Indian Forest Service
Indian Forest Service is one of the three All India Services of the Government of India. The other two All India Services being the Indian Administrative Service and the Indian Police Service, it was constituted in the year 1966 under the All India Services Act, 1951 by the Government of India. The main mandate of the service is the implementation of the National Forest Policy in order to ensure the ecological stability of the country through the protection and participatory sustainable management of natural resources. An IFS officer is wholly independent of the district administration and exercises administrative and financial powers in his own domain. Positions in state forest department, such as Divisional Forest Officer, Conservator of Forests and Principal Chief Conservator of Forests etc. are held only by IFS officers. The highest ranking IFS official in each state is the Head of Forest Forces. Earlier, the British Government in India, had constituted the Imperial Forest Service in 1867 which functioned under the Federal Government until ‘Forestry’ was transferred to the Provincial List by the Government of India Act, 1935, subsequent recruitment to the Imperial Forest Service was discontinued.
Ministry of Environment and Climate Change, under the Government of India, is the Cadre Controlling Authority of the Indian Forest Service. In 1864, the British Raj established the Imperial Forest Department; the Imperial Forestry Service was organised subordinate to the Imperial Forest Department in 1867 when five candidates were selected to undergo training in France & Germany. This continued up to 1885 except for a short break on account of war between Russia. Officers appointed from 1867 to 1885 were trained in Germany and France, from 1885 to 1905 at Cooper's Hill, London known as Royal Indian Engineering College where 173 officers were trained. From 1905 to 1926, the University of Oxford, University of Cambridge, University of Edinburgh had undertaken the task of training Imperial Forestry Service officers. In 1920, the Government of India took the decision that the IFS Probationers may be trained at one centre and consequent to the establishment of Forest Research Institute at Dehradun, the training started in India in 1926.
The Government of India Act 1935, which transferred forestry to Provisional list, resulted in abolition of the IFS training. Indian Forest College was established in 1938; the Superior Forest Service officers, recruited from different states, were trained in the Indian Forest College. The stated mandate of the service was scientific management of the forests to exploit it on a sustained basis for timber products, it was during this time that large tracts of the forest were brought under state control through the process of reservation under the Indian Forest Act, 1927. The management of the forest went into the hands of the provincial government in 1935 and today the Forest Departments are managing the forest of the country under the respective State governments. Since the subject of forestry was shifted to the concurrent list in the year 1977, the central government plays an important role at the policy level in the management of the forest; the main thrust of managing forests for production of timber products as in the British period continued after the reconstitution of IFoS in 1966.
The recommendations of National Commission on Agriculture in 1976 was a landmark shift in forest management. It was for the first time that people's perception was taken care of in addressing biomass needs and extension activities through social forestry were introduced; the concept of sustained yield was addressed in tandem with biomass needs of the people living in and around forest areas. Equal thrust was given to habitat management in protected area and conserving the biodiversity of the land. Today there are over 2700 IFS officers serving in the country, serving in both the 31 Forest Departments in the States and Union Territories and working in various Ministries and institutions both in the State and Central Government; the modern Indian Forest Service was established in 1966, after independence, under the All India Services Act 1951. The first Inspector General of Forests, Hari Singh, was instrumental in the development of the IFS. India has an area of 635,400 km2 designated as about 19.32 % of the country.
India's forest policy was created in 1894 and revised in 1952 and again in 1988. Officers are recruited via an open competitive examination conducted by the UPSC and trained for about two years by the Central Government at Indira Gandhi National Forest Academy, their services are placed under various State cadres and joint cadres, being an All India Service they have the mandate to serve both under the State and Central Governments. They are eligible for State and Central deputations as their counterpart IAS and IPS officers. Deputation of IFS officers to the Central Government includes appointments in Central Ministries at the position of Deputy Secretary, Joint Secretary and Additional Secretary etc.. Deputation of IFS officers is permissible to foreign governments, United Nations bodies, international organisations, NGOs, voluntary organisations apart from private sector as per the Indian Forest Service Rules, 1966; as per Rule 6 of the Indian Forest Service Rules, 1966 deputation of IFS officers broadly falls into two categories: Central Deputation State Deputa
World Wide Fund for Nature
The World Wide Fund for Nature is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961, working in the field of the wilderness preservation, the reduction of human impact on the environment. It was named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in Canada and the United States. WWF is the world's largest conservation organization with over five million supporters worldwide, working in more than 100 countries, supporting around 1,300 conservation and environmental projects, they have invested over $1 billion in more than 12,000 conservation initiatives since 1995. WWF is a foundation with 55% of funding from individuals and bequests, 19% from government sources and 8% from corporations in 2014. WWF aims to "stop the degradation of the planet's natural environment and to build a future in which humans live in harmony with nature." The Living Planet Report is published every two years by WWF since 1998. In addition, WWF has launched several notable worldwide campaigns including Earth Hour and Debt-for-Nature Swap, its current work is organized around these six areas: food, freshwater, wildlife and oceans.
WWF has been accused by BuzzFeed News, Kathmandu Post, the Rainforest Foundation Fund and Survival International of protecting paramilitary forces funded by the organization to fight poaching that have engaged in human rights abuses despite an internal report acknowledging them in 2015. They have attacked African and South Asian villages, torturing and killing villagers. Investigators revealed that the WWF engaged in cover ups and lobbied to release rangers when they were arrested; the Conservation Foundation, a precursor to WWF, was founded in 1948 by Fairfield Osborn as an affiliate of the New York Zoological Society with an aim of protecting the world's natural resources. The advisory council included leading scientists such as Charles Sutherland Elton, G. Evelyn Hutchinson, Aldo Leopold, Carl Sauer, Paul Sears, it supported much of the scientific work cited by Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, including that of John L. George, Roger Hale, Robert Rudd, George Woodwell; the idea for a fund on behalf of endangered animals was proposed by Victor Stolan to Sir Julian Huxley in response to articles he published in the British newspaper The Observer.
This proposal led Huxley to put Stolan in contact with Max Nicholson, a person who had had thirty years experience of linking progressive intellectuals with big business interests through the Political and Economic Planning think tank. Nicholson thought up the name of the organization. WWF was conceived on 29 April 1961, under the name of World Wildlife Fund, its first office was opened on 11 September that same year in Morges, Switzerland. WWF was conceived to act as a funding institution for existing conservation groups such as the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources and The Conservation Foundation. Godfrey A. Rockefeller played an important role in its creation, assembling the first staff, its establishment was marked with the signing of the "Morges Manifesto", the founding document that sets out the fund's commitment to assisting worthy organizations struggling to save the world's wildlife: They need above all money, to carry out mercy missions and to meet conservation emergencies by buying land where wildlife treasures are threatened, in many other ways.
Money, for example, to pay guardians of wildlife refuges.... Money for education and propaganda among those who would care and help if only they understood. Money to send out experts to danger spots and to train more local wardens and helpers in Africa and elsewhere. Money to maintain a sort of'war room' at the international headquarters of conservation, showing where the danger spots are and making it possible to ensure that their needs are met before it is too late. Dutch Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld helped found the World Wildlife Fund, becoming its first President in 1961. In 1963, the Foundation held a conference and published a major report warning of anthropogenic global warming, written by Noel Eichhorn based on the work of Frank Fraser Darling, Edward Deevey, Erik Eriksson, Charles Keeling, Gilbert Plass, Lionel Walford, William Garnett. In 1970, along with Duke of Edinburgh and a few associates, Prince Bernhard established the WWF's financial endowment The 1001: A Nature Trust to handle the WWF's administration and fund-raising.
1001 members each contributed $10,000 to the trust. Prince Bernhard resigned his post after being involved in the Lockheed Bribery Scandal. WWF has set up operations around the world, it worked by fundraising and providing grants to existing non-governmental organizations, based on the best-available scientific knowledge and with an initial focus on the protection of endangered species. As more resources became available, its operations expanded into other areas such as the preservation of biological diversity, sustainable use of natural resources, the reduction of pollution, climate change; the organization began to run its own conservation projects and campaigns, by the 1980s started to take a more strategic approach to its conservation activities. In 1986, the organization changed its name to World Wide Fund for Nature, while retaining the WWF initials. However, it continued at that time to operate under the original name in the United States and Canada; that year was the 25th anniversary of WWF's foundation, an event marked by a gathering in Assisi, Italy to which the organization's International President HRH Prince Philip, the Duke of Edinburgh, invited religi
Management is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body. Management includes the activities of setting the strategy of an organization and coordinating the efforts of its employees to accomplish its objectives through the application of available resources, such as financial, natural and human resources; the term "management" may refer to those people who manage an organization. Social scientists study management as an academic discipline, investigating areas such as social organization and organizational leadership; some people study management at universities. Individuals who aim to become management specialists or experts, management researchers, or professors may complete the Doctor of Management, the Doctor of Business Administration, or the PhD in Business Administration or Management. Larger organizations have three levels of managers, which are organized in a hierarchical, pyramid structure: Senior managers, such as members of a Board of Directors and a Chief Executive Officer or a President of an organization.
They set the strategic goals of the organization and make decisions on how the overall organization will operate. Senior managers are executive-level professionals, provide direction to middle management who directly or indirectly report to them. Middle managers, examples of these would include branch managers, regional managers, department managers and section managers, who provide direction to front-line managers. Middle managers communicate the strategic goals of senior management to the front-line managers. Lower managers, such as supervisors and front-line team leaders, oversee the work of regular employees and provide direction on their work. In smaller organizations, an individual manager may have a much wider scope. A single manager may perform several roles or all of the roles observed in a large organization. Views on the definition and scope of management include: According to Henri Fayol, "to manage is to forecast and to plan, to organise, to command, to co-ordinate and to control."
Fredmund Malik defines it as "the transformation of resources into utility." Management included as one of the factors of production – along with machines and money. Ghislain Deslandes defines it as “a vulnerable force, under pressure to achieve results and endowed with the triple power of constraint and imagination, operating on subjective, interpersonal and environmental levels”. Peter Drucker saw the basic task of management as twofold: innovation. Innovation is linked to marketing. Peter Drucker identifies marketing as a key essence for business success, but management and marketing are understood as two different branches of business administration knowledge. Management involves identifying the mission, procedures and manipulation of the human capital of an enterprise to contribute to the success of the enterprise; this implies effective communication: an enterprise environment implies human motivation and implies some sort of successful progress or system outcome. As such, management is not the manipulation of a mechanism, not the herding of animals, can occur either in a legal or in an illegal enterprise or environment.
From an individual's perspective, management does not need to be seen from an enterprise point of view, because management is an essential function to improve one's life and relationships. Management is therefore everywhere and it has a wider range of application. Based on this, management must have humans. Communication and a positive endeavor are two main aspects of it either through enterprise or independent pursuit. Plans, motivational psychological tools and economic measures may or may not be necessary components for there to be management. At first, one views management functionally, such as measuring quantity, adjusting plans, meeting goals; this applies in situations where planning does not take place. From this perspective, Henri Fayol considers management to consist of five functions: planning organizing commanding coordinating controllingIn another way of thinking, Mary Parker Follett defined management as "the art of getting things done through people", she described management as philosophy.
Critics, find this definition useful but far too narrow. The phrase "management is what managers do" occurs suggesting the difficulty of defining management without circularity, the shifting nature of definitions and the connection of managerial practices with the existence of a managerial cadre or of a class. One habit of thought regards management as equivalent to "business administration" and thus excludes management in places outside commerce, as for example in charities and in the public sector. More broadly, every organization must "manage" its work, processes, etc. to maximize effectiveness. Nonetheless, many people refer to university departments that teach management as "business schools"; some such institutions use that name, while others employ the broader term "management". English-speakers may use the term
Wildlife sanctuaries of India
Wildlife sanctuaries of India are classified as IUCN Category IV protected areas. Between 1936 and 2016, 543 wildlife sanctuaries were established in the country that cover 118,918 km2 as of 2017. Among these, the 50 tiger reserves are governed by Project Tiger, are of special significance for the conservation of the Bengal tiger. Wildlife Sanctuaries have been established in: Arial Island WLS Bamboo Island WLS Barren Island WLS Battimalv Island WLS Belle Island WLS Benett Island WLS Bingham Island WLS Blister Island WLS Bluff Island WLS Bondoville Island WLS Brush Island WLS Buchanan Island WLS Chanel Island WLS Cinque Islands WLS Clyde Island WLS Cone Island WLS Curlew Island WLS Curlew Island WLS Cuthbert Bay WLS Defence Island WLS Dot Island WLS Dottrell Island WLS Duncan Island WLS East Island WLS East of Inglis Island WLS Egg Island WLS Elat Island WLS Entrance Island WLS Gander Island WLS Girjan Island WLS Galathea Bay WLS Goose Island WLS Hump Island WLS Interview Island WLS James Island WLS Jungle Island WLS Kwangtung Island WLS Kyd Island WLS Landfall Island WLS Latouche Island WLS Lohabarrack WLS Mangrove Island WLS Mask Island WLS Mayo Island WLS Megapode Island WLS Montogemery Island WLS Narcondam Island WLS North Brother Island WLS North Island WLS North Reef Island WLS Oliver Island WLS Orchid Island WLS Ox Island WLS Oyster Island-I WLS Oyster Island-II WLS Paget Island WLS Parkinson Island WLS Passage Island WLS Patric Island WLS Peacock Island WLS Pitman Island WLS Point Island WLS Potanma Islands WLS Ranger Island WLS Reef Island WLS Roper Island WLS Ross Island WLS Rowe Island WLS Sandy Island WLS Sea Serpent Island WLS Shark Island WLS Shearme Island WLS Sir Hugh Rose Island WLS Sisters Island WLS Snake Island-I WLS Snake Island-II WLS South Brother Island WLS South Reef Island WLS South Sentinel Island WLS Spike Island-I WLS Spike Island-II WLS Stoat Island WLS Surat Island WLS Swamp Island WLS Table Island WLS Table Island WLS Talabaicha Island WLS Temple Island WLS Tillongchang Island WLS Tree Island WLS Trilby Island WLS Tuft Island WLS Turtle Islands WLS West Island WLS Wharf Island WLS White Cliff Island WLS Kolleru Bird Sanctuary,1953 Nelapattu Bird Sanctuary, 1976 Pulicat Lake Bird Sanctuary, 1976 Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary, 1978 Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve, 1978 Sri Venkateswara National Park, 1985 Rollapadu Wildlife Sanctuary, 1988 Sri Lankamalleswara Wildlife Sanctuary,1988 Krishna Wildlife Sanctuary, 1989 Koundinya Wildlife Sanctuary, 1990 Gundla Brahmeswaram Wildlife Sanctuary, 1990 Sri Penusila Narasimha Wildlife Sanctuary, 1997 Kambalakonda Wildlife Sanctuary, 2002 Pakke Tiger Reserve, 1977 D'Ering Memorial Wildlife Sanctuary, 1978 Itanagar Wildlife Sanctuary, 1978 Mahao Wildlife Sanctuary, 1980 Eaglenest Wildlife Sanctuary, 1989 Sessa Orchid Sanctuary, 1989 Kamlang Wildlife Sanctuary, 1989 Dibang Wildlife Sanctuary, 1991 Kane Wildlife Sanctuary, 1991 Tale Wildlife Sanctuary, 1995 Yordi Rabe Supse Wildlife Sanctuary, 1996 Amchang WLS Barail WLS Barnadi Wildlife Sanctuary Bherjan-Borajan-Padumoni WLS Burachapori WLS Chakrashila WLS Deepor Beel WLS Dihing Patkai WLS East Karbi Anglong WLS Garampani WLS Hollongapar Gibbon WLS Lawkhowa WLS Marat Longri WLS Nambor WLS Nambor Doigrung WLS Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary Pani-Dihing Bird WLS Sonai Rupai WLS Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary, 1976 Gautam Budha Wildlife Sanctuary, 1976 Pant Wildlife Sanctuary, 1978 Udaypur Wildlife Sanctuary, 1978 Valmiki National Park, 1978 Kaimur Wildlife Sanctuary, 1982 Nagi Dam Wildlife Sanctuary, 1987 Nakti Dam Wildlife Sanctuary, 1987 Kanwar Lake Bird Sanctuary, 1989 Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary, 1990 Kusheshwar Asthan Bird Sanctuary, 1994 Barela Jheel Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary, 1997 Rajauli Wildlife Sanctuary City Birds WLS Sukhna Lake WLS Sitanadi Wildlife Sanctuary, 1974 Achanakmar Wildlife Sanctuary, 1975 Badalkhol Wildlife Sanctuary, 1975 Tamor Pingla Wildlife Sanctuary, 1978 Semarsot Wildlife Sanctuary, 1978 Bhairamgarh Wildlife Sanctuary, 1983 Bhoramdev Wildlife Sanctuary, 2001 Sarangarh-Gomardha WLS Pamed Wild Buffalo WLS Udanti Wild Buffalo WLS Dadra and Nagar Haveli WLS Fudam Wildlife Sanctuary, 1991 Asola Bhatti Wildlife Sanctuary, 1992 Bhagwan Mahavir Sanctuary, 1967 Cotigao Wildlife Sanctuary, 1968 Bondla Wildlife Sanctuary, 1969 Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary, 1988 Madei Wildlife Sanctuary, 1999 Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary, 1999 Bhindawas Wildlife Sanctuary, 1986 Chhilchhila Wildlife Sanctuary, 1986 Abubshahar Wildlife Sanctuary, 1987 Bir Shikargah Wildlife Sanctuary, 1987 Nahar Wildlife Sanctuary, 1987 Khaparwas Wildlife Sanctuary, 1991 Kalesar National Park, 1996 Khol Hi-Raitan Wildlife Sanctuary, 2004 Gir Wildlife Sanctuary, 1965 Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary, 1969 Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary, 1973 Jessore Sloth Bear Sanctuary, 1978 Barda Wildlife Sanctuary, 1979 Gulf of Kachchh Marine National Park, 1980 Hingolgadh Nature Reserve, 1980 Khijadiya Bird Sanctuary, 1981 Ratanmahal Sloth Bear Sactuary, 1982 Shoolpaneshwar Wildlife Sanctuary, 1982 Kutch Desert Wildlife Sanctuary, 1986 Gaga Wildlife Sanctuary, 1988 Thol Bird Sanctuary, 1988 Rampara Vidi Wildlife Sanctuary, 1988 Porbandar Bird Sanctuary, 1988 Balaram Ambaji Wildlife Sanctuary, 1989 Paniya Wildlife Sanctuary, 1989 Purna Wildlife Sanctuary, 1990 Jambughoda Wildlife Sanctuary, 1990 Narayan Sarovar Sanctuary, 1995 Kutch Bustard Sanctuary, 1995 Mitiyala Wildlife Sanctuary, 2004 Girnar Wildlife Sanctuary, 2008 Bandli WLS Chail WLS Chandratal WLS Churdhar WLS Daranghati WLS Dhauladhar WLS Gamgul Siyabehi WLS Kais WLS Kalatop-Khajjiar WLS Kanawar WLS Khokhan WLS Kibber WLS Kugti WLS Lippa Asrang WLS Majathal WLS Manali WLS Nargu WLS Pong Dam Lake WLS Renuka WLS Rupi Bhaba WLS Sainj WLS Sangla Valley WLS Sech Tuan Nala WLS Shikari Devi WLS Shimla Water Catchment WLS Talra WLS Tirthan WLS Tundah WLS Trikuta WLS, 19
Indian natural history
Natural history in India has a long heritage with a recorded history going back to the Vedas. Natural history research in early times included the broad fields of palaeontology and botany; these studies would today be considered under field of ecology but in former times, such research was undertaken by amateurs physicians, civil servants and army officers. Although the growth of modern natural history in India can be attributed to British colonialism and the growth of natural history in Britain, there is considerable evidence to suggest that India with its diverse landscapes and flora along with other tropical colonies helped in creating an increased interest in natural history in Britain and elsewhere in the world. Natural history in India was enriched by older traditions of conservation, nature study and the arts; the Vedas represent some of the oldest historical records available and they list the names of nearly 250 kinds of birds besides many other notes on various other fauna and flora.
In the vedic texts, the land of the Aryans, was considered to be co-terminous with the range of the blackbuck. Sometimes, these referred to the lands North of the Vindhyas. A notable piece of information mentioned in the Vedas is the knowledge of brood parasitism in the Indian koel, a habit known well ahead of Aristotle; this is because both the Indian koel and its host the house crow were common and easy to observe. The medical treatises of Charaka and Sushruta mention wildlife from the point of view of the meats the forests yielded and their associated attributes; the stratification of Hindu society into the caste system saw the warrior caste or kshatriya setting itself apart on hereditary lines. The treatises espoused rules as to when, who could or could not eat flesh of particular animals; the elephant was another well studied wild animal and the capture and maintenance of elephants was documented in the 2000-year-old text Gajashastra written in the Pāli script. The Tamil literature of the Sangam period, depicts a classification of land into 5 eco-types.
Over a thousand sites of the Indus Valley civilisation across north west India, before 1700 BC have been studied to date. A large number of animal bones have been found at these sites. Most seeds found in the dwellings of some western Indian sites are of wild plants now extinct to the region; the fauna and flora of those times are richly represented in the clay pottery and tablets excavated from these sites. Clay tablets document many species of now locally extinct wildlife including rhinoceros and elephant. A tiger seal has been found in Harrappa dating back to 3000 BC; the swamp deer or barasingha was found in Mehrgarh in Baluchistan till 300 BC and became locally extinct due to over-hunting and loss of riverine habitat to cultivation. A species of wild cattle, Bos primegenius nomadicus or the zebu vanished early on from its range in the Indus basin and western India due to inter-breeding with domestic cattle and resultant fragmentation of wild populations due to loss of habitat; the first recorded domestication of the elephant was in Harappan times and the animal went on to serve as a siege engine, mount in war, status symbol, work animal, an elevated platform for hunting.
The protection of animals became serious business by the time of the Maurya dynasty in the 4th and 3rd centuries BC. The first empire to provide a unified political entity in India, the attitude of the Mauryas towards forests, its denizens and fauna in general is of interest; the Mauryas firstly looked at forests as a resource. For them, the most important forest product was the elephant. Military might in those times depended not only upon horses and men but battle-elephants; the Mauryas sought to preserve supplies of elephants since it was more cost and time-effective to catch and train wild elephants than raise them. Kautilya's Arthashastra contains not only maxims on ancient statecraft, but unambiguously specifies the responsibilities of officials such as the Protector of the Elephant Forests: On the border of the forest, he should establish a forest for elephants guarded by foresters; the Superintendent should with the help of guards...protect the elephants whether along on the mountain, along a river, along lakes or in marshy tracts...
They should kill anyone slaying an elephant. The Mauryas designated separate forests to protect supplies of timber, as well as lions and tigers, for skins. Elsewhere the Protector of Animals worked to eliminate thieves and other predators to render the woods safe for grazing cattle; the Mauryas valued certain forest tracts in strategic or economic terms and instituted curbs and control measures over them. They regarded all forest tribes with distrust and controlled them with bribery and political subjugation, they trap animals. The sometimes tense and conflict-ridden relationship enabled the Mauryas to guard their vast empire; the Mauryan emperor Ashoka, embraced Buddhism in the latter part of his reign and brought about significant changes in his style of governance. He provided protection to fauna and relinquished the royal hunt, he was the first ruler to advocate conservation measures for wildlif
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, values and habits. Educational methods include storytelling, teaching and directed research. Education takes place under the guidance of educators and learners may educate themselves. Education can take place in formal or informal settings and any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational; the methodology of teaching is called pedagogy. Formal education is divided formally into such stages as preschool or kindergarten, primary school, secondary school and college, university, or apprenticeship. A right to education has been recognized by the United Nations. In most regions, education is compulsory up to a certain age. Etymologically, the word "education" is derived from the Latin word ēducātiō from ēducō, related to the homonym ēdūcō from ē- and dūcō. Education began in prehistory, as adults trained the young in the knowledge and skills deemed necessary in their society.
In pre-literate societies, this was achieved orally and through imitation. Story-telling passed knowledge and skills from one generation to the next; as cultures began to extend their knowledge beyond skills that could be learned through imitation, formal education developed. Schools existed in Egypt at the time of the Middle Kingdom. Plato founded the Academy in the first institution of higher learning in Europe; the city of Alexandria in Egypt, established in 330 BCE, became the successor to Athens as the intellectual cradle of Ancient Greece. There, the great Library of Alexandria was built in the 3rd century BCE. European civilizations suffered a collapse of literacy and organization following the fall of Rome in CE 476. In China, Confucius, of the State of Lu, was the country's most influential ancient philosopher, whose educational outlook continues to influence the societies of China and neighbours like Korea and Vietnam. Confucius gathered disciples and searched in vain for a ruler who would adopt his ideals for good governance, but his Analects were written down by followers and have continued to influence education in East Asia into the modern era.
The Aztecs had a well-developed theory about education, which has an equivalent word in Nahuatl called tlacahuapahualiztli. It means "the art of raising or educating a person" or "the art of strengthening or bringing up men." This was a broad conceptualization of education, which prescribed that it begins at home, supported by formal schooling, reinforced by community living. Historians cite that formal education was mandatory for everyone regardless of social class and gender. There was the word neixtlamachiliztli, "the act of giving wisdom to the face." These concepts underscore a complex set of educational practices, oriented towards communicating to the next generation the experience and intellectual heritage of the past for the purpose of individual development and his integration into the community. After the Fall of Rome, the Catholic Church became the sole preserver of literate scholarship in Western Europe; the church established cathedral schools in the Early Middle Ages as centres of advanced education.
Some of these establishments evolved into medieval universities and forebears of many of Europe's modern universities. During the High Middle Ages, Chartres Cathedral operated the famous and influential Chartres Cathedral School; the medieval universities of Western Christendom were well-integrated across all of Western Europe, encouraged freedom of inquiry, produced a great variety of fine scholars and natural philosophers, including Thomas Aquinas of the University of Naples, Robert Grosseteste of the University of Oxford, an early expositor of a systematic method of scientific experimentation, Saint Albert the Great, a pioneer of biological field research. Founded in 1088, the University of Bologne is considered the first, the oldest continually operating university. Elsewhere during the Middle Ages, Islamic science and mathematics flourished under the Islamic caliphate, established across the Middle East, extending from the Iberian Peninsula in the west to the Indus in the east and to the Almoravid Dynasty and Mali Empire in the south.
The Renaissance in Europe ushered in a new age of scientific and intellectual inquiry and appreciation of ancient Greek and Roman civilizations. Around 1450, Johannes Gutenberg developed a printing press, which allowed works of literature to spread more quickly; the European Age of Empires saw European ideas of education in philosophy, religion and sciences spread out across the globe. Missionaries and scholars brought back new ideas from other civilizations – as with the Jesuit China missions who played a significant role in the transmission of knowledge and culture between China and Europe, translating works from Europe like Euclid's Elements for Chinese scholars and the thoughts of Confucius for European audiences; the Enlightenment saw the emergence of a more secular educational outlook in Europe. In most countries today, full-time education, whether at school or otherwise, is compulsory for all children up to a certain age. Due to this the proliferation of compulsory education, combined with population growth, UNESCO has calculated that in the next 30 years more people will receive formal education than in all of human history thus far.
Formal education occurs in a structured environment. Formal education takes place in a school environme
For the Wikipedia editathon about India, see Wikipedia:Project Tiger Writing Contest Project Tiger is a tiger conservation programme launched in April 1973 by the Government of India during Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's tenure. The project aims at ensuring a viable population of Bengal tigers in their natural habitats, protecting them from extinction, preserving areas of biological importance as a natural heritage forever represented as close as possible the diversity of ecosystems across the tiger's distribution in the country; the project's task force visualized these tiger reserves as breeding nuclei, from which surplus animals would migrate to adjacent forests. Funds and commitment were mastered to support the intensive program of habitat protection and rehabilitation under the project; the government has set up a Tiger Protection Force to combat poachers and funded relocation of villagers to minimize human-tiger conflicts. During the tiger census of 2006, a new methodology was used extrapolating site-specific densities of tigers, their co-predators and prey derived from camera trap and sign surveys using GIS.
Based on the result of these surveys, the total tiger population has been estimated at 1,411 individuals ranging from 1,165 to 1,657 adult and sub-adult tigers of more than 1.5 years of age. Owing to the project, the number of tigers has improved to 2,226 as per the latest census report released on 20 January 2015. State surveys have reported a significant increase in the tiger population, estimated to cross 3,000 during the 2018 count; the National Tiger Conservation Authority has confirmed that the tiger census will be undertaken in 2018 and the final numbers will be available by January 2019. Project tiger's main aims were to: reduce factors that lead to the reduction of tiger habitats and to mitigate them by suitable management; the damages done to the habitat were to be rectified so as to facilitate the recovery of the ecosystem to the maximum possible extent. Ensure a viable tiger population for economic, cultural and ecological values. Project Tiger was launched in Jim Corbett National Park of Uttrakhand in 1973 by National Tiger Conservation Authorities.
Last tiger census finished in 2014. Karnataka was the state with the highest population of tigers in 2014 tiger counting with the number of 408 tigers. In 2018, tiger census is going in India with the help of Bhutan and Bangladesh with the use of latest technology like M-STrIPES App, a software based tiger monitoring system; the result of tiger census 2018 is to be declared in January 2019. Project Tiger is administered by the National Tiger Conservation Authority; the overall administration of the project is monitored by a steering committee headed by a director. A field director is appointed for each reserve, assisted by a group of field and technical personnel. Shivalik-Terai Conservation Unit North-East Conservation Unit Sunderbans Conservation Unit Western Ghats Conservation Unit Eastern Ghats Conservation Unit Central India Conservation Unit Sariska Conservation Unit Kaziranga Conservation UnitThe various tiger reserves were created in the country based on the'core-buffer' strategy: Core area: the core areas are free of all human activities.
It has the legal status of a national wildlife sanctuary. It is kept free of biotic disturbances and forestry operations like collection of minor forest produce and other human disturbances are not allowed within. Buffer areas: the buffer areas are subjected to'conservation-oriented land use', they comprise non-forest land. It is a multi-purpose use area with twin objectives of providing habitat supplement to spillover population of wild animals from core conservation unit and to provide site specific co-developmental inputs to surrounding villages for relieving their impact on core area. For each tiger reserve, management plans were drawn up based on the following principles: Elimination of all forms of human exploitation and biotic disturbance from the core area and rationalization of activities in the buffer zone Restricting the habitat management only to repair the damages done to the ecosystem by human and other interferences so as to facilitate recovery of the ecosystem to its natural state Monitoring the faunal and floral changes over time and carrying out research about wildlife By the late 1980s, the initial nine reserves covering an area of 9,115 square kilometers had been increased to 15 reserves covering an area of 24,700 km2.
More than 1100 tigers were estimated to inhabit the reserves by 1984. By 1997, 23 tiger reserves encompassed an area of 33,000 km2, but the fate of tiger habitat outside the reserves was precarious, due to pressure on habitat, incessant poaching and large-scale development projects such as dams and mines. Wireless communication systems and outstation patrol camps have been developed within the tiger reserves, due to which poaching has declined considerably. Fire protection is done by suitable preventive and control measures. Voluntary Village relocation has been done in many reserves from the core, area. Live stock grazing has been controlled to a great extent in the tiger reserves. Various compensatory developmental works have improved the water regime and the ground and field level vegetation, thereby increasing the animal density. Research data pertaining to vegetation changes are available from many reserves. Future plans include use of advanced information and communication technology in wildlife protection and crime management in tiger reserves, GIS ba