamish people, the local indigenous people of the area, the name of the Tantalus Range is Tsewílx'; the range's southern end is on the western edge of Squamish and it runs only about 35 km northwest on the west bank of the Squamish River and is less than 16 km wide at its widest. It is about 460000 ha in area. Mount Tantalus 2603 m is the highest in the range; the origin of the name, as well as the names of many of its peaks, are from Greek mythology. Tantalus was doomed in Hades to be half-submerged in cold water with fruit dangling close but not close enough to eat, where the word tantalize has its root; the name was conferred by a local mountain climber, "tantalized" by the sight of the range's impressive spires and icefalls from across the turbulent waters of the Squamish River.
Alternately, another version of the legend has Tantalus and his family frozen before a banquet, unable to move - descriptive of the ice-draped and somehow regal character of the peaks and icefields of the range.. The Tantalus Range is a favourite with climbers, with photographers and filmmakers; the best views of it can be had just north of Squamish from the Brohm Ridge and Cheakamus Canyon stretches of BC Highway 99. Neighbouring ranges: Garibaldi Ranges North Shore Mountains Clendinning Range Tantalus Provincial Park