The Indian Claims Commission was a judicial relations arbiter between the United States federal government and Native American tribes. It was established under the Indian Claims Act in 1946 by the United States Congress to hear any longstanding claims of Indian tribes against the United States, it took until the late 1970s to complete most of them, with the last case finished in the early 21st century. The commission was conceived as way to thank Native Americans for their unprecedented service in World War II and as a way to relieve the anxiety and resentment caused by the United States' history of colonization of indigenous peoples. Together with the law, the Commission created a process for tribes to address their grievances against the United States, offered monetary compensation for territory lost as a result of broken federal treaties. However, by accepting the government's monetary offer, the aggrieved tribe abdicated any right to raise their claim again in the future. On occasion, a tribe gave up federal recognition as part of the settlement of a claim.
Anthropologists and ethnologists and legalists, as well as government officials including lawyers, were the dominant researchers and legal counsel for the plaintiff tribes and the defendant federal government. The expanded amount of anthropological research conducted for the Commission led to the foundation of the American Society for Ethnohistory; the research and historical reports compiled in evidence for Native American claims was first amassed in 1954 at the inaugural Ohio Valley Historic Indian Conference, the predecessor organization renamed the ASE. A collection of the studies was published in the series "American Indian Ethnohistory" by Garland Publishing in 1974; the methodology and theory of ethnohistorical research in general traces back to the work done by anthropologists and other scholars on claims before the Commission. With the chance to pursue claims against the government, many neglected Indian groups in the Southeast, the Northeast, California organized tribal governments in order to pursue their claims for land.
In particular, the 1946 act allowed any "identifiable" group of native descendants to bring a cause of action without regard to their federal recognition status. Tribes such as the Poarch Band of Creek Indians of Alabama trace their modern federal status to the efforts of Chief Calvin McGhee and his 1950s work with the Indian Claims Commission. Indian land claims were one of the key reasons the Bureau of Indian Affairs established its administrative Federal Acknowledgment Process in 1978; the Commission was adjourned in 1978 by Public Law 94-465, which terminated the Commission and transferred its pending docket of 170 cases to the United States Court of Claims on September 30, 1978. By the time of the Commission's final report, it had awarded $818,172,606.64 in judgments and had completed 546 dockets. Land was the dominant concern of the litigation by tribes before the Indian Claims Commission; the statutory authority did not permit this tribunal to grant or restore land to the tribes, but only to award money based upon a net acreage figure of lost lands times the monetary market value of an acre at the time of taking.
This limitation on the authority of the ICC was resented by many tribal peoples, who wanted the return of their lands more than money—e.g. The Pit River Indians of northern California, the Teton and Lakota of the Black Hills, South Dakota. In a few instances, by way of settlement acts, tribes gained some monetary funds to buy acreage when they had no communal land. Special congressional acts on occasion did restore some acreage, as with the Havasupai at the Grand Canyon. In preparing expert testimony for litigation brought by the tribes as plaintiffs or for the defense by the U. S. government, researchers explored all forms of data, including the earliest possible maps of original title—i.e. Native or indigenous—territory and the cartographic presentations based upon treaties and executive orders—generally identified as recognized title. In most cases, recognized title lands could be more demonstrated in litigation, while native territory depended upon Indian informants, trappers, military personnel and early field ethnographers.
Scholars sought to reconstruct native ecology in terms of food supply and other resources of the environment. In this way, some concept of original territory could be gained; as the Final Report of the ICC revealed, compromises over territorial parcels led to rejecting some acreage, used by more than one tribe over time. The briefs, quantum data and decisions were published in the 1970s in a multiple series of microfiche by Clearwater Publishing, Co. NY, which publisher was sold to CIS to Nexis/Lexis. Garland Publishing, NY in the 1970s, published some two hundred books containing some but not all of the materials pertaining to the claims cases. Ward Churchill, "Charades, Anyone? The Indian Claims Commission in Context," 24 American Indian Culture & Research Journal 43. Richard Hughes, "Can the Trustee Be Sued for Its Breach? The Sad Saga of United States v. Mitchell," 26 S. D. L. Rev. 447. Harvey D. Rosenthal, Their Day in Court: A History of the Indian Claims Commission. ISBN 0-8240-0028-5. Nancy Shoemaker, Clearing a Path: Theorizing the Past in Native American Studies.
ISBN 0-415-92674-2. E. B. Smith, Indian Tribal Claims: Decided in the Court of Claims of the United States and Compiled to June 30, 1947. Imre Sutton, Irredeemable America: The Indians’ Estate and Land Claims. John F. Martin, From Judgment to Land Restoration: the
Nancy A. Naples is an American sociologist, Board of Trustees Distinguished Professor of Sociology and Women’s, Sexuality Studies at the University of Connecticut, where she is Director of Graduate Studies, she has contributed to the study of community activism, poverty in the United States, inequality in rural communities, methodology in women's studies and feminism. Naples received her M. A. in Dance Education from New York University in 1974, in 1979 she received a Master of Social Work in Social Policy from Hunter College School of Social Work, City University of New York. She completed a Ph. D in sociology at Graduate School and University Center, City University of New York in 1988. From 1984-1988, Naples worked as an Adjunct Lecturer at Queens College, City University of New York, Columbia University. Within this period, she worked as a Lecturer in the Department of Sociology and Economics at State University of New York, Purchase. In 1988, she became an Assistant Professor at State University of New York, Old Westbury, before continuing to Iowa State University, University of California, Irvine.
In 1998, she became an Associate Professor in Sociology and Women's Studies at University of California, Irvine. She moved to University of Connecticut in 2001 where she started as an Associate Professor, progressed to a full-Professor, in 2014 was made Board of Directors Distinguished Professor of Sociology and Women's, Sexuality Studies. Naples has been Chair of organisations including the Race and Class Section of the American Sociological Association, the Discrimination Committee of Sociologists for Women in Society, the Conflict, Social Action and Change Division of the Society for the Study of Social Problems, she has served as President of the Eastern Sociological Society and the Society for the Study of Social Problems. Much of Naples' career has been focused on Women's, Gender and Sexuality Studies, in reflection of this she has been the Director of related programs at University of California and the University of Connecticut. Naples works with ethnographic, discourse analysis and comparative research methods to explore the connection between social actors and economic and political structures and policies.
Her work has addressed rural economic development, community activism and welfare. Inter-sectional feminism has been a consistent focus of and trend in Naples' research. Naples, Nancy A. Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Gender and Sexualities Studies Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. Naples, Nancy A. Cantú, Lionel. New York: New York University Press. Naples, Nancy A. Feminism and Method: Ethnography, Discourse Analysis, Activist Research. New York: Routledge. Naples, Nacny A. Grassroots Warriors: Activist Mothering, Community Work, the War on Poverty. New York: Routledge
Jun Murakami is a Japanese actor. He is not to be confused with Japanese stunt actor Jun Murakami. Murakami starred in Sho Miyake's Playback, he co-starred in Sion Sono's The Land of Hope with Megumi Kagurazaka. He has appeared in films such as Takahisa Zeze's Heaven's Story and Gakuryu Ishii's Isn't Anyone Alive? Bounce Ko Gals Nabbie's Love Shiki-Jitsu New Battles Without Honor and Humanity Stereo Future Konsento Blue Red Shadow Konsento Border Line Filament Desert Moon Out of This World Cutie Honey 69 Into a Dream Nanayo Michiko & Hatchin Sweet Rain: Accuracy of Death Counterfeit Bills Zen Nonchan Noriben The Lightning Tree Heaven's Story Sketches of Kaitan City Sword of Desperation The Egoists Yakuza Weapon Dog Police The Depths Isn't Anyone Alive? Himizu Our Homeland A Road Stained Crimson Bakugyaku Familia Playback The Land of Hope A Woman and War Crying 100 Times: Every Raindrop Falls Still the Water Kabukicho Love Hotel Sun Shinjuku Swan II Policeman and Me Moon and Lightning Dynamite Graffiti My Friend A It's Boring Here, Pick Me Up 21st Century Girl Aircraft Carrier Ibuki According to Our Butler We Are Little Zombies First Love They Say Nothing Stays the Same It Stopped Raining Nōten Paradise Mio Tsukushi Ryōri-chō Yae no Sakura, Hijikata Toshizō Official website Jun Murakami on IMDb