Amador County, California
Amador County, officially the County of Amador, is a county in the U. S. state of California, in the Sierra Nevada. As of the 2010 census, the population was 38,091, Amador County bills itself as The Heart of the Mother Lode and lies within the Gold Country. There is a viticultural industry in the county. Amador County was created by the California Legislature on May 11,1854, the county split into Amador, and El Dorado Counties. It was organized on July 3,1854, in 1864, part of the countys territory was given to Alpine County. The county is named for José María Amador, a soldier and miner, born in San Francisco in 1794, in 1848, Jose Maria Amador, with several Native Americans, established a successful gold mining camp near the present town of Amador City. In Spanish, the word means one who loves. Some of the Mother Lodes most successful mines were located in Amador County, including the Kennedy, Argonaut. The Luck of Roaring Camp is a story by American author Bret Harte. It was first published in the August 1868 issue of the Overland Monthly, Harte lived in this area during his Gold Rush period, and possibly based the story in a mining camp on the Mokelumne River.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 606 square miles. It is the fifth-smallest county in California by land area and second-smallest by total area, water bodies in the county include Lake Amador, Lake Camanche, Pardee Reservoir, Bear River Reservoir, Silver Lake, Sutter Creek, Cosumnes River, Mokelumne River, and Tabeaud Lake. Amador County is located approximately 45 miles southeast of Sacramento in the part of California known as the Mother Lode, Amador County ranges in elevation from approximately 250 feet in the western portion of the county to over 9,000 feet in the eastern portion of the county. Though not as known as the Napa Valley AVA or Sonoma Valley AVA viticultural regions of California. With the discovery of gold, the quickly became a mecca for those trying to make their fortune. In the process numerous wineries sprouted up, many of whose vineyards are still in use by wineries today, the decline of the California Gold Rush coupled with the onset of Prohibition devastated the wine-making region of Amador County.
Today this area has been resurrected and is now home to over 40 different wineries, Amador County is renowned for its Zinfandel, but many other varietals are produced as well. Amador County has a percentage of old Zinfandel vines
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal governments official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation. The passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register, of the more than one million properties on the National Register,80,000 are listed individually. The remainder are contributing resources within historic districts, each year approximately 30,000 properties are added to the National Register as part of districts or by individual listings. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service and its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States. While National Register listings are mostly symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties, protection of the property is not guaranteed.
During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places, the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Occasionally, historic sites outside the proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties, site, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties, some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service. These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks/Battlefields, National Memorials, on October 15,1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices.
Initially, the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Registers creation, approval of the act, which was amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, hartzog, Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law, ernest Connally was the Offices first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register, the first official Keeper of the Register was William J. Murtagh, an architectural historian. During the Registers earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U. S.
National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two Assistant Directorates. Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation, from 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs, jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate
California Historical Landmark
California Historical Landmarks are buildings, sites, or places in the state of California that have been determined to have statewide historical landmark significance. Historical significance is determined by meeting at least one of the criteria listed below, The first, only, associated with an individual or group having a profound influence on the history of California. California Historical Landmarks of #770 and above are listed in the California Register of Historical Resources. By contrast, a site, feature, or event that is of local significance may be designated as a California Point of Historical Interest. List of California Historical Landmarks by county National Historic Sites National Register of Historic Places listings in California — with links to list articles by county, los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments San Francisco Designated Landmarks Johnson, Marael. A Guide to California Roadside Historical Markers, official OHP—California Office of Historic Preservation website OHP, California Historical Sites searchpage — links to lists by county
Deer are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae. The two main groups are the Cervinae, including the muntjac, the deer and the chital, and the Capreolinae, including the elk, the Western roe deer. Female reindeer, and male deer of all species, grow, in this they differ from permanently horned antelope, which are in the same order, Artiodactyla. The musk deer of Asia and water chevrotain of tropical African and Asian forests are not usually regarded as true deer and form their own families and Tragulidae, respectively. Deer appear in art from Palaeolithic cave paintings onwards, and they have played a role in mythology and their economic importance includes the use of their meat as venison, their skins as soft, strong buckskin, and their antlers as handles for knives. Deer hunting has been a sport since at least the Middle Ages. Deer live in a variety of biomes, ranging from tundra to the tropical rainforest, while often associated with forests, many deer are ecotone species that live in transitional areas between forests and thickets and prairie and savanna.
The majority of deer species inhabit temperate mixed deciduous forest, mountain mixed coniferous forest, tropical seasonal/dry forest. Clearing open areas within forests to some extent may actually benefit deer populations by exposing the understory and allowing the types of grasses, additionally, access to adjacent croplands may benefit deer. However, adequate forest or brush cover must still be provided for populations to grow, fallow deer have been introduced to South Africa. There are species of deer that are highly specialized, and live almost exclusively in mountains, swamps. Some deer have a distribution in both North America and Eurasia. Examples include the caribou that live in Arctic tundra and taiga and moose that inhabit taiga, huemul deer of South Americas Andes fill the ecological niches of the ibex and wild goat, with the fawns behaving more like goat kids. Mountain slope habitats vary from moist coniferous/mixed forested habitats to dry forests with alpine meadows higher up. The foothills and river valleys between the mountain provide a mosaic of cropland and deciduous parklands.
The rare woodland caribou have the most restricted range living at altitudes in the subalpine meadows. Elk and mule deer both migrate between the alpine meadows and lower coniferous forests and tend to be most common in this region, elk inhabit river valley bottomlands, which they share with White-tailed deer. They live in the aspen parklands north of Calgary and Edmonton, the adjacent Great Plains grassland habitats are left to herds of elk, American bison, and pronghorn antelope
Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera whose forelimbs form webbed wings, making them the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight. By contrast, other mammals said to fly, such as flying squirrels, gliding possums, Bats do not flap their entire forelimbs, as birds do, but instead flap their spread-out digits, which are very long and covered with a thin membrane or patagium. About 70% of bat species are insectivores, most of the rest are frugivores, or fruit eaters. A few species, such as the bat, feed from animals other than insects, with the vampire bats being hematophagous. Bats are present throughout most of the world, with the exception of cold regions. They perform the vital roles of pollinating flowers and dispersing fruit seeds. Bats are economically important, as they consume insect pests, reducing the need for pesticides, the smallest bat is the Kittis hog-nosed bat, measuring 29–34 mm in length,15 cm across the wings and 2–2.6 g in mass. It is arguably the smallest extant species of mammal, with the Etruscan shrew being the other contender.
The largest species of bat are a few species of Pteropus, the Mexican free-tailed bat is the fastest flying animal in horizontal flight. An older English name for bats is flittermouse, which matches their name in other Germanic languages, middle English had bakke, most likely cognate with Old Swedish natbakka, which may have undergone a shift from -k- to -t- influenced by Latin blatta, nocturnal insect. They were formerly grouped in the superorder Archonta, along with the treeshrews, genetic studies have now placed bats in the superorder Laurasiatheria, along with carnivorans, odd-toed ungulates, even-toed ungulates, and cetaceans. A recent study by Zhang et al. places Chiroptera as a taxon to the clade Perissodactyla. The phylogenetic relationships of the different groups of bats have been the subject of much debate and this hypothesis recognized differences between microbats and megabats and acknowledged that flight has only evolved once in mammals. Most molecular biological evidence supports the view that bats form a single or monophyletic group, in the 1980s, a hypothesis based on morphological evidence was offered that stated the Megachiroptera evolved flight separately from the Microchiroptera.
The so-called flying primate hypothesis proposes that, when adaptations to flight are removed, one example is that the brains of megabats show a number of advanced characteristics that link them to primates. Although recent genetic studies support the monophyly of bats, debate continues as to the meaning of available genetic. Genetic evidence indicates that megabats originated during the early Eocene and should be placed within the four lines of microbats. Consequently, two new suborders based on molecular data have been proposed and these two new suborders are strongly supported by statistical tests
Channel Islands National Park
Channel Islands National Park is a United States national park that consists of five of the eight Channel Islands off the coast of the U. S. state of California, in the Pacific Ocean. Although the islands are close to the shore of densely populated Southern California, the park covers 249,561 acres of which 79,019 acres are owned by the federal government. The Nature Conservancy owns and manages 76% of Santa Cruz Island, Channel Islands National Park is home to a wide variety of significant natural and cultural resources. It was designated a U. S. National Monument on April 26,1938, and it was promoted to a National Park on March 5,1980. Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary encompasses the waters six nautical miles around Channel Islands National Park, the Channel Islands were originally discovered in 1542 by the explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo. In 1938 the Santa Barbara and Anacapa islands were designated a national monument, San Miguel, Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz islands were combined with the monument in 1980 to form modern-day Channel Islands National Park.
On January 28,1969 an oil rig belonging to Union Oil experienced a blow-out 6 miles off the coast of California, the resulting spill was, at the time, the largest oil spill to occur in United States territorial waters. Following the spill, tides carried the oil onto the beaches of the Anacapa, San Miguel, Santa Rosa and this spill had a large impact on native wildlife of the Channel Islands. Much of the seabird population was affected, with over an estimated 3,600 avians killed. Meanwhile, seals and other sea life died and washed ashore on both the islands and the mainland and this spill is the third largest oil spill in the United States, only surpassed by the Deepwater Horizon and the Exxon Valdez oil spills. It resulted in a 34,000 acres expansion of the Department of the Interior buffer zone in the channel, the islands within the park extend along the Southern California coast from Point Conception near Santa Barbara to San Pedro, a neighborhood of Los Angeles. Park headquarters and the Robert J.
Lagomarsino Visitor Center are located in the city of Ventura, only three mammals are endemic to the islands, one of which is the deer mouse which is known to carry the sin nombre hantavirus. The spotted skunk and Channel Islands fox are endemic, the island fence lizard is endemic to the Channel Islands. One hundred and forty-five of these species are unique to the islands, Marine life ranges from microscopic plankton to the endangered blue whale, the largest animal on earth. Archeological and cultural resources span a period of more than 10,000 years, the average annual visitation to the parks mainland visitor center was around 300,000 in the period from 2007 to 2016, with 364,807 visiting in 2016. The visitor center is located in the Ventura Harbor Village, the visitor center contains several exhibits that provide information regarding all five islands, native vegetation, marine life and cultural history. Also, visitors can enjoy a film, free of charge. The visitor center is open day, except Thanksgiving and Christmas, from 8, 30AM–5
The California quail, known as the California valley quail or valley quail, is a small ground-dwelling bird in the New World quail family. These birds have a curving crest or plume, made of six feathers, that droops forward, black in males and brown in females, males have a dark brown cap and a black face with a brown back, a grey-blue chest and a light brown belly. Females and immature birds are mainly grey-brown with a light-colored belly and their closest relative is Gambels quail which has a more southerly distribution and, a longer crest at 2.5 in, a brighter head and a scalier appearance. The two species separated about 1–2 million years ago, during the Late Pliocene or Early Pleistocene and it is the state bird of California. One of their daily activities is a dust bath. A group of quail will select an area where the ground has been turned or is soft. They wriggle about in the indentations they have created, flapping their wings and ruffling their feathers and they seem to prefer sunny places in which to create these dust baths.
An ornithologist is able to detect the presence of quail in an area by spotting the circular indentations left behind in the soft dirt, although this bird coexists well at the edges of urban areas, it is declining in some areas as human populations increase. These birds forage on the ground, often scratching at the soil and they can sometimes be seen feeding at the sides of roads. Their diet consists mainly of seeds and leaves, but they eat some berries and insects, for example. If startled, these birds explode into short rapid flight, called flushing, given a choice, they will normally escape on foot. Their breeding habitat is shrubby areas and open woodlands in western North America, the nest is a shallow scrape lined with vegetation on the ground beneath a shrub or other cover. The female usually lays approximately 12 eggs, once hatched, the young associate with both adults. Often, families group together, into multifamily communal broods which include at least two females, multiple males and many offspring, males associated with families are not always the genetic fathers.
In good years, females lay more than one clutch, leaving the hatched young with the associated male and laying a new clutch. They have a variety of including the social chicago call, contact pips. During the breeding season, males utter the agonistic squill and will often interrupt their social mates chicago call with a squill, the California quail is the state bird of California. It was established as the bird in 1931
Mortar and pestle
A pestle and mortar is a kitchen device used since ancient times to prepare ingredients or substances by crushing and grinding them into a fine paste or powder. The mortar is a bowl, typically made of hard wood, the pestle is a heavy and blunt club-shaped object, the end of which is used for crushing and grinding. The substance to be ground is placed in the mortar and ground and pestles have been used in cooking up to the present day, they are frequently associated with the profession of pharmacy due to their historical use in preparing medicines. They can be used in masonry and in types of construction. Scientists have found ancient mortars and pestles that date back to approximately 35,000 B. C, the English word mortar derives from classical Latin mortarium, among several other usages, receptacle for pounding and product of grinding or pounding. The classical Latin pistillum, meaning pounder, led to English pestle, the Roman poet Juvenal applied both mortarium and pistillum to articles used in the preparation of drugs, reflecting the early use of the mortar and pestle as a symbol of a pharmacist or apothecary.
The antiquity of these tools is well documented in writing, such as the Egyptian Ebers Papyrus of ~1550 BCE. Mortars and pestles were used in pharmacies to crush various ingredients prior to preparing an extemporaneous prescription. The mortar and pestle, with the Rod of Asclepius, the Orange Cross, for pharmaceutical use, the mortar and the head of the pestle are usually made of porcelain, while the handle of the pestle is made of wood. This is known as a Wedgwood mortar and pestle and originated in 1759, today the act of mixing ingredients or reducing the particle size is known as trituration. Mortars and pestles are used as drug paraphernalia to grind up pills to speed up absorption when they are ingested. Mortars are used in cooking to prepare ingredients such as guacamole and pesto, the molcajete, a version used by pre-Hispanic Mesoamerican cultures including the Aztec and Maya, stretching back several thousand years, is made of basalt and is used widely in Mexican cooking. Other Native American nations use mortars carved into the bedrock to grind acorns, many such depressions can be found in their territories.
In Japan, very large mortars are used with wooden mallets to prepare mochi, a regular sized Japanese mortar and pestle are called a suribachi and surikogi, respectively. Granite mortars and pestles are used in Southeast Asia, as well as Pakistan, in India, it is used extensively to make spice mixtures for various delicacies as well as day to day dishes. With the advent of motorized grinders, use of the mortar and it is traditional in various Hindu ceremonies to crush turmeric in these mortars. In Malay, it is known as batu lesung, large stone mortars, with long wood pestles were used in West Asia to grind meat for a type of meatloaf, or kibbeh, as well as the hummus variety known as masabcha. In Indonesia and the Netherlands mortar is known as Cobek or Tjobek and it is often used to make fresh sambal, a spicy chili condiment, hence the sambal ulek/oelek denote its process using pestle
The wild turkey is an upland ground bird native to North America and is the heaviest member of the diverse Galliformes. It is the species as the domestic turkey, which was originally derived from a southern Mexican subspecies of wild turkey. Although native to North America, the turkey probably got its name from the variety being imported to Britain in ships coming from the Levant via Spain. The British at the time therefore associated the turkey with the country Turkey. Adult wild turkeys have long reddish-yellow to grayish-green legs, the body feathers are generally blackish and dark, sometimes grey brown overall with a coppery sheen that becomes more complex in adult males. Adult males, called toms or gobblers, have a large, reddish head, red throat, the head has fleshy growths called caruncles. Juvenile males are called jakes, the difference between a male and a juvenile is that the jake has a very short beard. The adult males tail fan feathers will be all the same length. When males are excited, a flap on the bill expands, and this, the wattles.
The long fleshy object over a males beak is called a snood, each foot has three toes in front, with a shorter, rear-facing toe in back, males have a spur behind each of their lower legs. Male turkeys have a long, fan-shaped tail and glossy bronze wings, as with many other species of the Galliformes, turkeys exhibit strong sexual dimorphism. The male is larger than the female, and his feathers have areas of red, green, bronze. The preen gland is larger in male turkeys compared to female ones. In contrast to the majority of birds, they are colonized by bacteria of unknown function. Females, called hens, have feathers that are duller overall, in shades of brown, parasites can dull coloration of both sexes, in males, coloration may serve as a signal of health. The primary wing feathers have white bars, Turkeys have 5000 to 6000 feathers. Tail feathers are of the length in adults, different lengths in juveniles. Males typically have a beard, a tuft of hair growing from the center of the breast
The northern flicker is a medium-sized member of the woodpecker family. It is native to most of North America, parts of Central America and the Cayman Islands, over 100 common names for the northern flicker are known. Among them are, clape, gaffer woodpecker, harry-wicket, heigh-ho, wake-up, walk-up, wick-up, many of these names are attempts at imitating some of its calls. The northern flicker is part of the genus Colaptes, which encompasses 12 New World woodpeckers, nine subspecies and one extinct subspecies of C. auratus are recognized. The existing subspecies were at one time considered separate species, and this is an example of the species problem. The yellow-shafted flicker resides in eastern North America and they are yellow under the tail and underwings and have yellow shafts on their primaries. They have a cap, a beige face, and a red bar at the nape of their neck. Colaptes comes from the Greek verb colapt, to peck, auratus is from the Latin root aurat, meaning gold or golden and refers to the birds underwing.
As the state bird of Alabama it is known by the name yellowhammer, the red-shafted flicker resides in western North America. They are red under the tail and underwings and have red shafts on their primaries and they have a beige cap and a grey face. The †Guadalupe flicker, extinct circa 1910 Adults are brown with bars on the back. A mid- to large-sized woodpecker measures 28–36 cm in length and 42–54 cm in wingspan, the body mass can vary from 86 to 167 g. Among standard scientific measurements, the wing bone measures 12. 2–17.1 cm, the tail measures 7. 5–11.5 cm, the bill measures 2. 2–4.3 cm and the tarsus measures 2. 2–3.1 cm. The largest-bodied specimens are from the northern stretches of the range, at the latitude of Alaska and Labrador. A necklace-like black patch occupies the upper breast, while the lower breast, males can be identified by a black or red moustachial stripe at the base of the beak. The tail is dark on top, transitioning to a rump which is conspicuous in flight. The subspecies plumage varies as described in Taxonomy and this birds call is a sustained laugh, ki ki ki ki, more congenial than that of the pileated woodpecker.
One may hear a constant knocking as they often drum on trees or even objects to declare territory
California scrub jay
The California scrub jay, is a species of scrub jay native to western North America. It ranges from southern British Columbia throughout California west of the Sierra Nevada, the California scrub jay was once lumped with the island scrub jay, and Woodhouses scrub jay, collectively called the western scrub jay. The group was lumped with the Florida scrub jay, the taxon was called, simply. The California scrub jay is nonmigratory and can be found in urban areas, while many refer to scrub jays as blue jays, the blue jay is a different species of bird entirely. In recent years, the California scrub jay has expanded its range north into the Tsawwassen region of British Columbia, the California scrub jay is a medium-sized bird, approximately 27–31 cm in length, with a 39 cm wingspan, and about 80 g in weight. In general, this species has a head and tail, a gray-brown back. The throat is whitish with a blue necklace, the call is described as harsh and scratchy. True to its name, the California scrub jay inhabits areas of low scrub, preferring pinon-juniper forests, oak woods, California scrub jays usually forage in pairs, family groups, or small non-kin groups, outside of the breeding season.
They feed on animals, such as frogs and lizards and young of other birds and grains, nuts. They will eat fruit and vegetables growing in backyards, califormia scrub jays, like many other corvids, exploit ephemeral surpluses by storing food in scattered caches within their territories. They rely on accurate and complex memories to recover the hidden caches. In the process of collecting and storing food, they have shown an ability to plan ahead in choosing cache sites to provide adequate food volume. Western scrub jays are able to rely on their accurate observational spatial memories to steal food from caches made by conspecifics, to protect their caches from potential pilferers, food storing birds implement a number of strategies to reduce this risk of theft. Western scrub jays are known for hoarding and burying brightly colored objects. Western scrub jays have a streak, and they are not above outright theft. They have been caught stealing acorns from acorn woodpecker caches, some scrub jays steal acorns they have watched other jays hide.
When these birds go to hide their own acorns, they check first that no other jays are watching, recent research has suggested that western scrub jays, along with several other corvids, are among the most intelligent of animals. The brain-to-body mass ratio of adult scrub jays rivals that of chimpanzees and cetaceans, scrub jays are the only non-primate or non-dolphin shown to plan ahead for the future, which was previously thought of as a uniquely human trait
Kings Canyon National Park
Kings Canyon National Park is a national park in the southern Sierra Nevada, east of Fresno, California. The park was established in 1940 and covers 461,901 acres and it incorporated General Grant National Park, established in 1890 to protect the General Grant Grove of giant sequoias. The park is north of and contiguous with Sequoia National Park and they were designated the UNESCO Sequoia-Kings Canyon Biosphere Reserve in 1976. Humans have inhabited the area for thousands of years, the first Native Americans in the area were Paiute peoples, who moved into the region from their ancestral home east of Mono Lake. The Paiute Nation people used deer and other animals for food. They created trade routes that extended down the slope of the Sierra into the Owens Valley. Kings Canyon had been known to white settlers since the mid-19th century, United States Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes fought to create the Kings Canyon National Park. He hired Ansel Adams to photograph and document this among other parks, the bill combined the General Grant Grove with the backcountry beyond Zumwalt Meadow.
Kings Canyons future was in doubt for nearly fifty years, some wanted to build a dam at the western end of the valley, while others wanted to preserve it as a park. The debate was settled in 1965, when the valley, along with Tehipite Valley, was added to the park, Kings Canyon National Park consists of two sections. The parks Giant Sequoia forests are part of 202,430 acres of old-growth forests shared by Sequoia and this section of the park is mostly mixed conifer forest, and is readily accessible via paved highways. Both the South and Middle Forks of the Kings Rivers have extensive glacial canyons, one portion of the South Fork canyon, known as the Kings Canyon, gives the entire park its name. Kings Canyon, with a depth of 8,200 feet, is one of the deepest canyons in the United States. The canyon was carved by glaciers out of granite, the Kings Canyon, and its developed area, Cedar Grove, is the only portion of the main part of the park that is accessible by motor vehicle. Both the Kings Canyon and its Middle Fork twin, Tehipite Valley, are deeply incised, U-shaped glacial gorges with relatively flat floors and towering granite cliffs thousands of feet high.
In addition, the canyon has several systems, one of which is Boyden Cave. To the east of the canyons are the peaks of the Sierra Crest, which attain an elevation of 14,248 feet NAVD88 at the summit of North Palisade. This is classic high Sierra country, barren ridges and glacially scoured lake-filled basins