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Indian Head eagle

The Indian Head eagle was a $10 gold piece or eagle struck by the United States Mint continuously from 1907 until 1916, irregularly until 1933. The obverse and reverse were designed by sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens commissioned for use on other denominations, he did not survive to see the coins released. Beginning in 1904, President Theodore Roosevelt proposed new, more artistic designs on US coins, prompting the Mint to hire Saint-Gaudens to create them. Roosevelt and Saint-Gaudens at first considered a uniform design for the four denominations of coins which were struck in gold, but in 1907 Roosevelt decided to use a model for the obverse of the eagle that the sculptor had meant to use for the cent. For the reverse of the $10 coin, the President decided on a design featuring a standing bald eagle, developed for the Saint-Gaudens double eagle $20 coin, while the obverse features a left-facing bust of Liberty wearing an Indian feather headdress; the coin as sculpted by Saint-Gaudens was too high in relief for the Mint to strike and it took months to modify the design so that the coin could be struck by one blow of the Mint's presses.

Saint-Gaudens died on August 3, 1907, Roosevelt insisted that the new eagle be finished and struck that month. New pieces were given to the President on August 31 which differ from the coins struck for circulation; the omission of the motto "In God We Trust" on the new coins caused public outrage, prompted Congress to pass a bill mandating its inclusion. Mint Chief Engraver Charles E. Barber made minor modifications to the design; the Indian Head eagle was struck until 1916, intermittently until President Franklin Roosevelt directed the Mint to stop producing gold coins in 1933. Its termination ended the series of eagles struck for circulation begun in 1795. Many Indian Head eagles were melted by the government in the late 1930s. In 1904, President Theodore Roosevelt wrote to Secretary of the Treasury Leslie Mortier Shaw complaining that U. S. coinage lacked artistic merit. He suggested that the treasury engage a private artist to prepare new coin designs, such as sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens.

At Roosevelt's direction, the Mint hired Saint-Gaudens to redesign the cent and the four gold pieces: the double eagle, half eagle, quarter eagle. The Liberty Head design had been first struck for the eagle in 1838; the designs of those pieces had remained unchanged for more than 25 years, they could be changed without an act of Congress. In 1905, Mint Engraver Charles E. Barber engraved the obverse of Roosevelt's inauguration medal, while his assistant George T. Morgan engraved the reverse. Roosevelt disliked the work and engaged Saint-Gaudens to design an unofficial medal commemorating the inauguration. Saint-Gaudens foresaw resistance from Barber on the question of the new coinage. O. A. B, but I had a talk with the President who ordered Secretary Shaw in my presence to cut Barber's head off if he didn't do our bidding". Roosevelt was impressed by some models that Saint-Gaudens had prepared for the cent showing a head of Liberty. In early 1907, he wrote to Saint-Gaudens proposing that an Indian war bonnet be added to the obverse of the cent: "I feel strongly that on at least one coin we ought to have the Indian feather headdress.

It is distinctly American, picturesque. Couldn't you have just such a head as you have now, but with the feather headdress?" Numismatic historian Walter Breen describes this as "the absurd addition of a feathered warbonnet", art historian Cornelius Vermeule states that the Indian Head eagle "missed being a great coin because Roosevelt interfered" with its design. Nonetheless, Saint-Gaudens added the headdress to the head of Liberty in February 1907, he was undecided about which design to use for the gold pieces, which were still intended to have a uniform appearance, he proposed using the headdress Liberty for the double eagle. Roosevelt tentatively decided to use different designs on the eagle and double eagle, with the eagle to bear the headdress Liberty; the double eagle would show a Liberty striding forward, with a flying eagle on the reverse. The President was prepared to meet with Saint-Gaudens if he objected, but the sculptor was ill with cancer and no meeting took place. Mint Director George E. Roberts wrote to Saint-Gaudens on May 25, 1907: "It is now settled... the design for the Eagle shall be the feather head of Liberty with the standing eagle".

Saint-Gaudens and his assistants moved on the revision, he sent models of the new coin on June 1 with a letter stating that the relief of the new models should be coinable by the Mint. The double eagles were being delayed because Saint-Gaudens had twice sent the Mint models with too high a relief that could not be struck in one blow, as required for circulating coinage, his letter was forwarded to the Philadelphia Mint, where Superintendent John Landis had Mint Chief Engraver Charles E. Barber read and initial it. On June 7, Barber responded to Landis: I beg to report that I have received two models in plaster and a copy of a letter from Mr. Saint-Gaudens to the Director, in which there are certain statements that are somewhat misleading... the relief of the design must conform to the fixed conditions and therefore, the only relief that I knew of was coin relief. The date of the year is in Roman notation, there is no provision made for next year, there bein

Agustín Sumuroy

Agustín Sumuroy was a Filipino hero and Waray leader of the Sumuroy Rebellion, a rebellion of native Filipinos against colonial Spanish forces that occurred in eastern Visayas in 1649-1650. Agustin Sumuroy is referred to by many as the Waray hero of the Palapag, Northern Samar rebellion during the Spanish time around 1649 to 1650. There were 3 main personalities in the said uprising: the leader of the group; the name Juan Ponce Sumuroy is sometimes given to Agustín as the result of confusion between Juan Ponce and Agustín Sumuroy. During the height of the insurrection, Don Juan Ponce stayed with Fr. Ignacio Alcina, a Jesuit and historian. Sumuroy did not make peace with the Spaniards, he was killed by his own men. And his head, separated from his body, was presented to the Don Genis de Rojas by one of his men

British Virgin Islands Athletics Association

The British Virgin Islands Athletics Association is the governing body for the sport of athletics in the British Virgin Islands. Current president is Steve Augustine, he was elected for the first time in 2016. BVIAA was founded in September 1970 as British Virgin Islands Amateur Athletic Association and was affiliated to the IAAF in March 1972. "Amateur" was dropped from the association’s name during an Executive Committee meeting on February 10, 2009. BVIAA is the national member federation for the British Virgin Islands in the following international organisations: International Association of Athletics Federations North American, Central American and Caribbean Athletic Association Association of Panamerican Athletics Central American and Caribbean Athletic Confederation Leeward Islands Athletics Association Moreover, it is part of the following national organisations: British Virgin Islands Olympic Committee BVIAA maintains the British Virgin Islands records in athletics. Official Webpage BVIAA on Facebook